Реферат: Parallel constructions and their Translation
<span Century",«serif»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">THEMINISTRY OF HIGHER AND SECONDARY SPECIAL EDUCATION OF THE <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>REPUBLIC</st1:PlaceType> OF <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>UZBEKISTAN</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>THE <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>UZBEK</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>STATE</st1:PlaceType> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>WORLD</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>LANGUAGES</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>UNIVERSITY</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>
<span Century",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">
<span Century",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">
<span Century",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Translation / Interpretation faculty
<span Century",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Translation Theory and Practice Department
<span Century",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">
<span Century",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">
<span Century",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">
<span Century",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">
<span Century",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">
<span Century",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">
<span Century",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">
<span Century",«serif»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Q U A LI F I C A T I O N P A P E R
<span Garamond",«serif»;font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">
<span Garamond",«serif»;font-variant:small-caps; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">parallel constructions and their translation
Done by: Bobur M.Bekmurodov
<st1:place w:st=«on»><st2:Sn w:st=«on»>Chapter</st2:Sn><st2:Sn w:st=«on»>I.</st2:Sn></st1:place>Analysis of the linguistic literature on the general problems of thesyntactic stylistic devices
§ 1. Compositional patterns of syntactical arrangement in English
§ 2. Parallel constructions and their features
§ 3.Structural-functional features of Chiasmus. Reversed Parallel Construction
§ 4. Enumeration as a functional equivalent of Parallel constructions.
§ 5. Features of dealing with Parallel structures informing a text.
Chapter II. Problemsof translating the Parallel Constructions from English into Uzbek
§1. Equivalence in the translations of parallel construction
§ 2. Types of equivalents in the translation of parallel constructions
§ 3. Techniques of translating the English Parallel Constructions intoUzbek
§4. The basic ways oftranslatingthe Parallel Constructions from Uzbek into English
The present graduationqualification paper deals with the study of English Parallel Constructions andtheir translation into Uzbek language which presents certain interest both forthe theoretical investigation and for practical language use.
The actualityof the investigation is explained on one hand by the profound interestto the function of the syntactic stylistic devices like parallel constructionsin the literary text and in speech on the other hand, by the absence of widelyapproved analysis of the Parallel Constructions and other syntactic stylisticdevices from the syntactic, stylistic, structural and translational points ofview.
The noveltyof the qualificationpaper is defined by concrete result of investigation: special emphasis is laid on various types ofrendering the structure, the stylistic features, and the translation ofsyntactic stylistic devices in general and Parallel Construction in Particular.
The aimof the qualificationpaper is to define the specific features of the Parallel Constructions in theliterary text and in speech and their rendering in Uzbek.
According to this general aim we haveput the following concrete tasksbefore the work:
a)<span Times New Roman"">To analyze the linguisticliterature on the general and special problems of syntactic stylistic devices;
b)<span Times New Roman"">To analyze thecompositional patterns of syntactical arrangement in English;
c)<span Times New Roman"">To analyze the ParallelConstructions and their features;
d)<span Times New Roman"">To analyze thestructural-functional features of the Reversed Parallel Constructions;
e)<span Times New Roman"">To analyzestructural-functional properties of Repetition as a type of Parallel Constructions;
f)<span Times New Roman"">To analyze Enumeration asa functional equivalent of Parallel Constructions;
g)<span Times New Roman"">To analyze the generaland special problems of translating the Parallel Constructions from Englishinto Uzbek;
h)<span Times New Roman"">To analyze the problem ofequivalence in the translation of Parallel Constructions;
i)<span Times New Roman"">To analyze the techniquesof translating the English Parallel Constructions into Uzbek;
j)<span Times New Roman"">To analyze the Basic waysof translating the Parallel Constructions from English into Uzbek;
The methodsof investigations used in this qualification paper are as follows:stylistic, semantic, structural, distributional, descriptive and translational.
The practicalvalue of the research is that the material and the results of the givenqualification paper can serve as the material for the theoretical courses ofstylistics, grammar, comparative typology, translation as well can be used forpractical lessons in translation, home reading, conversational practice andcurrent events.
The material includes:
a)<span Times New Roman"">Different types ofexplanatory and translation dictionaries;
b)<span Times New Roman"">Scholarly literature ontranslation theory, stylistics and grammar;
c)<span Times New Roman"">The pieces of artistic literature of theBritish and American authors of the XX century;
The theoretical importanceof the qualification paper is determined by the necessity of detailedand comprehensive analyses of syntactic stylistic devices in general andParallel Constructions in particular, which from a big layer in the literarylanguage and are very often used in literature fulfilling various stylistic orpragmatic functions.
The structure of the work. The present qualification paper consist of an introduction, 2chapters, a conclusion, and a bibliography.
ANALYSIS OF THE LINGUISTIC LITERATURE ON THEGENERAL PROBLEMS OF THE SYNTACTIC STYLISTIC DEVICES
§ 1.Compositional patterns of syntactical arrangement in English
The structural syntactical aspect is sometimesregarded as the crucial issue in stylistic analysis, although the peculiaritiesof syntactical arrangement are not so conspicuous as the lexical andphraseological properties of the utterance. Syntax is figuratively called the“sinews of style”.
Structural syntactical stylistic devices are inspecial relations with theintonationinvolved Prof. Peshkovsky points out that there is an interdependence betweenthe information and syntactical properties of the sentence, which may be worded n the following manner: the moreexplicit the structural syntactical relations are expressed, the weaker will bethe intonation-pattern of the utterance (to complete disappearance) andvice-versa, the stronger the intonation, the weaker grow the evidentsyntactical relations.
Onlyafter dinner did I make up my mind to go there' and I madeup my mind to go there only after dinner. It wasin <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Bucharest</st1:place></st1:City>that the Xth International Congress of Linguists took place' and 'The Xth International Congress of Linguiststook place in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Bucharest</st1:place></st1:City>.'
Thesecond sentences in these pairs can be made emphatic only by intonation; thefirst sentences are made emphatic by means, of the syntactical patterns: 'Onlyafter dinner did I...' and 'It was… that'...'
Theproblem of syntactical stylistic devices appears, to be closely linked not onlywith what makes an utterance more emphatic by also with the more generalproblem of predication. As is known, theEnglish affirmative sentence is regarded as neutral if it maintains the regularword-order, i.e. subject—predicate object (or oilier secondary members of thesentence, as they are called). Any other order of the parts of the sentence mayalso carry the necessary information, but the impact on the reader will bedifferent. Even a slight change in the word-order of a sentence, or in theorder of the sentences in a more complicated syntactical unit will inevitablycause a definite modification of the meaning of the whole. An almostimperceptible rhythmical design introduced into a prose sentence, or a suddenbreak in the sequence of the parts of the sentence, or any other change will addsomething to the volume of information contained in the original sentence.
Unlikethe syntactical expressive means of the language, which are naturally used indiscourse in a straight-forward natural manner, syntactical stylistic devicesare perceived as elaborate designs aimed at having a definite impact on thereader. It will be borne in mind that any SD is meant to be understood as adevice and is calculated to produce a desired stylistic effect.
Whenviewing the stylistic functions of different syntactical designs we must firstof all take into consideration two aspects:
1. The juxtaposition of different parts of theutterance.
2. The way the parts are connected with eachother.
Inaddition to these two large groups of <st1:place w:st=«on»>EMs</st1:place> andSDs two other groups may be distinguished:
3. Those based on the peculiar use of colloquialconstructions.
4. Those based on the stylistic use ofstructural meaning.
Wo r d — o r d e r is a crucial syntactical problem in many languages.In English it has peculiarities which have been caused by the concrete andspecific way the language has developed. O. Jespersen states that the Englishlanguage, "...has developed a tolerably fixed word-order which in thegreat majority of cases shows without fail what is the Subject of thesentence." — This «tolerably fixed word-order» is Subject-Verb(Predicate) —Object (S—P—O). Further, Jespersen mentions
1Пешковский А.М. Интонация и грамматика.-«Известия русского языка и словесности». Л., 1928, т.1, кн. 2, с.463
sJespersen, 0. Essentials ofEnglish Grammar. Ldn, 1943, p. 99
Itwas found that the order S- P-O was used in from 82 to 97 per cent of allsentences containing all three members, while the percentage for Beowulf was 16and for King Alfred's prose 40.
Thispredominance of S—P—0 word-order makes conspicuous any change in the structureof the sentence and inevitably calls forth a modification in the intonationdesign.
Themost conspicuous places in the sentence are considered to be the first and thelast: the first place because the full force of the stress can be felt at thebeginning of an utterance and the last place because there is a pause after ii.This traditional word-order had developed a definite intonation design. Throughfrequency o repetition this design has imposed itself on any sentenceeven though there are changes introduced in the sequence of the componentparts. Hence the clash between semantically insignificant elements of thesentence when they are placed in structurally significant position and theintonation which follows the recognized pattern.
Thusin Dickens' much quoted sentence:
'TalentMr. Micawber has; capital Mr. Micawber hasnot."
Thefirst and the last positions being prominent, the verb has and thenegative not get a fuller volume of stress than they would in ordinary(uninverted) word-order. In the traditional word-order the predicates has andhas nut are closely attached to their objects talent and capital.English predicate-object groups are so bound together ' that when we tearthe object away from .:s predicate-, the latter remains dangling in the sentenceand in this portion sometime- call., forth a change in meaning of the predicateword. In the inverted word-order not only the objects talent and capitalbecome conspicuous but also the predicates has and has not.
In this example the effect or the inverted word-order is backed up bytwo other stylistic devices: antithesis and parallel construction. Unlike grammaticalinversion does not change the structural meaning of the sentence that is, thechange in the juxtaposition of the members of the sentence doesn’t indicatestructural meaning but has some superstructural functions. Stylisticinversion aims at attaching logical stress or additional emotionalemotional colouring to the surface meaning of the utterance. Therefore aspecific intonation pattern is the inevitable of inversion.
Stylistic inversion in Modern English should not be regarded as aviolation of the norms of standardEnglish. It is only the practical realization of what is potential in thelanguage itself.
The following patterns of stylistic inversion are most frequently met inboth English prose and English poetry.
1.<span Times New Roman"">The object is placed at the beginningof the sentence (see the example above)
2.<span Times New Roman"">The attribute is placed after theword it modifies (position of the attribute). This model is often used whenthere is more than one attribute, for example:
“With fingers weary and worn…” (Thomas Hood)
“Once upon a <st1:time Hour=«0» Minute=«0» w:st=«on»>midnight</st1:time>dreary …” (E.A. Poe)
3.<span Times New Roman"">a) The predicative is placed beforethe subject, as in
“A good generous prayer itwas.” (Mark Twain)
or b) The predicative stands before the link-verb and both are placedbefore the subject, as in
“Rude am I in my speech …”(Shakespeare)
4.<span Times New Roman"">The adverbial modifier is placed atthe beginning of the sentence, as in:
“Eagerly I wished the morrow.”(Poe)
“My dearest daughter, at your feetI fall.” (Dryden)
“A tone of most extraordinarycomparison Miss Tox said it in.” (Dicens)
5.<span Times New Roman"">Both modifier and predicate' standbefore the subject. as in:
«In went Mr. Pickwick.»(Dickens)
«Down dropped the breeze...»(Coleridge)
Thesefive models comprise the most common and recognized models of inversion.
However,in modern English and American poetry, as has been shown elsewhere, thereappears a definite tendency to experiment with the word-order to the extentwhich may even render the message unintelligible. In this case there may be analmost unlimited number of rearrangements of the members of thesentence.
Inversion as a stylistic device is alwayssense-motivated. There is a tendency to account forinversion in poetry by rhythmical considerations. This may sometimes be true,but really talented pots will never sacrifice sense for form and in themajority of cases inversion in poetry is called forth by considerations ofcontent rather than rhythm.
Invertedword-order, or inversion, is one of the forms of what are known as emphaticconstructions. What is generally called traditional word-order is nothing morethan unemphatic construction. Emphatic constructions have so far been regardedas non-typical structures and therefore are considered as violations of theregular word-order in the sentence. But in practice these structures are ascommon as the fixed or traditional word-order structures. Therefore inversion mustbe regarded as an expressive means of the language having typical structuralmodels.
Sometimes one of the secondary parts of a sentence by some specificconsideration of the writer is placed so that it seems formally independent ofthe word it logically refers to. Such parts of structures are called detached.They seem to dangle in the sentence as isolated parts.
The detached part, being torn away from its referent, assumes a greaterdegree of significance and is given prominence by intonation. The structuralpatterns of detached constructions have not yet been classified, but (lie mostnoticeable cases are those in which an attribute or an adverbial modifier isplaced not in immediate proximity to its referent, but in some other position,as in the following examples:
1) «Steyne rose up, grinding his teeth, pale,and with fury in his eyes” (Thackeray)
2) »Sir Pitt came in first, very muchflushed, and rather unsteady inhis gait." (Thackeray)
Sometimesa nominal phrase is thrown into the sentence forming a syntactical unit withthe rest of the sentence, as in:
“Andhe walked slowly pail again, along the river—an evening of clear, quietbeauty, all harmony and comfort, except within his heart." (Galsworthy)
Theessential quality of detached construction lies in the fact that the isolatedparts represent a kind of independent whole thrust into the sentence or placed ina position which will make the phrase (or word) seem independent. But a detachedphrase cannot rise to the rank of a primary member. This clash of thestructural and semantic aspects of detached constructions produces the desiredeffect-forcing the reader to interpret the logical connections between thecomponent parts of the sentence. Logical ties between them always exist inspite of the absence of syntactical indicators.
Detachedconstructions in their common forms make the written variety of language akinto the spoken variety where the relation between the component parts iseffectively materialized by means of intonation. Detached construction, as itwere, becomes a peculiar device bridging the norms of written and spokenmanner.
Hereare some more examples of detached constructions:
“Daylightwas dying, the moon rising, gold behindthe poplars.” (Galsworthy)
“Iwant to go,’ he said, miserable.”(Galsworthy)
“Shewas lovely: all of her – delightful.”(Dreiser)
Theitalicized phrases and words in these sentences seem to be isolated, but stillthe connection with the primary members of the corresponding sentences isclearly implied. Thus ‘gold behind the poplars’ may be interpreted as a simileor a metaphor: the moan like gold was rising behind-the poplars, or themoon rising, it was gold...
Detachedconstruction sometimes causes the simultaneous realization of two grammaticalmeanings of a word. In the sentence" 'I want to go,’ he said, miserable", the last word mightpossibly have been understood as an adverbial modifier to the word said ifnot for the comma, though grammatically miserably would be expected. Thepause indicated by the comma implies that miserable is an adjective usedabsolutely and referring to the pronoun he.
Thesame can he said about Dreiser's sentence with the word delightful. Here again the mark of punctuation playsan important role. The dash standing before the word makes the word conspicuousand, being isolated, it becomes the culminating point of the climax—lovely...—delightful,i.e. the peak of the whole utterance. The phrase all of her is alsosomehow isolated. The general impression suggested by the implied intonation isa strong feeling of admiration; and, as is usually the case, strong feelingsreject coherent and logical syntax
Inthe English language detached constructions are generally used in the belles-lettresprose style and mainly with words that have some explanatory function, forexample:
«Junestood in front, fending off this idle curiosity – a little bit of a thing, as somebody said, 'allhair and spirit ...» (Galsworthy)
Detachedconstruction as a stylistic device is a typification of the syntacticalpeculiarities of colloquial language.
Detachedconstruction is a stylistic phenomenon which has so far been littleinvestigated. The device itself is closely connected with the intonationpattern of the utterance. In conversation any word or phrase or even sentencemay be made more conspicuous by mean of intonation. Therefore precision in thesyntactical structure of the sentence is not so necessary from thecommunicative point of view. But it becomes vitally important in writing.1Here precision of syntactical relations is the only way to make the utterancefully communicative. Therefore when the syntactical relations become obscure,each member of the sentence that seem to be dangling becomes logicallysignificant.
Avariant of detached construction is p a r e n t h e s i s.
«Parenthesisis a qualifying, explanatory nr appositive word, phrase, clause, sentence, orother sequence witch interrupts a syntactic construction without otherwiseaffecting it, having often a characteristic intonation and indicated in writingby commas, brackets or dashes.
In fact, parenthesis sometimes embodies a considerable volume ofpredicativeness, thus giving theutterance an additional nuance of meaning or a tinge of emotional colouring.
§ 2.Parallel constructions and their features
Parallelconstruction is a device which may be encountered notso much in the sentence as in the macro-structures dealt with earlier, viz. theSPU and the paragraph. The necessary condition in parallel construction isidentical, or similar, syntactical structure in two or more sentences or partsof a sentence in close succession, as in:
»Therewere, ..., real silver spoons to stir the lea with, and real
chinacups to drink it out of, and plates of the same to hold thecakes
andtoast in". (Dickens)
Parallelconstructions are often backed up by repetition of words (lexical repetition)and conjunctions and prepositions (polysyndeton). Pure parallel construction,however, does not depend on any other kind of repetition but the repetition ofthe syntactical design of the sentence,-Parallel constructions may be partialor complete. Partial parallel arrangement is the repetition of some parts ofsuccessive sentences or clauses, as in:
«Itis the mob that labour in your fields and serve in your houses – that man yournavy and recruit your army, — that have enabled you to defy all the world, andcan also defy you when neglect and calamity have driven them to despair.»(Byron)
Theattributive clauses here all begirt with the subordinate conjunction that whichis followed by a verb in the same form, except the last (have enabled). Theverbs, however, are followed -either by adverbial modifiers of place (inyour fields, in your houses) or by direct objects (your navy, yourarmy). The third attributive clause is not built on the pattern of thefirst two, although it preserves the parallel structure in general(that-f-verb-predicate-f-object), while the fourth has broken away entirely.
Completeparallel arrangement, also called balance, maintains the principle ofidentical structures throughout the corresponding sentences, as in:
'Theseeds ye sow — another reaps,
Therobes ye weave—another wears,
Thearms ye forge—another bears." (P. B. Shelley)
Parallelconstruction is most frequently u.-ed in enumeration, antithesis and in climax,thus consolidating the general effect achieved by these stylistic devices.
Parallel construction is used in different styles of writing with slightlydifferent functions. When used in the matter-of-fact styles, it carries, inthe main, the idea of semantic equality of the parts, as in scientific prose,where the logical principle of arranging ideas predominates. In thebelles-lettres style parallel construction carries an emotive function. That iswhy it is mainly used as a technical means in building up other stylisticdevices, thus securing their unity.
Inthe following example parallelism backs up repetition, alliteration andantithesis, making the whole sentence almost epigrammatic. «And so, fromhour to hour, we ripe and ripe. And then, from hour to hour, we rot androt.» (Shakespeare)
Inthe example below, parallel construction backs up the rhetorical address andrhetorical questions. The emotional aspect is also enforced by the interjection'Heaven!'
«Hearme, my mother Earth! behold it, Heaven!—
HaveI not had to wrestle with my lot?
Have1 not suffered things to be forgiven?
Have1 not had my brain seared, my heart riven,
Hopes,sapped, name blighted, Life's life lied away?» (Byron)
Insome cases parallelism emphasizes' the similarity and equates the significanceof the parts, as, for example:
«Oursenses perceive no extremes. Too much sound deafens us: too much light dazzlesus; too great distance or proximity hinders our view.»
Inother cases parallel construction emphasizes diversity and contrast of ideas.(See (he example on p. 223 from the «Tale of two Cities» by Dickens).
Asa final remark it must be stated that the device of parallelism alwaysgenerates rhythm, inasmuch as similar syntactical structure repeat in closesuccession. Hence it is natural that parallel construction should veryfrequently be used in poetical structures. Alternation of similar units beingthe basic principle of verse, similarity in longer units—i.e. in the stanza, isto be expected.
§ 3. Structural-functionalfeatures of Chiasmus. Reversed Parallel Construction
Ch i a s m u s belongs to the group) of stylistic devices basedon the repetition of a syntactical pattern, but it has a cross order of wordsand phrases. The structure of two successive sentences or parts of a sentencemay be described as reversed parallel construction, the word-order of one ofthe sentences being inverted as compared with that of the other, as in:
«Aihigh as we have mounted in delight
Inour dejection do we sink as low.» (Wordsworth)
«Down dropped the breeze,
Thesails dropped down.» (Coleridge)
Chiasmusis sometimes achieved by a sudden change from active voice to passive or viceversa, for example:
«The register of his burial was signed by the clergyman, theclerk, the undertaker and the chief mourner. Scrooge signed it. (Dickens)
Thisdevice is effective in that it helps to lay stress on the second part of theutterance, which is opposite in structure, as 'in our dejection’: 'Scroogesigned if. This is due to thesudden change in the structure which by its very unexpectedness linguisticallyrequires a slight pause before it.
Asis seen from the examples above, chiasmus can appear only when there are twosuccessive sentences or coordinate parts of a sentence. So distribution, hereclose succession, is the factor which predetermines the birth of the device.
Thereare different variants of the structural design of chiasmus. The first examplegiven shows chiasmus appearing in a complex sentence where the second part hasan opposite arrangement. The second example demonstrates chiasmus in a sentenceexpressing semantically the relation of cause and effect. Structurally,however, the two parts are presented -as independent sentences, and it is thechiasmatic structure which supports the idea of subordination. The thirdexample is composed of two independent sentences and the chiasmus serves toincrease the effect of climax. Here is another example of chiasmus where twoparallel constructions are followed by a reversed parallel construction linkedlo the former by the conjunction and:
'»Thenight winds sigh, the breakers roar.
Andshrieks the wild sea-mew." (Byron)
Itmust be remembered that chiasmus is a syntactical, not a lexical device, i.e.it is only the arrangement of the parts of the utterance which constitutes thisstylistic device, in the famous epigram by Byron:
«Inthe days of old men made the manners:
Mannersnow make men.»
thereis no inversion, but a lexical device. Both parts of the parallel constructionhave the same, the normal word-order. However, the witty arrangement of thewords has given the utterance an epigrammatic character. Tins device may beclassed as lexical chiasmus or chismatic repetition. Byron particularlyfavoured it. Here are some other examples:
«Hisjokes were sermons, and his sermonsjokes.”
“‘Tis strange, — but true; for truth is always strange.”
“ButTom’s no more – and so no more of Tom.”
“True, ‘tis a pity– pity ‘tis, ‘tis true.”
“Men are the sport of circumstances, when
Thecircumstances seem the sport of men.”
“Tisa pity though, in this sublime world that
Pleasure’s a sin,and sometimes sin’s a pleasure.”
Notethe difference in meaning of the repeated words on which the epigrammaticeffect rests: 'strange-strange', 'no more—no more', `jokes—jokes.'
Syntacticalchiasmus is sometimes used to break the monotony of parallel constructions. Butwhatever the purpose of chiasmus, it will always bring in some new shade ofmeaning or additional emphasis on some portion of the second part.
Thestylistic effect of this construction has been so far little investigated. Buteven casual observation wilt show that chiasmus should be perceived as acomplete unit. One cannot help noticing that the first part in chiasmus issomewhat incomplete, it calls for continuation, and the anticipation isrewarded by the second part of the construction, which is, as it were, thecompletion of the idea.
Like parallel construction, chiasmus contributes to the rhythmicalquality of the utterance, and the pause caused by the change in the syntacticalpattern may be linked to a caesura in prosody.
As can be seen from this short analysis of chiasmus, it has developed,like all stylistic devices, within the framework of the literary form of thelanguage. However, its prototype may be found in the norms of expressions ofthe spoken language, as in the emphatic:
‘He was a brave man, was John.’
Ithas already been pointed out that repetition is an expressive means oflanguage; used when the speaker is under the stress of strong emotion. It showsthe state of mind of the speaker, as in the following passage from Galsworthy:
»Stop!"—shecried, «Don't tell me! I don'twant to hear;
Idon't want to hear what you've come for. / don't wantto hear.»
Therepetition of «I don't want to hear’. is not a stylistic device; it is ameans by which the excited state of mind of the speaker is shown. This state ofmind always; manifests itself through intonation, which is suggested here bythe words „she cried'. In the written language, before direct speech isintroduced one can always find words indicating the intonation, as sobbed,shrieked, passionately, etc. J. Vandryes writes:
“Repetitionis also one of the devices having its origin in the emotivelanguage. Repetition when applied to the logical language becomes simply aninstrument of grammar. Its origin is to be seen in the excitement accompanyingthe expression of a feeling being brought to its highest tension.» 1
Whenused as a device, repetition acquires quite different functions. It does notaim at making a direct emotional impact. On the contrary, the stylistic deviceof repetition aims at logical emphasis, an emphasis necessary to fix theattention of the reader on the key-wordof the utterance. For example:
«For that was it! Ignorant of the long and stealthy march ofpassion, and of the state to which it had reduced Fleur; ignorant ofhow Soames had watched her, ignorant of Fleur's reckless desperation...—ignorant of all this, everybody feltaggrieved.”
Repetitionis classified according to compositional patterns. If the repeated word (orphrase) comes at the beginning of two or more consecutive sentences, clausesor phrases, we have anaphora, as in the example above, (f the repeatedunit is placed at the end of consecutive sentences, clauses or phrases, we havethe type of repetition called epiphora, as in:
“I am exactly the man to be placed in a superior in such a case that. I am above the rest of mankind, in such a case as that. I can act withphilosophy in such a case that. (Dickens)
Here the repetition has a slightly different function: it becomes abackground against which the statements preceding the repeated unit are made tostand out more conspicuously. This may be called the background function.It must be observed, however, that the logical function of the repetition, togive emphasis, dot- not fade when it assumes the background function. This isan additional function.
Repetition may also be arranged in the form of a frame: the initialparts of a syntactical unit, in most cases of a paragraph, are repeated at theend of it, as in:
»Poor doll's dressmaker! Howoften so dragged down by hands that should have raised her up; how often somisdirected when losing her way on the eternal road and asking guidance. Poor,little doll's dressmaker". (Dickens)
This compositional pattern of repetition is called-: framing. Thesemantic nuances of different compositional structures of repetition have beenlittle looked into. But even a superfic'^1 examination will show that framing,for example, makes the whole ..Iterance more compact and more complete. Framingis most effective in singling out paragraphs.
Among other compositional models of repetition is linking or reduplication(also known as anadiplosis). The structure of this device is thefollowing: the last word or phrase of one part of an utterance is repeated atthe beginning of the next part, thus hooking the two parts together. Thewriter, instead of moving on, seems to double back on his tracks and pick uphis last word.
«Freeman and slave… carried on an uninterrupted, now hidden, nowopen fight, a fight that each time ended, either time ended, either in arevolutionary reconstitution of society at large, or in the common ruin of thecontending classes.”
Any repetition of a unit of language will inevitably cause some slightmodification of meaning, a modification suggested by a noticeable change in theintonation with which the repeated wore is pronounced.
Sometimes a writer may use the linking device several times in oneutterance, for example:
“A smile would come into Mr. Pickwick’s face: the smile extended into a laugh: the laugh into a roar, and the'roar became general.» (Dickens)
«For glances beget ogles, ogles 'sighs, sighs wishes, wisheswords, and words a letter.» (Byron)
This compositional pattern of repetition is also called chain-repetition.
What are the most obvious stylistic functions of repetition?
The first, the primary one, is. to intensify the utterance. Intensificationis the direct outcome of the use of the expressive means employed in ordinaryintercourse; but when used in other compositional patterns, the immediateemotional charge is greatly suppressed and is replaced by a purely aestheticaim, as in the following example:
A weary lot is thine, fairmaid.
A weary lot is thine!
To pull the thorn thy brow to braid',
And press the rue for wine.
A lightsome eye, a soldier's mien
A feather of the blue,
A doublet of the Lincoln green-
No more of me you knew
No more of me you knew. (WalterScott)
The repetition of the whole line in its full form requiresinterpretation. Superlinear analysis based on associations aroused by the senseof the whole poem suggests that this repetition expresses the regret of theRover for his Lore's unhappy lot. Compare also the repetition inthe line of Thomas Moore's:
»Those evening bells! Thoseevening bells!"
Meditation, sadness, reminiscence and other psychological and emotionalstates of mind are suggested by the repetition of the phrase with theintensifier 'those'.
The distributional model of repetition, the aim of which is intensification,is simple: it is immediate succession of the parts repeated.
Repetition may also stress monotony of action, it may suggest fatigue,or despair, or hopelessness, or doom, as in:
“What has my life been? Fag andgrind, fag and grind. Turn the wheel, turn the wheel.” (Dickens)
Here the rhythm of the repeated parts makes the monotony andhopelessness of the speaker’s life still more keenly felt.
This function of repetition is to be observed in Thomas Hood’s poem “Thesong of the shirt” where different forms of repetition are employed.
Till the brain begins to swim!
Till the eyes are heavy and dim!
Seam, and gusset, and band, Band,and gusset and seam,— Till over the buttons I fall asleep,
And sew them on in a dream."
Of course, the main idea, that of long and exhausting work, is expressedby lexical means: work 'till the brain begins to swim' and 'the eyes are heavyand dim',, till, finally, 'I fall asleep." But the repetition herestrongly enforces this idea and, moreover, brings in additional nuances ofmeaning.
In grammars it is pointed out that the- repetition of words connected bythe conjunction and will express reiteration or frequentative action.For example:
«Fedgeby knocked and rung, and Fledgeby rang, andknocked, but no one came.»
There are phrases containing repetition which have become lexical unitsof the English language, as on and on, aver and over, again and again andothers. They all express repetition or continuity of the action, as in:
«He playedthe tune over and over again.»
Sometimes this shade of meaning is backed up by meaningful words, as in:
I sat desperately, working and working.
They talked and talked all night.
The telephone rang and rang but no one answered.
The idea of continuity is expressed here not only by the repetition butalso by modifiers such as ‘all night'.
Background repetition, which we have already pointed out, is sometimesused to stress the ordinarily unstressed elements of the utterance. Here is agood example:
«I am attached to you. But I can't consent and won't consent
and I never did consentand I never will consent to belost in you.»
The emphatic element in this utterance is not the repeated word'consent' but the modal words 'can't' 'won't' 'will', and also the emphatic'did'. Thus the repetition here loses its main function and only serves as ameans by which other elements are made to stand out clearly. It is worthy ofnote that in this sentence very strong stress falls on the modal verbs and'did' but not on the repeated 'consent' as is usually the case with thestylistic device.
Like many stylistic devices, repetition is polyfunctional. The functionsenumerated do not cover all its varieties. One of those already mentioned, therhythmical function, must not be under estimated when studying the effectsproduced by repetition. Most of the samples given above give rhythm to theutterance! In fact, any repetition enhances the rhythmical aspect of theutterance.
There is a variety of repetition which we shall call«root-repetition», as in:
«To live again in the youth of the young.»(Galsworthy)
«He loves a dodge for its own sake; being...— the dodgerestof all the dodgers.» (Dickens)
or, «Schemmer, Karl Schemmer, was a brute, a brutishbrute.»- (<st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>)
In root-repetition it is not the same words that are repeated hut thesame root. Consequently we are faced with different words having differentmeanings (youth: young; brutish: brute), but the shades of meaningare perfectly clear.
Another variety of repetition may be called synonymical repetition. Thisis the repetition of the same idea by using synonymous words and phrases whichby adding a slightly different nuance of meaning intensify the impact of theutterance, as in
"...are there not capital punishments sufficient in your statutes?
Is there not blood enough upon your penal code?" (Byron)
Here the meaning of the words 'capital punishments' and 'statutes' isrepeated in the next sentence by the contextual synonyms 'blood' and 'penalcode'.
Here is another example from Keats' sonnet «The Grasshopper and theCricket-»
«The poetry of earth is never dead...
Thepoetry of earth is ceasing never...»
There are two terms frequently used to show the negative attitude of thecritic to all kinds of synonymical repetitions. These are pleonasm and tautology.The Shorter Oxford Dictionary defines pleonasm as «the use ofmore words in a sentence than are necessary to express the meaning; redundancyof expression.» Tautology is defined as «the repetition of thesame statement; the repetition (especially in the immediate context) of thesame word or phrase or of the same idea or statement in other words; usually asa fault of style.»
Here are two examples generally given as illustrations:
«It was a clear starry night, and not a cloud was to beseen.» «He was the only survivor; no one else was saved.»
It is not necessary to distinguish between these twoterms, the distinction being very fine. Any repetition may be found faulty ifit is not motivated by the aesthetic purport of the writer. On the other hand, anyseemingly unnecessary repetition of words or of ideas expressed in differentwords may be justified by the aim of the communication.
For example, “The daylight is fading, the sun is setting, and night iscoming on” as given in a textbook of English composition is regarded as tautological,whereas the same sentence may serve as an artistic example depicting theapproach of night.
A certain Russian literary critic has wittily called pleonasm«stylistic elephantiasis,» a disease in which the expression of theidea swells up and loses its force. Pleonasm may also be called «the artof wordy silence.»
Both pleonasm and tautology-may be acceptable in oratory inasmuch asthey help the audience to grasp the meaning of the utterance. In this case,however, the repetition of ideas is not considered a fault although it- mayhave no aesthetic function.
§ 4. Enumeration as afunctional equivalent of Parallel constructions.
Enumeration is a stylisticdevice by which separate thing objects, phenomena, properties, actions arenamed one by one so that they produce a chain, the links of which, beingsyntactically in the same position (homogeneous parts of speech), are forced todisplay some kind f semantic homogeneity, remote though it may same position(homogeneous parts of speech), are forced to display some kind of semantichomogeneity, remote though it may seem.
Most of our notions are associated with other notions due to some kindof relation between them: dependence, cause and result, likeness,dissimilarity, sequence, experience (personal and/or social), proximity, etc.
In fact, it is the associations plus social experience that have resultedin the formation of what is known as «semantic fields.»Enumeration, SD, may be conventionallycalled a sporadic semantic field, in as their manifestation as semantic fieldsdo. The grouping of sometimes absolutely heterogeneous notions occurs only inisolated instances to meet some peculiar purport of the writer.
Let us examine the following cases of enumeration:
«There Harold gazes on a work divine,
A blending of all beauties; streams and dells,
Fruit, foliage, crag, wood, cornfield, mountain, vine
And chief less castles breathing stern farewells
From grey but leafy walls, where Ruin greenly dwells.» (Byron)
There is hardly anything in this enumeration that could be regarded asmaking some extra impact on the reader. Each word is closely associated semanticallywith the following and preceding words in the enumeration, and the effect iswhat the reader associates with natural scenery. The utterance is perfectlycoherent and there is no halt in the natural flow of the communication. Inother words, there is nothing specially to arrest the reader's attention; noeffort is required to decipher the message: it yields itself easily to immediateperception.
That is not the case in the following passage:
«Scrooge was his sole executor, his sole administrator, hissole as-sign, his sole residuary legatee, his sole friend and his solemourner.”
The enumeration here is heterogeneous; the legal terms placed ina string with such words as 'friend' and 'mourner' result in a kind of clash, athing typical of any stylistic device. Here there is a clash betweenterminological vocabulary and common neutral words. In addition there is a clashof concepts: 'friend' and 'mourner' by force of enumeration are equal insignificance to the business office of 'executor', 'administrator', etc. andalso to that of ‘legatee'.
Enumeration is frequently used as a device to depict scenery through atourist's eyes, as in Galsworthy's „To Let“:
»Fleur's wisdom in refusing to write to him was profound for tiereached each new place entirely without hope or fever, and could concentrateimmediate attention on the donkeys and tumbling bells, the priests,patios, beggars, children, crowing cocks, sombreros, cactus-hedges, oldhigh white villages, goats, olive-trees, greening plains, singing birds intiny cages, watersellers, sunsets, melons, mules, great churches,pictures, and swimming grey-brown mountains of a fascinatingland."
The enumeration here is worth analysing. The various elements of this enumerationcan be approximately grouped in semantic fields:
1) donkeys, mules, crowing cocks, goats, singing birds;
2) priests, beggars, children, watersellers;
3) villages, patios, cactus-hedges, churches, tumbling bells, sombreros,pictures;
4) sunsets, swimming grey-brown mountains, greening plains, olive-trees,melons.
Galsworthy found it necessary to arrange them not according to logicalsemantic centers, but in some other order; in one which, apparently, wouldsuggest the rapidly changing impressions of a tourist. Enumeration of thiskind assumes a stylistic function and may therefore be regarded as a stylisticdevice, inasmuch as the objects in the enumeration are not distributed inlogical order and therefore become striking.
This heterogeneous enumeration gives one an insight into the mind of theobserver, into his love of the exotic, into the great variety of miscellaneousobjects which caught his eye, it gives an idea of the progress of his travelsand the most striking features of the land of Spain as seen by one who is inlove with the country. The parts of the enumeration may be likened to thestrokes of a painter's brush who by an inimitable choice of colours presents toour eyes an unforgettable image of the life and scenery of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Spain</st1:place></st1:country-region>. Thepassage itself can be likened to a picture drawn for you while you wait.
Here is another example of heterogeneous enumeration:
«The principal production of these towns…appears to be soldiers, sailors, Jews, chalk, shrimps, officers and dock-yardmen.» (Dickens, «PickwickPapers»)
Suspense is a compositional device whichconsists in arranging the matter of a communication in such a way that the lessimportant, descriptive, subordinate parts are amassed at the beginning, the mainidea being withheld till the end of the sentence. Thus the reader's attentionis held and his interest kept up, for example:
«Mankind, says a Chinesemanuscript, which my friend M. was obliging enough to read and explain to me,for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.» (CharlesLamb)
Sentence; of this type are called periodic sentences, or periods.Their function is to create suspense, to keep the reader in a stale ofuncertainty and expectation.
Here is a good example of the piling up of details so as to create astate of suspense in the listeners:
«But suppose it passed; suppose one of these men, as I haveseen them,—meagre with famine, sullen with despair, careless of a life whichyour Lordships are perhaps about to value at something less than the price of astocking-frame:—suppose this man surrounded by the children for whom heis unable to procure bread at the hazard of his existence, about to be torn forever from a family which he lately supported in peaceful industry, and which itis not his fault that he can no longer so support;—suppose this man, andthere are ten thousand such from whom you may select your victims, draggedinto court, to be tried for this new offence, by this new law; still thereare two things wanting to convict and condemn him; and these are, inmy opinion,—twelve butchers [or ajury, and a Jeffreys for a judge!» (Byron)
Here the subject of the subordinate clause of concession ('one of thesemen") is repeated twice («this man’, 'this man'), each time followedby a number of s