Реферат: Образование в России
EDUCATION IN RUSSIA
Secondaryeducation is mandatory in Russia. Children start school at the
age of 6 andfinish at 17. As a rule, a child attends the school located
in theneighborhood,the one which is the closes to home. However, there
in big cities there are also so-called«special» schools, offering more
in-depth studies of the major European languages ( English, French, or
German), or theadvanced courses in physics and mathematics, and children
attending one ofthese may have to commute from home. There are no school
buses in Russia.
The first stage of education is elementaryschool for grades 1 through 4.
The second is secondary school for grades 5 through 9. Upon graduation
from secondaryschool ( which is not the equivalent of having completed
their secondary education ), students are given the choice of either
continuing toattend the same school (high school; grades 10 and 11 ), or
entering avocational school or trade school. Both vocational school and
trade schools aremeant to provide one, long with the certificate of
secondary education, with a number of useful skills (e.g., those of an
electrician,technical, or computer operator ).One attends the former for
two years, andthe latter for three or four.
Haveing completed one's secondary education,one can either become part
of work force orgo on to college ( " institution of higher learning " ).
There areuniversityes and so-called «institutes» in Russian. The former
stress a more teoretical, fundamental approach toeducation, while the
latter are morepractice oriented.
There are no medical schools or departments with in the structure of
Russianuniversitys. Future doctors attend medical institutes. There are
no degrees in Russian equivalent to those of bachelor's ormaster's.
Students spend approximately five years incollege or six in a medical
To be admited to an institution of higherlearning, one has to pass a
series of oraland written tests. Grades in the certificate of secondary
education arealso taken account.
Entry to higher education is quitecompetitive. Some college departments
(philologist,foreign languages-especially English,law, journalism ) have
dozens ofapplicants for one prospective student's position. The same is
true of medicaland theatre institutes.
Up to the present, neither college studentsnor schoolchildren have had
any say in the selection of courses they had to take.Everyone has
studied according to uniform series of guide lines approved by the
Ministery of Higher Education. Evidently,this situation is going to
change in thenear future.
Education in Russian has until recently beenfree on all levels. College
students with good grades were rewarded with a modest stipend.All
institutions of higher learning were subsidized by the government. Now
that the country is changing to a market-place economy, thesystem of
education is also bound to undergo profound changes. The first private
scholls,gymnasiums and lycees, have already been founded in Moscow and
St. Petersburg,in an attempt to revive the pre-1917 traditionals of
Russianeducational system with its high standards of excellence.