Реферат: Образование в России

                         EDUCATION IN RUSSIA

 Secondaryeducation is mandatory in Russia. Children start school at the

age of 6 andfinish at 17. As a rule, a child attends the school located

in theneighborhood,the one which is the closes to home. However, there

in  big cities there are also so-called«special» schools, offering more

in-depth  studies of the major European  languages ( English, French, or 

German), or theadvanced courses in physics and mathematics, and children

attending one ofthese may have to commute from home. There are no school

buses in Russia.

 The first stage of education is elementaryschool for grades 1 through 4.

The  second is secondary school for grades 5 through 9. Upon graduation

from secondaryschool ( which  is  not the equivalent of having completed

their  secondary education ), students  are  given the choice of either

continuing toattend the same school (high school; grades 10 and 11 ), or

entering avocational school or trade school. Both vocational school  and

trade schools aremeant to  provide  one, long with  the certificate of

secondary  education, with a number of useful skills (e.g., those of an

electrician,technical, or computer operator ).One attends the former for

two years, andthe latter for three or four.

 Haveing completed one's secondary education,one can either become  part

of work force orgo on to college ( " institution of higher learning " ).

There areuniversityes and so-called «institutes» in Russian. The former

stress  a more teoretical, fundamental approach toeducation, while the

latter are morepractice oriented.

 There are no medical  schools or  departments with in the  structure of

Russianuniversitys. Future doctors attend medical institutes. There are

no  degrees in   Russian  equivalent to those of bachelor's ormaster's.

Students  spend approximately  five years incollege or six in a medical


 To be admited to an institution of higherlearning, one has to  pass  a

series of oraland written tests. Grades in the certificate of secondary

education arealso taken account.

 Entry to higher education is quitecompetitive. Some college departments

(philologist,foreign languages-especially English,law, journalism ) have

dozens ofapplicants for one prospective student's position. The same  is

true of medicaland theatre institutes.

 Up to the present, neither college studentsnor schoolchildren have  had

any  say in  the  selection of  courses they had to take.Everyone  has

studied  according to  uniform  series of  guide  lines approved by the

Ministery  of Higher  Education. Evidently,this situation is going to

change in thenear future.

 Education in Russian has until recently beenfree on all levels. College

students  with good  grades  were rewarded  with a modest stipend.All

institutions  of higher learning were subsidized by the government. Now

that  the country  is  changing to a market-place economy, thesystem of

education  is also bound to undergo profound changes. The first private

scholls,gymnasiums and lycees, have already been founded in  Moscow and

St. Petersburg,in  an attempt  to  revive the pre-1917 traditionals of

Russianeducational system with its high standards of excellence.


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