Реферат: Biography of Che Guevara (Биография Че Гевары)
” I think, Che was not onlythe intellectual, but also the most complete person of our epoch.”
This is a short essayabout Che Guevara's life. It was made in order to obtain a good grade for myWriting English class, and, because I had wanted to know more about this man. I decided to talk abouthim, because I think he is a perfect example of a man who never gives up, nomatter what, that believes in equality for everyone and that is disposed todie, if he has to defend his ideals. Nowadays, Che Guevara becomes alegend. I am going to talk about his life, and how he died for the world deeplyconvincing in his thoughts. He reflected of his mission in this life likehelping out others to be free and to get their rights back from oppressivegovernments, and even though of his failure, his ideals are still alive.
Ernesto Guevara wasborn on June 14th, 1928 in Argentina. His parents were members of privilegedmiddle class. Elder Guevara engaged in a campaign to stop Nazi propaganda inthe America. His mother was equally outspoken. Several times she had beenarrested for her political activism and, like her husband, would always supporther son in his revolutionary career.
WhenErnesto was 2 years old, he turned asthmatic and his family had to move to thecountryside, where his father tried to heal him teaching him sports likefootball, baseball, swimming, and rugby. During grade school Guevara’s deceaseforced him to receive much of his education at home from his parents. Chebecame interested in literature, philosophy and physical activities.Especially, he was fond of travelling. In fact, in 1952, he decided to travelthrough Argentina with a friend riding a motorcycle. In 1947 he entered to theUniversity of Buenos Aires in order to become a doctor. In 1951, after taking hisfinal exams from the university, he made a much longer journey: he visitedChile, where he met Salvador Allende, Peru, where he worked for some weeks inthe San Pablo leprosarium, Colombia, where he was arrested but soon released,Venezuela, and Miami. He returned home with his absolute sure of one thing,that he did not want to become a middle-class ordinary doctor. He qualified,specializing in dermatology, and went to La Paz, Bolivia, during the NationalRevolution which he condemned as opportunist, because those revolutionestablished proamerican government. From there he went to Guatemala, earninghis living by writing archaeological articles about Maya ruins.
In Guatemala, Ernesto worked as adoctor in a health program. Suddenly, the American troops invaded Guatemala. Inthese days he became «Che». He got this nickname from some his Cubanfriends in 1953. The most important thing of this trip was that he got to knowMarx's theory. Guatemala’s government made him outlaw as a dangerous communistand he escaped in the embassy of Argentina, and two months later, went toMexico. He arrived to Mexico on September 21st, 1954.
There, in Mexico-City,Ernesto met Fidel Castro, who convinced him to participate in the CubanRevolution. They began to prepare for a revolution in the special camp, wherethey learned combat and tactic training. After few months, Fidel decided toinvade Cuba. There were eighty-two men when they boated in the ship andsecretly sail to the Cuba. They got land in December 3, 1956, but wereassaulted by Cuban army and, unfortunately, only fifteen men survived. Castro’srebels waited till recovering wounds in the mountains and then started to act.Country population supported rebellions by giving them food and new recruiters.They began to take some areas under their control and Castro carried outagrarian and social reforms that were hold by Cuban people. Che was one of thebest and lucky commanders who won few important fights against Batista’s army. Inaddition, he served as the troop doctor. This civil war lasted for three years(1956-1959), and finally, on January the 1st, the rebels won. They entered toHavana, and dictator Batista fled to Dominican Republic.
Che Guevara became thesecond man in Cuban government after Castro. He got Cuban citizenship, and organized and directedthe National Institute of Agrarian Reforms to carry the new agrarian lawsexpropriating the large landholders; ran Department of Industries and occupiedPresident of the National Bank of Cuba. He negotiated and signedcommercial contracts with the Soviet Union and others socialistic countries.When there was Caribbean crisis, he got bad attitude for the Soviet Union,because of Khrushchev’s decision to remove nuclear weapon from Cuba. He thoughtthat USSR was on he wrong way using their principle of peaceful co-existing.
Soon, Che lost hisinterest in management of Cuban economy, because of some fails in the results,and in the end of 1963; his duties were limited to international relationships.He was like a “revolutionary ambassador”. He undertook government’s diplomatictour visiting many countries and was sent to represent Cuba at the UnitedNations General Assembly in New York.
However, revolutionmovement called Guevara, who tired of being political figure. It was better forhim sneaking in the jungles with AK-47 than sitting at the bureaucrat’stable. He disappeared from social life and went to Africa trying to raiserevolution forces. Regrettably, his African trip was unsuccessful. He couldn’torganize left forces there and was compelled to return back to America.
Che's final revolutionaryadventure was in Bolivia. In April 1967 he illegally came to Bolivia with smallgroup of guerrilla’s fighters. At the beginning, everything was good: there wasorganized strike of the mineworkers and rebels won several fights. Soon, CIAcame to help o Bolivian dictatorship regime, and in the October Che’s groupwere seized and almost terminated. Che Guevara was wounded and captured. Thenext day he was executed. His body was hidden and only in 1997 it was found andburied in Cuba.
After his death, hewas instantly transformed into an icon of the revolutionary commitment andheroism. He was type of man who persistently moves to the aim. Hisaspiration to life didn’t have the borders. Che Guevara was “a man of totalintegrity, a man of stoic and Spartan living habits”. Despite of his failuresin economic and diplomacy, he served as a convincing symbol of the dedicatedrevolutionary whose actions were always in harmony and moral ideals. He diedfor these ideals.
Selectedbibliography:Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. – Che Guevara. NY, 1989.