Реферат: WMD - Weapons of Mass Destruction


Определенияслова «культура»

That complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law,custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member ofsociety (Tylor, 1871)

The sum total of knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behaviorpatterns shared and transmitted by members of a particular society (Linton, 1940)

[All the] historically created designs for living, explicit andimplicit, rational, irrational, and nonrational, which exist at any given timeas potential guides for the behavior of man (Kluckhohn & Kelly, 1945)

The mass of learned and transmitted motor reactions, habits, techniques,ideas, and values—and the behavior they induce (Kroeber, 1948)

The man-made part of the environment (Herskovits, 1955)

Patterns, explicit and implicit, of and for behavior acquired andtransmitted by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievement of humangroups, including their embodiments in artifacts (Kroeber & Kluckhohn, 1952)

Culture is all those means whose forms are not under genetic controlwhich serve to adjust individual and groups within their ecological communities(Binford, 1968, p. 323)

Culture is a set of shared ideals, values, and standards ofbehavior; it is the common denominator that makes the actions of individualsintelligible to the group. Because they share a common culture, people canpredict each other’s actions in a given circumstance and react accordingly. Aset of rules or standards shared by members of a society that when acted uponby the members, produce behavior that falls within a range the members considerproper and acceptable. (Haviland, 1975)

We may define culture as the totality of the learned and sharedpatterns of belief and behavior of a human group. (Aceves & King, 1978)

Learned behavior copied from another (Steadman, 1982)

We will restrict the term culture to an ideational system. Culturesin this sense comprise systems of shared ideas, systems of concepts and rulesand meanings that underlie and are expressed in the ways that humans live.Culture, so defined, refers to what humans learn, not what they do and make. AsGoodenough (1961, p. 522) expressed it, this knowledge provides «standardsfor deciding what is, …for deciding what can be, …for deciding how one feelsabout it, …for deciding what to do about it, …and for deciding how to go aboutdoing it.» (Kessing & Strathern 1998, p. 16)

There is agreement that culture is learned from others while growingup in a particular society or group; is widely shared by the members of thatsociety or group; and so profoundly affects the thoughts, actions, and feelingsof people in that group that anthropologists commonly say that«individuals are a product of their culture. (Bailey & Peoples, 1999)

»CULTURE: (1) the set of capacities which distinguishes Homosapiens as a species and which is fundamental to its mode of adaptation. (2)The learned, cumulative product of all social life. (3) The distinctivepatterns of thought, action, and values that characterize the members of asociety or social group (4) A series of mutually incompatible concepts, developingafter the Second World War:

(a) in social anthropology, the arrangements of belief and customthrough which social relations are expressed;

(b) in materialist studies, the patterned knowledge, techniques, andbehavior through which humans adapt to the natural world;

(c) in ethnoscience, a set of standards for behavior consideredauthoritative within a society;

(d) in symbolic studies, a system of meanings through which sociallife is interpreted.

Robert Winthrop (1991) Dictionary of Concepts in CulturalAnthropology. NY: Greenwood Press. p. 50


Culture is «an ideal of human perfection...increased sweetness,increased light, increased life, increased sympathy.»

Matthew Arnold (1869: 64) Culture and Anarchy


«Culture may be defined as the totality of the mental andphysical reactions and activities that characterize the behavior of theindividuals composing a social group collectively and individually in relationto their natural environment, to other groups, to members of the group itselfand of each individual to himself. It also includes the products of theseactivities and their role in the life of the groups. The mere enumeration ofthese various aspects of life, however, does not constitute culture. It ismore, for its elements are not independent, they have a structure.»

Franz Boas (1963--orig. 1938) The Mind of Primitive Man. New York: Macmillan. p. 149.


«Culture is a class of things and events, dependent uponsymboling, considered in an extrasomatic context.»

Leslie White (1959) «The Concept of Culture» AmericanAnthropologist 61(2)


«Culture consists of the more or less organized system oflearned, prescribed understandings complexly shared by a group of people.»

Marc J. Swartz:


«Culture is all those means whose forms are not under directgenetic control..which serve to adjust individuals and groups within theirecological communities»

Lewis Binford


«The culture concept comes down to behavior patterns associatedwith particular groups of peoples, that is to „customs“ or to apeople's way of life.»

Marvin Harris


«A society's culture consists of whatever it is one has to knowor believe in order to operate in a manner acceptable to its members. Cultureis not a material phenomenon; it does not consist of things, people, behavior, oremotions. It is rather an organization of these things. It is the form ofthings that people have in mind, their models for perceiving, relating, andotherwise interpreting them…

Culture....consists of standards for deciding what is...for decidingwhat can be, ...for deciding what one feels about it, ...for deciding what todo about it, and...for deciding how to go about doing it. »


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