Реферат: The culture of public speaking
Relevance of research
Is it appropriate now to study the culture of public speaking? Definitely, yes. After «growing cultural and educational potential and rhetorical activity of people, environmental problems are actualized human spirit – the creative person who wants to organic socialization in difficult conditions of market relations» [5, c. 49].
Ukraine joins the European and world commonwealth as an equal partner, and therefore the problem of positive education leaders, highly qualified specialists. Unfortunately, they sometimes lack the specialized knowledge, practical skills, abilities, particularly in business communications, creating a positive image of verbal means, the influential words of others.
Genre laudable rhetoric is a means of effective communication, creating a positive image of business man, so actualized interest in theoretical and practical rethinking of the classical heritage of rhetoric and national treasury.
Focuses on the fact that mastering the art of living word – it's another step to freedom. Freedom to express our point of view, even knowing in advance that it agrees with the majority. Liberty, based on the belief that you will listen and that any alternative to your statements do not meet threatening or swearing. Freedom, without which in the modern information society is not possible as individual success and progress of state.
Urgency of rhetoric (the science that studies the culture of public performance), as conditioned by linguistic science and universality of the language itself. After all, it raises man above the world of nature, selects a man as an intellectual phenomenon that can learn, develop and create peace. It enables a person to realize himself, identified with the self, with the collective, society, nation, she models the doings pragmatics of everyday people. Impairment of language trivializes its speakers – speakers trivializes the nation and its spiritual culture.
The urgency of the problem caused by the choice of theme essay «The Culture of Public Speaking.»
There are many newspaper and magazine articles devoted to the research topic in question. First, Article Gromov  devoted to the issue of mastering the art of living words.
G. Sagach  is a description of public speaking in terms of effective communication tool that creates a positive image. Some articles and books about rhetoric as a science and a public speech in particular, wrote L. Macko, to consider the theme will use one of her magazine articles .
There are special tutorials for students of rhetoric, and highlighting the very problem we are considering. In particular, textbooks S. Abramovich  N. Golub . A book Toman I.  covers many different aspects related to preparation for public speaking, presentation and substance of its own performance.
Review of academic and popular scientific literature suggests that researchers interested in issues of cultural performance are not fading.
The purpose of the essay: clarifying the essence of culture and public performance of its basic research aspects.
reveal the main stages of preparation to the speaker's public speaking;
explore and analyze the principles of public speaking;
consider the features of the speech itself.
The main part
1. Preparing for the speech
To prepare for specific performance should take the following steps:
1) determine the subject and its title;
2) formulate a goal;
3) to find material;
4) explore and understand the selected literature;
5) record the reading.
Preparing for the speech begins with identifying and clarifying issues. Any topic is part of a larger problem and is one of its parts. It is important to realize this and strive to understand speech in one immense.
What should be guided by choosing a topic?
First, you must be knowledgeable in the topic, have some experience.
Second, what are you going to say, should be of interest to the audience.
Thirdly, the theme of the speech must be relevant, significant.
Name of the speech must meet the following requirements:
a) reflect its substance, ie, in concise form to reflect the main idea of the speech;
b) be promotional in nature: to be interesting, to attract attention, touching the interests of those for whom intended, excite the imagination;
c) be clear, clear, concise as possible.
To your performance was productive, Set a three questions:
a) whom should I speak?
b) Why? For what purpose?
c) that students must learn?
«V. Mayakovsky, speaking at one of the Assembly in 1929 said that all disputes with enemies and friends that important – «How do?» Or «What?» Overlapping literary slogan «What to do?», I set primate (Latin – first, seniority) purpose of the content and form.
If the speaker does not think the appointment of the speech, he will not be successful in training and its delivery [4, sec. 23].
Depending on various factors objective can be defined as:
— To inform;
— Persuade, convince;
— Call to action;
«Psychologist V. Sakharov called such action as help develop skills for selection of literature:
1. Remembering earlier readings on the topic of the speech.
2. View personal library or directory.
3. Browse catalogs in the library
4. Viewing in recent issues of the journal list published in the last year of articles.
5. View bibliographic editions (chronicles, books, magazines, etc.)
6. Viewing listings [4, p. 25].
An important stage of preparing the speech public speaking – study of selected literature.
The speakers to choose from a literature that could be used in a speech, that is, read the relevant sections and make the required records.
Once the material to the speech picked up by recording it, the information you need to properly organize. Systematization of speech depends on the number of sources. For example, «examines in detail Feofan Prokopovich architectonics commendable speeches, its size, the 5 main sources of invention ideas in honor of:
— Human nature, which covers the body and soul;
— Lot of people;
— Behavior, actions;
— The circumstances, secondary data [5, p. 50].
As for recording information for future speeches, the most simple type of account – this issue. They are recommended for individual cards. They do not always have to be literal.
Factual note-taking is required when it is important to pass word for word the contents of the statutes, the new law, advertising information, etc.
In other cases, other kinds of recommended sources. Free note-taking – the text content in your own words. Evaluation note-taking – a critical analysis of content, when along with statements given by her. When creative note-taking views of the author complement, develop, generalize. Finally – Lecture note-taking – Contribute to this paper as it sounds in the audience.
Principles of Public Speaking
To become rhetorically literate person should be paid attention to building a strong foundation of knowledge, which is based on certain principles of public speech. These principles can be based on general principles as science rhetoric and perceptions of personal virtuosity of the living word.
There are two groups of principles of public speaking, using them can decide what and how to say in each case.
The first group corresponds to the principles of the question «What say?», It allows to determine the content and direction of the speech. It includes: clarity and certainty of personal positions, scientific, truth, the combination of theory and practice.
The second group of principles enables focus on the question «How do I say?», I think the organizational aspect of the speech. It can include such principles as the basis for the active role of audience, and systematic consistency, accessibility, differentiated approach, visibility .
Particular attention is focusing on the principle of visibility, because the use of visual aids during oral presentations enhances the truthfulness of speech, or at least creates the illusion of fairness, because it is better to see once than hear a hundred times. The British say: «See – it means to believe.» And this is true.
Psychologists argue this point because, having heard something, we want to see, and what we see will determine the interpretation heard. What we have not heard of «bigfoot», coming aliens lohneskoho dinosaur, communism and so on. We still not believe in their reality by the time until you see for yourself.
So it must be stressed, because this is important, all that is possible and advisable to use during the oral presentation – show.
Basic requirements for use of external visual aids:
— Its use is not an end in itself but is subordinated to goal and task performance;
— It illustrates only the main ideas, complex problems;
— Should not be overloaded obvious statement, it remains a subsidiary of media;
— Should be carefully relevance of each species separately and visibility of all their complex training students to their perception (eg, the ability of students to navigate on the map);
— Should not hang at the same time all the tables, charts, drawings – they must show at a time when they need to illustrate the performance of the material.
But, warns that «picture», however useful it may be, is not fully disclose the content of speech [2, sec. 8].
Concentrating attention on the fact that in a sense, all that said speaker has with him those other authoritative sources. A student should not always be a fan to the speaker or to treat it with extreme care until it feels that its a person who has his own authority, or could rely on other authority.
There are three types of authoritative statements:
A) claim based on the authority of the speaker;
B) statement, which is based on public opinion;
B) statement knowledgeable people.
Analyzing the problem of trust the audience to the speaker should take into account the fact that speaker to believe the word, students must either know him or trust him. The best way – indeed possess traits that trust, that is, be conscientious, honest, objective and well know the subject.
We note that the authority of public opinion includes everything from data on voting or poll and up the folk wisdom that is expressed in proverbs and sayings.
Each own research and opinions beg speaker may be appropriate for the audience as the opinion of all people with common sense: This is the power of true orators.
«I often quote myself – said Bernard Shaw. – It provides conversation piquancy. Other speakers usually cite other. However, be aware that the quote is necessary to be able, as quoted – is an integral part of good public speaking.
Training lecturer before becoming a performance
Lecturer novice should remember text of the speech several times during its repetition. It should try to reproduce the conditions under which performance will take place, to keep the manuscript in the hand or put a chair on a table or chair for a second, simulating the department. And, more convenient, when the manuscript is the chair or on a table, because then both hands are free and they can gesticulate.
Some exercise is not advised in the mirror. However, observations of facial expressions, gestures and body movements, this method entirely justifies itself.
During the speech (real or training) Keep your head straight and look at the imaginary audience. When should look into the manuscript, lower the eyes, but do not tilt head. After presenting some thoughts, do not forget to make a short pause.
The purpose of the training performances is that the lecturer could during lectures as much time looking at the audience, maintaining contact with them.
How to overcome anxiety
Containing anxiety when leaving the podium or get rid of it completely impossible. Anxiety caused by fear. Analyze your actions and set the cause of fear. What are you actually afraid of? If you understand what causes fear, you will find it easier to eliminate any reason.
Overcome fear and anxiety wrap in inspiration, with whom you speak on the subject of his speech. This advice is based on recent developments in psychological science. If you know the subject well, they speak with enthusiasm and inspiration that you shared with your audience [6. 260].
If you want to get rid of fear and anxiety, use every opportunity to participate in public speech, only then can you succeed.
Movement, posture, gestures, facial expressions y
During the speech, try to stay calm posture change in a few minutes after you've tired to stand so. Body position should be natural. Just try to move naturally and without bends Find natural and comfortable position for your hands.
Any gestures to complement the language and does not express anything other than what the speaker says. The right gestures – those synchronous with our language. Moreover, the scanty gesticulation speaker contributes more pleasant experience than when he too widely and many waving hands. Gestures brings lecturer with students and makes the content of his speech clearer.
Any movements, postures, gestures, facial expressions y justified only if they do not attract undue attention, or may lose the main content of the speech.
Emphasis on individual words, sentences and parts of speech
One of the major shortcomings of becoming a lecturer is that he always speaks monotonously, therefore its performance becomes very monotonous.
If the speaker wants to emphasize some thought he could do this in several ways: pause, increase or gloss, change its height upovilnenist presentation, emphasis, gestures, body language, repeat important words or sentences.
These stress means have a dual role. They help to differentiate important ideas among the less important while the revival show, make it more interesting.
Can you respond quickly?
Most of us can not always respond to unforeseen circumstances quickly and correctly at the same time. Then we can think witty response. Of course, some people are by nature more intelligent and witty than others, and they have faster response and more successful. However, reaction speed and you can learn when to perform the following two conditions:
— Constantly nurture self-confidence;
— Learn in advance to imagine different situations and find ways to correct responses.
At the time of this situation, you impress wit and ingenious person, as previously prepared [6. 271].
Speakers must feel the owner of the situation
In fact, everyone can get an audience to listen his speech. Need just be honest and treat people with respect. It depends how you within the first five minutes will be able to convince the audience in his positive attitude. However, the fact remains that the audience waiting for something more than just «talk as equals» – important, instructive things. Credulity and honesty should be read on your face always when dealing with people [1, p. 199].
speaking authoritative lecturer public
According to our research can make the following conclusions:
Preparation of public speaking involves passing a few basic steps. Important is a good definition of the theme and its title, the wording of the main task performance. For becoming a lecturer performance can not be successful without proper preparation – a careful selection of material and proper understanding and study of selected literature. Of course, that in preparation for lectures, papers, do you have to correctly read the entries.
All the principles of public broadcasting can be divided into two main groups who decide what and how to say in each case. The most important principle of visibility, it just promotes good abilities that word – the notion of generalized and conditional, and the image contrast – refine specific. But in his speech using the principle of visibility must not forget that no matter how useful the visibility was not that she will never replace the words.
Any speaker, especially novice lecturer necessary to know about some features of their own speech and speaker on foreign culture. It is all important is: look out to the audience, look, gesture, voice, speech, location, movements, posture, speaking rate and so on. Equally important are training before performance, knowledge on how to overcome anxiety, how to emphasize the parts of speech, how quickly and properly respond to unforeseen circumstances.
In our view, compliance culture speaker public speaking only on condition that he considers the stages of preparation for the speech, the principles of public speaking, basic features of their own speech and all factors affecting a particular speech, then this is a real public appearance, which really deserves attention audience, which reaches its specific purpose and perform all the tasks.
List of sources
1. Abramovich SD Rhetoric: teach. guide for students. – LD: World, 2001. – 304 sec.
2. VA Thunder Art of Living Word / Ukrainian language and literature at school. – 1999. – №48. – S. 7 – 8.
3. Macko LI Science convince / Teacher newspaper. – 2001. – №11. – S. 4 – 5