Реферат: Ukraine tourism after the First World War
After the First World War greatly changed the political map of Europe: in the Russian and Austro-Hungarian empires have new states with different political and socio-economic affably. Undergone drastic changes and geopolitical position of Ukrainian lands. At the Eastern (Dnieper) Ukraine established Soviet power — Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic (USSR) from 1937 — Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), whose capital was until 1934 Kharkiv. By the Treaty of Riga (March 1921) of Western Ukraine was annexed by Poland (even earlier, in 1918 p., Romania occupied Bukovina, Transcarpathia in 1919 was given to Czechoslovakia). Therefore 20-30-E pp. in Ukraine were characterized by contradictory processes and phenomena in all areas of society and the development of tourism as well. Core of Soviet power in the field of tourism in the 20-30-E pp. was to create a public institutional framework of tourism, mass involvement of the population in different areas of tourist activities, strengthening and expansion of logistics tourism. In the second half of the 30's pp. Ukraine has taken the first steps in creating tourism infrastructure. During this period, began to operate facilities tourists and tourist camps in Kiev, Trypillia Kano, Dnipropetrovsk, Zaporizhzhya. Attention is paid to development and hotel management.
1. Politics ukrainization «Tourism Development in Ukraine
Politics Ukrainization, conducted by the Bolsheviks in 1923 — 1933 pp., Contributed to national and spiritual revival of Ukraine. Indeed, at that time there was a strong development of the Ukrainian language, education, literature, theater, media, ethnography, excursion business. These processes took place against the background of expectations of the Ukrainian intelligentsia to develop new conditions in the Ukrainian culture, carry people knowledge and education. Therefore, Ukrainian artists, scientists, lore in his work showed high dedication, sacrifice, enthusiasm. During the national-cultural revival in Ukraine has gained weight tourism and excursion business. Adventure considered as an important tool, a method of educational, cultural, and educational work among the wider population.
Excursion business development support as cultural and scientific community and the Bolshevik government of Ukraine, although the tasks were different. Famous scientists, lore — Hrushevsky, Shcherbina, I. Hermayze, V. Artobolevskyy, D. Scherbakivskyy, M. Bilyashivsky, S. Rusova and many others — founders of tourist and excursion business, tried using a wide application tours to educate people, to revive its historical memory, to deepen the historical knowledge, lay in the consciousness of the many attractions tourists need to preserve the past, national-cultural heritage that promote the spiritual development of people. A proof of regional revitalization movement is a tourist and excursion work in Chernihiv in the 20's pp. Despite the extremely difficult political situation (civil war), already in 1919 on the initiative of local intellectuals in Chernigov at the Union of Educators have a Bureau of excursions.
Next, in 1920 it was subordinated to the guiding and exhibition (later excursions and museum exhibitions) part — the structural unit of the provincial Department of Education. Goals, which set a travel agency, formulated as: „give an idea of the history of Chernigov, Chernigov outskirts of nature, of economic life, cultural achievements in the local life. It worked a few cycles tours — natural history, historical and archaeological, literary and artistic, production. At the same time developed tourist and excursion routes to Baturin, Lyubech, Sednyeva where, surrounded by beautiful nature myluvaly eye numerous monuments of history and culture. Since travel agencies are currently collaborating on a permanent basis which best scientific potential of Chernigov, known historians, archaeologists, ethnographers — S. Baran-Butovych, V. Drozdov, V. Dubrovsky, B. Pilipenko, V. Shugayevsky. In 1924 tour desk made subservient Chernihiv Historical Museum, which will soon “absorbed» it as a separate structure. In 1931, the stamp of the Ukrainian Committee of Cultural printed guide is designed for tourists in Novgorod-Seversky State Reserve, in the newly created local a Transfiguration Monastery.
2. Museum of local traffic as a kind of excursion
Local lore acquired movement spread to other regions of Ukraine However, the Bolshevik government and party organs have not set a goal to preserve for future generations, the Cossack tombs and churches on the Dnieper. They sought to use tourism and excursions as a tool of ideological influence on the population to form a socialist consciousness, the beliefs of people of the advantages of the socialist system. Excursion work defined one of the major networks in political education and education of the masses and occupied an important place in the cultural development of the country.
Establishment of state-level implementation has required centralized management excursion agencies to their institutional and financial strengthening. Thus, there was an objective need for them together in one cultural-economic complex. The process of creation of tourist-excursion took place in stages, with the introduction of various forms of management and regulation of relations with higher authorities. Almost 20 years tourism and sightseeing activities in Ukraine organized the following structure: Excursion and Exhibition and Museum Department Commissariat USSR (Eumenes, 1919-1928), Ukrainian mixed facilities for medium class tour company (UMPET, 1928-1929), Joint Ukrture (1926 -1930). Tours widely used learning process of a new labor school and school education, it was given great importance as an effective means of proletarian education and communist education of the masses. Since 1919 in non-school department Commissariat USSR begins work Excursion and Exhibition and Museum Section. With its creation took the opportunity to organize a single center consolidation and coordination of all excursions in Ukraine and widely deploy it at the state level. This section began to operate in many provincial departments of education.
For example, Section Eumenes Odessa hubnar education immediately organized a tour desk. From 1920 p., after reorganization of the out-of, tour started on the right subject to the Central Committee of the political education of the republic. The Committee has directed its activities primarily on a single network organization politustanov USSR. The decision was approved at the Committee Meeting of propagandistic political education (1922 p.). It has greatly contributed to the creation of tourist and excursion facilities. According to the theses and resolutions of the Meeting, Eumenes developed its provision of tourist and sightseeing facilities in all territorial and administrative areas — counties, districts, provinces and others. Depending on the workload, location, they were divided into paragraphs tours, excursions base excursion commune. All this structure accomplishes tour base tour and All commune. The main task of this structure of tourist and excursion facilities was the fact that by organizing the work in place, expand it throughout Ukraine.
Excursion items opened in remote towns and villages in clubs industry, silbudah. Excursion base — in places rich in historical monuments, as well as attractive climatic conditions. Excursion commune — in the county, provincial and regional cities. They led the work of tour points and bases by seeking the most effective use. In ekskurskomunah were: guiding and exhibition rooms, libraries, laboratories for research materials gathered during the tour, a workshop for assembling them into museum pieces, hostels for tourists and sightseers. In ekskurskomunah was a significant workforce: the head of the commune, the head of the museum, laboratory instructors, workshops and library tours organizer and leader, head of the dormitory. Total excursion was two-stage network Eumenes. The first stage — the center of mass excursion of that operated in rural homes, the second — leading institutions of provincial, regional and nationwide significance. Thus, the system of tourist and excursion based institutions on the basis of strong internal communication and vertical management schemes. The activities and strengthening independent of its expansion, opening new facilities tour. This process is especially active after the adoption in 1922 of the Code of popular education, in the second section, which separately considered the issue of forming a network of excursion. So, if in 1923 the department of Kharkiv Eumenes hubpolitosvity operated ekskurspunktiv 1930, the only one reporting period 1923-1924 pp. they opened 30 more.
The network also included many Eumenes ekskursbaz who worked for large enterprises and institutions, which often conducted tours. Only in Kharkov them there were 39. Excursion and Exhibition and Museum nay department for the almost decade-long activity laid the foundation of the state of tourism and sightseeing facilities, and created all the prerequisites for their further development. A need for this was extremely large for the end of 20's pp. characterized by a sharp rise in tourist-excursion movement, which had not only organized but also spontaneous form. Current tours institutions could no longer meet the needs of everyone to take part in tourist travel, their routes were laid not only for Ukraine but also in the Union. Significantly increased ekskursbazah welcome tourists. So, for the further development of tourist and excursion business had to concentrate it in the new structure that would deal only excursion business development. Recall that Eumenes, in addition to excursions, exhibitions and managed as museums. So in 1928 at the initiative of People 's Comiss created a new structure — Ukrainian mixed facilities for medium class tour company (UMPET) or the Tour Company.
Sovnarcom USSR Central Executive Committee and in 1929 adopted a resolution on the promotion work UMPETu. It was noted that UMPET has become a leading center excursion really work in Ukraine. UMPET began to rapidly expand its operations, using all the economic and methodological potential, which was accumulated Eumenes Commissariat Department. The basic direction of his work lies in further development of network facilities tour. For practical actions in this regard, the importance was the adoption of Regulation and RNA USSR Central Executive Committee from August 28, 1928 on the dismissal of republican and local taxes Ukrainian mixed ration companies.
It opened before UMPETom significant opportunities for rapid institutional and economic development. After all privileges extended to all branches, offices, agencies, tours Base Society, organized at his restaurant closed, transport, sightseeing bases at kiosks for sale methodical and local history books and manufacture equipment for tourism. And in his first tourist season 1928 — 1929 pp. UMPET from February 16 to October 1, 1929 increased its capital to 59 800 rubles. The development of tourist and excursion business and determined those privileges that are granted to participants of excursions and trips. Comparative analysis of wage workers and the price of the permit indicates that the economic situation in Ukraine in the 20's pp. was difficult, and hence the material opportunities of workers were low. their salaries in 1925 -1926 pp. amounted to 44 rubles 80 kopecks. in 1926-1927 pp. — 54 rubles 58 kopecks., 1927 — 1928 pp. — 61 rubles 70 kopecks.
Prices for permits were different, depending on distance, length of route. For example, the Volga boat trip for 12 days cost 58 rubles, in Crimea for 10 days — 38 rubles, a tour along the Kyiv — Dnipro — Dniprel'stan for 11 days cost 24 rubles, Donbass — Dniprel'stan — Krivorizhzhya for 12 days — 30 rubles. So, before the governing bodies of tourism and excursion business had a goal to help bring the cost of trips to the material possibilities of the working class, peasantry and discipleship. The question of privileged tourists gradually solved, albeit with great difficulty. Yes, the budget Commissariat USSR in 1926-1927 pp. was envisaged to allocate thirty 000 rubles for excursions among the students and robitfahivtsiv, 3000 rubles — among the peasants. For example, in solving the issue of privileged schools, secondary and higher education institutions supported by such a document: «Instructions on the use of excursion fare tariff set by Resolution Committee NKSHS (People's Commissariat of Railways) on June 28, 1923» Valuable was the fact that, according to the instructions, the applicable fare for rail and inland waterway transport in 75% of her student discounts for tour groups of all educational institutions was a valid and training for researchers and research institutions. Each Holovko Commissariat was responsible representative to allocate concessional fund for distribution among the tour groups subordinate institutions. To receive preferential certificates tour organizer had to submit to the Commissariat a written statement stating the purpose trips, the number of tourists (students and teachers separately) with a nominal list, the names of all points of stops and duration of each stop, transport, use the group departure date and time return group.
Obtained in the Commissariat certificate to obtain tickets at reduced fare in cash pred'yavlyaly with coupon, stamped Commissariat and the Central Finance Department. On the preferential ticket prostavlyaly ticket number and license number. Preferential tariff provided excursion group of at least 10 students and 5 teachers and researchers. Duration of tour should not exceed two months. Allowed to make four long stop. According to the «Regulations on the use of privileged excursion fares» from August 3, 1928 p., each certificate to be given per person. Talon and certificates can be used only for single trips. To use concession tickets expedient, it was recommended to conduct long-haul trips.
Using privileged excursion tickets became more active, and in 1927 the People's Commissariat of Education was able to distribute them to school districts for public education, teachers colleges, part-time workers' colleges, agricultural schools.
3. Preferential policies tourist and excursion activities
ukraine revival excursion tourist
Introduction of preferential policy and promoted the adoption by the Council of People's Commissars of USSR ruling on the operational plans of the USSR People's Commissariat of Education in 1927 — 1928 academic year. The resolution, in particular, celebrated the great masses train adults and youth in cultural and educational tours and according to this decision was taken: draw on the work of excursion facilities and increase the number of concessional tickets. In 1929 on the basis of Council of Labour and Defence of the USSR on the distribution of concessional rail tickets for tourist movement in Ukraine was split 49 000 concessional tickets. All concession tickets concentrated in UMPETi released and organizations for their orders for organized tours. Benefits excursionists provided not only transportation services but also in residence. They could apply for a license UMPETu, which gave the right to discount the price of Ukrainian tourist bases to 33% on the bases of «Soviet tourists» — up to 20%. The governing structure, including UMPET, put on the use of incentives as a long and close to, local excursions. Dnipropetrovsk travel agency gave excursionists discount for travel in trams and buses. Kharkov travel agency took in its boarding tourists to the province even free of charge. It should be noted that the benefits provided for travel by rail cars in general, on ships in the lower classes depending on class, mileage, number of sightseers.
Discount tickets can be from 50 to 25%. Thus, the preferential policy analysis 20-x pp. shows that it was limited, but acted in such difficult economic conditions, which allowed to attract the broad masses of people into active tourism and excursion activities. UMPET determine the specific capabilities of each institution in terms of sightseeing the most effective economic benefits. In particular he was concerned about improving the quality of field operations, which significantly helped increase profitability. For further ramification of the regional field excursions UMPET opened all new tours institution. According to the resolution to the All-excursion meeting of thirty in September 1928 on the results and prospects of UMPETu, only he was given the first right to organize and build a sightseeing base. The decision was made with the aim of concentrating economic component excursion business in one structure. The primary task of the Society was the maximum coverage of tourists on excursions ekskursbazah in all regions of the country. To do this, planned to divide Ukraine into 20 districts with the appointment in each of them authorized the Company. Based on the real economic situation in Ukraine, UMPET organized as unit community that was being supported by equity contributions from the regional education authorities. He spent a great job to attract the widest possible segments of the population to participate in the Company. However, limited financial resources were not given opportunities to gather the required number of units for the construction of new tour bases. Organizational formation UMPETu carried out within a very short time, which was due soon reception buildings and property: transferring ekskursbaz was held from November 15 to December 1, 1928 p., and their preparation for the new tourist season was completed by April 1, 1929, however, despite all difficulties, ekskursbazy in the first year began to operate in Kharkiv, Kyiv, Dnipropetrovsk, Zaporizhzhya, Dniprel'stan, Odessa. Gradually ekskursbaz network grew, covering other cities of Ukraine — Stalino, Nikopol, Donetsk, Berdyansk, Sumy, Poltava, Uman, Vinnitsa, Kamianets-cording Podolsky.
Ukrainian tourist opened outside Ukraine: in Moscow, Leningrad, Alushta, Simferopol, Kerch, Evpatoria, Bakhchisarai Gurzufe, Kutaisi, Nalchik, Makhachkala. During the tourist season 1928 — 1929 pp. it was already over 40, and by 1931 was planned to open more than 20. Organizational activity UMPETu rapidly embraced all the new regions of the Union republics. To keep the excursion network had to solve many economic and financial problems, complete tourist facilities the staff, establish the work of libraries, laboratories, etc. rolling points. There were some difficulties and the mutual settlements between governing tourist agencies of Ukraine and other Soviet republics on the territory of which worked ekskursbazy. Therefore, Ukrainian tour company acted in 1929 with a proposal to create an all-USSR excursion council whose members would all tours of the Union. Presidency of the Council had such exercise general management of all excursion allied organizations coordinate their activities. UMPET even raised the issue to the establishment of the Council no longer need to build ekskursbazy outside Ukraine. This would allow pay more attention to developing this excursion business in Ukraine. UMPET considered necessary to organize the All-Union Joint Stock Company with its members on equal terms to all included tours of the Union. It should be noted that this was only about koordynuvalnu role of the company. In the same period in the RSFSR launched preparations for a new company, which was called the «Association of Proletarian Tourism. However, the ultimate goal of his organization differs from the proposed UMPETom.
It was not to join on equal terms, and the full accession to it of all republican governance structures, their confluence with the subsequent cessation of self-employment. In this regard, was programmed in advance of the Society of proletarian tourism RSFSR exclusive rights to manage tourism and excursion business in the Federal level. Such a radical restructuring of tourism and sightseeing facilities reflect the policy of centralization of management, which intensified in all areas in the USSR, which is increasingly turned into a unitary state. From November 1929 to function officially starts Society of Proletarian Tourism RSFSR.
The company began to open branches and offices in Ukraine, Belarus, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan and other republics. So, in 1930 and reorganized UMPET excursion business in Ukraine began to manage the proletarian tourism company, more precisely, his office — Ukrture, which was officially approved at a meeting Sovnarkoma USSR. Since then, tourism in Ukraine has become an integral part of tourism in the USSR, has lost its face, pidporyadkuvavsya all central institutions and regulations.