Реферат: Education in Russia



1. Development of Russian Education System in the end of XX– the beginning of XXI centuries

1.1 Humanistic characterof modern formation

1.2 Reform of education inRussia the beginnings of XXI century

1.3 Results of a statepolicy in sphere of education during last decades

2. Education System in Russian Federation

2.1 Continuous education

2.2 Characteristic of education system in Russia

2.2.1  Requirements andeducational organizations

2.2.2 Preschool educational establishments and schools

2.2.3 Middle professional education

2.2.4 High school

2.2.5 Private and alternative educationalestablishments



Nowadays thequestion of surviving in new social-economical conditions becomes one of themost important. Education must prepare a modern man for the reality of life.Education system in any country should help to solve the main problems ofsocial, economical and cultural development of human society. That’s why therole of school as a basic part of education and its ability to be flexible isof great importance.

Unfortunatelythe attempts to copy American experience in teaching without understanding allits advantages and disadvantages has given us the results that we did notintend to get. At the same time many Russian people brought up according to thehumanist principles that are traditional for Russian culture realized thismistake and began paying more attention to the very personality of students andto the latest psychological researches.

In fact theperson is inquisitive by the nature, and the satisfaction of information faminefor a usual person is almost the same as the need for food. Therefore reallytalented teacher aspires to wake and fix this thirst for knowledge, shows thepupils, how it is possible to receive satisfaction in the process of knowledge.However the teacher who will set such a problem, will inevitably collide with anumber of difficulties, especially if he works at an ordinary school. Thereforein a private school where as everywhere in conditions of the market approach," all is made for the client ", such people find way to realize theirideas. In fact if children find being at school pleasant their parents,understanding, that it is not vain, will spend the money easier.

The history ofhumanity testifies, that education and society are inseparable. Allglobal problems (economic, social, political, culturological, demographic, ecological,etc.), with which the society collides, anyhow have influence on the sphere offormation and education. For example, in connection to the economicdifficulties experienced by many countries including the Russian Federation,state financing of the education system decreases that conducts to insufficientquality of material equipment of teaching and educational establishments, todecrease in quality of preparation of pedagogical staff. The ecologicalconditions on the planet have also destroying influence on health of a personsince the very birth. As a result the abilities to training are reduced; thereis the need for creation of educational establishments of correctional,improving character. During wars, ethnic conflicts that take place in many countries,problems of formation were put off to the background; in front of the threat ofdanger of death the possibility of going to school or a kindergartencatastrophically loses its importance.

But, on theother hand, education defines many aspects of a person’s life in a society.Scientists emphasize social value of education as an important transformationforce of the society. It is known, that for an output from the crisisexperienced now by the world civilization, radical changes in consciousness,behaviour of people are necessary. To transform the private world of anindividual on the basis of humanistic ideals, purposefully to form moralqualities, to rise a level of culture and vocational training of the person arethe functions of modern education. The social role of education consists of theopportunity to influence to the development of tendencies in the society, toprepare the next generation for the solving of global or local problems of thepresent, to learn them to predict it and if it is required to warn theirconsequences.

For each person education more orless expresses personal values. The process of getting education which in thehighly developed countries takes a quarter of a vital way of the modern person,but at the same time it makes his life substantial and spiritualized, opens hisvarious emotions, satisfies needs for knowledge, dialogue, self-affirmation.While a person gets education all the potential abilities of the person develophis self-realization is carried out, his image is formed. With the help offormation the person adapts for life in the society, acquires knowledge andskills necessary for this.

1. Development of Russian EducationSystem in the end of XX – the beginning of XXI centuries

1.1 Humanistic character of modern formation


Russiannatural-science education is estimated very highly and is considered to be oneof the best in the world. The benefit of it can be seen in the brilliantresults of the Russian schoolboys on the international Olympiads, and also inthe high level of preparation of the Russian employees working at foreignuniversities or firms, in comparison with the western colleagues. Nevertheless,this point of view has also opponents. They refer to a low level of massliteracy of the Russian population, especially rural, on low erudition ofinhabitants of many small cities situated far from capital mega cities. Howeverthere are all bases in the estimation of scientific-educational potential ofthis or that country to conduct comparison by the best, most educated part ofthe population.

The changes in social and economicsphere of a public life have put many countries of the world, including Russia,before the necessity of reforming educational system. Reforms of education,becoming a part of social policy of the modern states, are directed to:

— Updating ofall parts of the system from preschool establishments up to universities;

— Perfectionof the maintenance, methods and means of teaching and educational work;

— Improvement of preparation andimprovement of professional skill of the pedagogical staff.

These ideas are put in the basis ofstate policy of the Russian Federation in the field of humanistic education.They found reflection in the Constitution of the Russian Federation (1993), theLaw of the Russian Federation «About education» (1992). In documents it isdeclared, that education should be carried out in interests of person, societyand state. It is outlined, that, moving on the way of humanization of society,it is possible to hope, that education will become one of the most importantneeds of the person and favorable conditions for realization of this need, fordevelopment of the general and professional culture of the person will becreated. The main principles of the state policy in the field of education inRussia are humanistic character of formation, priority of universal values,lives and health of the person, freedom of development of the person;protection of national cultures, cultural traditions of peoples of Russia;general availability, etc.


1.2 Reform of education in Russia the beginnings of XXI century

educationrussia reform

It ispossible, that the given estimations are too much subjective, but thus, it isobvious, that Russian education system is still too theoretical and poorlyaimed at practical application. It is insufficient for the satisfaction of theneed of flexible education in modern conditions.

According tothe Concept of modernization Russian Formations till 2010, approved by thegovernment on 25 October 2001, education is supposed to be reformed in twostages:

1. At thefirst stage (2001-2003) it was necessary in to restore the responsibility ofthe state in the sphere of education, with an output on minimal necessarybudgetary specifications. The decision of socially significant problems andmodernization of education was developed and occurs in a context of the generalprocess of reforming of the various parties of a life, in close interactionwith other reforms, simultaneously being for them a source of maintenancenecessary personnel resource.

1. At thesecond stage (2004-2005) it is necessary to realize the measures that passedexperimental check in particular at the first stage and after the estimation ofresults to introduce new models of education, its organization and financings.At the second stage the expansion of resource maintenance will be lead.

In 2006-2010the first results of modernization of formation should be designated such asreal improvement of quality of the general and vocational training and decreasein social intensity in a society.

On the basis of increase of thesalary of workers in the sphere of education the growth of social status andimprovement of qualitative structure will be provided.

Such a reformis necessary for Russia education. At existing system it is impossible toexpect essential increasing of the human capital, which basically definesprospects of development of all economy. Scientists of the world have alreadycome to a conclusion, that the most important resource of economy is the humanone, possession, which in scales of the country defines its position in theworld.

1.3 Resultsof a state policy in sphere of education during last decades


According to thestatistic data the population of 2002, there’re more than 109,4 million personsin Russia in the age of 15 years have basic general and is higher educationthat makes 90,2 % of this age group. Since 1989 the number of persons with sucheducational level has increased for 18,3 million or on 20 %. Thus 76,5 % of thegroup of the population in the age of 15 years have average (full) generaleducation, and 59 % have vocational training. In total since 1989 to 2002 the numberof specialists with higher education has increased up to 6,6 million. The number of the personshaving post-grade education (finished postgraduate study, doctoral studies,Internship) and of the persons having secondary education has also increased for5 % (up to 1 million).

By thebeginning of 2002 the quantity of students in the country has grown incomparison with 1990 in 2,1 times that makes 5,95 million person. Similartendencies of growth of number were observed in higher educational institutions(in 2 times).

Besides the quantitative estimationsit is necessary to accept attention quality standards of education system. So,it is obvious that the level of knowledge and skills, which are received bypupils, are as high as it’s demanded.

However, despite of the mentionedabove tendencies, in Russia a significant part of graduates don’t work on theirspecialties. The mentioned above processes of employment of the population withhigher education, a rate of unemployment on the given category for last 10years practically has not changed. The basic growth of unemployment falls atthe population with the average general education.

2. ModernEducation System of Russian Federation


2.1 Continuous education

The questionwhether it is possible to be taught, receive formation once for all life, isnot new for the modern society. The idea of continuous (lifelong) training hasarisen in the remote past, but humanity began to test sharp necessity for itsrealization in the end of XX century. It shows the dynamism of social andeconomic and spiritual development of the modern society. To correspond torequirements of promptly varying society, the person should fill up, expand,specify constantly luggage of knowledge, raise his general and professionalculture, and develop the creative potential.

In 80th indocuments of the international organizations (the UNESCO, the Roman club, etc.)studying the conditions and prospects of development of world education systemthe concept of continuous formation was issued. The essence of the conceptconsists of the idea of «a training society”, lifelong education, a personsatisfying his needs in continuous perfection and self-realization.

Originally the idea of continuousformation was developed as a problem of education of adults. Thus the theses ofmodern psychology that development of the person is not limited to frameworksof the childhood were taken into account. It was supposed, that continuousformation will facilitate for the person change of social roles during the differentperiods of a life, will support and improve the quality of an individual andcollective life by personal, social and professional development. In the modernconcept continuous formation is considered as the constant form of all humanlife since the early age.

Continuous education is the activityof the person focused on purchase of knowledge, development of all parties andabilities of his person, including formation of skill to study and preparationfor execution of various social and professional duties, and also forparticipation in social development as in scale of the country, and of theworld.

Mainprinciples of continuous formation can be formulated as follows:

— Orientationof educational system to the person, to his individual and base needs;

— Wide democratism of educationalsystem, availability, openness of any step and form of education to everyone inspite of the person’s sex, social status, nationality, physical condition,etc.;

— Fast reaction of educational systemto features of interests of various categories of the population, and alsostyles and rates of training;

— Development of various forms of theeducational services allowing to give education in a way convenient for people,in necessary volume, in a suitable place, at any time;

— Unity of formal and informal kinds(self-supporting rates, circles, clubs on interests, etc.) of education,creation of „an educational field” which will transform the society into“training»;

— Use of electronic technology with aview of maintenance of reception with people getting education at any stage oftheir vital way.

Now the system of continuousformation, which should provide interaction of all factors of formation of theperson, is almost fulfilled. Nowadays continuous education becomes a mass movementin which study, work, and leisure of people are integrated.

2.2Characteristics of education system in Russia


2.2.1Requirements and educational organizations

Modern andfuture employers are interested in such worker who is allocated the followingqualities:

— To thinkindependently and to solve various problems (i.e. to apply the receivedknowledge to their decision);

— To possesscreative thinking;

— To possess the rich lexicon basedon deep understanding of humanitarian knowledge.

Thus, the graduate of modern schoolwho will live and work in the next millennium, in a postindustrial shouldpossess the certain qualities of the person:

— Flexibly toadapt in varying vital situations, to be able to acquire independentlyknowledge necessary for it, to be able to put them into practice for thedecision of various arising problems;

— To think independently andcritically, to be able to see problems arising in reality and, using moderntechnologies to search for ways of their rational decision; precisely torealize, where and how the knowledge got by him can be applied in the validitysurrounding it; to be capable to generate new ideas, to think creatively;

— To work competently with theinformation (to be able to collect the facts that are necessary for thedecision of the certain problem, to analyze them, to put forward hypotheses ofthe decision of problems, to do necessary generalizations, comparisons tosimilar or alternative variants of the decision, to establish statisticalregularities, to draw the argued conclusions, to apply the received conclusionsto revealing and decisions of new problems);

— To be sociable, contact in varioussocial groups, to be able to work together in different areas, in varioussituations, to find ways to prevent or be able to leave any disputedsituations;

— To work independently on thedevelopment of his own morals, intelligence, a cultural level.

Thus, themain, strategic direction of development of education system is in the decisionof a problem of person-orientated education, such an education in which thepupil, the student would be in the center of attention of the teacher and thepsychologist. Such an education system reflects the humanistic direction inphilosophy, psychologies and pedagogic.

Modern Russianformation is a continuous system of consecutive steps of training, on each ofwhich the state, municipal educational establishments of different types andkinds operate. The educational system unites different educationalorganizations and includes:

— Preschool;

— Generaleducational;

— Establishments for children-orphans and children who have stayed without careof parents;

— Professional(initial, average special, higher, etc.) education;

- Establishmentsof additional formation;

- Postgraduateeducation;

- Otherestablishments, rendering educational services.

Educational establishments can bepaid and free-of-charge, commercial and noncommercial. It gives the right tocome to the agreements among themselves, to be united in teaching andeducational complexes (a kindergarten — an elementary school, lyceum – collegeor a university) and teaching research-and-production associations withparticipation of scientific, industrial and other establishments and theorganizations.

Activity ofthe state, municipal educational establishments is under construction on thebasis of the typical positions authorized by the Government of the RussianFederation, about corresponding types and kinds of educational establishments.On the basis of typical positions charters of educational establishments aredeveloped.


2.2.2Preschool educational establishments and schools

The Russian preschool educationalestablishments are guided in the activity by the regulations about preschooleducational establishment accepted in 1995. According to this positionpreschool establishments’ aim is to solve a complex of problems, such as:

·         to carry out protection of a life and health of children;

·        to provide their intellectual, personal and physical development;

·        to attach to universal values;

·        to cooperate with family in interests of high-grade development of the child.

Modern preschool establishments arecharacterized by multi-functionality, different kinds of educationalorganizations, and freedom in choice of priority direction of teaching andeducational process, use of educational programs.

According totypical position different kinds of preschool establishments function:

— Akindergarten;

— Akindergarten with priority realization of one or several directions of teachingchildren (intellectual, art-aesthetic, physical, etc.);

— A kindergarten of a compensatingkind with priority realization of qualifying correction of deviations inphysical and mental development of pupils;

— A kindergarten of supervision andimprovement with priority realization of sanitary-and-hygienic, preventive andimproving actions and procedures;

— A kindergarten of the combined kind(into its structure general teaching, compensating and improving groups in adifferent combination can be included);

— The center of a child — akindergarten with realization of physical and mental correction of allchildren.

It isnecessary to note, that in the system of modern preschool establishments thereis an insignificant number of the day nursery. The matter is that theconditions of education in a day nursery caused natural criticism on some ofteachers, psychologists, the doctors considering the small child leaving hisfamily characterized by heavy loading for his imperfect mentality. The analysisof parameters of development of children of early age, grown-up in a family,testifies, that half of them have deviations in physical health. Now scientificresearches are conducted with the purpose of development of model offamily-public education of children of early age in conditions of preschoolestablishment and family. Searching of new technologies of education ofchildren of preschool age is carried out. In preschool establishments groupswith a flexible operating mode are created. Therefore, first of all it isnecessary to reconsider and develop:

• the generalapproaches to the organization of educational process;

• the generalprinciples of construction of programs and techniques;

• the generalprinciples of selection and a professional training.

The central part of an educationsystem in the Russian Federation is the general secondary education which isprovided with average comprehensive schools, schools with the profound studyingseparate subjects, grammar schools, licea, evening schools, educationalestablishments such as the boarding schools, special schools for children withdeviations in physical and mental development, out-of-school educationalestablishments (children's musical and art schools, schools of arts, choral andchoreographic studios, folklore ensembles, sports schools, etc.). At schoolpupils can study for 9 or 11 years.

The main tasksof general educational establishments are to create favorable conditions forintellectual, moral, emotional and physical development of the person; topromote development of scientific outlook; to provide development of system ofknowledge of the nature, a society, the person, his work by pupils themselves;to generate receptions of independent activity.

2.2.3Middle professionaleducation

According to the Law of the RussianFederation «About education» the treatment of traditionally existingprofessional and average special formation is new. Now these both links areconsidered accordingly as initial and average vocational training. Initialvocational training has the purpose to prepare, as a rule, on the basis of the generaleducation (the basic school), qualified employees on all basic directions ofsocially useful activity. It can be received in technical training colleges andother types of educational institutions of the given level.

Middle professional education is focusedon preparation according to the basis of the basic general, average (full)general or initial professional training including. Middle professionaltraining can be received in a special educational institution (school, college)or in a higher educational institution at the first step of the higherprofessional education.

2.2.4High school

The higher school in Russia is themost dynamically developing part of the system of continuous education. It isincludes the following kinds of educational institutions: universities (thecenters of fundamental scientific researches and carry out preparation ofexperts on different structures), academies, institutes, conservatories, andthe higher professional schools. Reforming of high school is based on introductionof multistage preparation of specialists, which is realized under themaintenance, and terms of training by successive general educational programs.After the end of training on each of steps the graduate receives the diploma,which allows to be engaged in professional work or to proceed to the followingstage of formation. Such reorganization of higher education enables to satisfyneeds of the country for experts of a different skill level.

Reforms in domestic higher educationhave begun in 1992 with acceptance of the federal Law «Abouteducation». It has legalized concepts that are new to us: a bachelordegree, magistracy, and multilevel system. But, not breaking developed system,it has kept and has included new and old, one-stage system

The levels (orsteps) of higher education are determined s by the federal Law accepted in 1996«About the higher professional and postgraduate education ».According to it the higher education includes three steps:

— The firststep: the incomplete higher education with term of training 2 years;

— The secondstep: the basic higher education (bachelor degree) with term of training 4years;

— The third step — with it businessis more difficultly: the former model is attributed to " the diplomatedexpert " with term of preparation of 5 years and a new one is«master» with term of preparation of 6 years;

If a student wants to continuetraining on one of the programs of the third level he has a choice. If hedecides to receive qualification " the diplomated expert " it isnecessary to study 1 more year (under condition of concurrence of programsactually studying lasts 1 semester, further there is an independent work on thediploma). But the best way for the bachelor to improve his qualification is themagistracy. Studying there lasts 2 years and comes to the end after havingwriting a final master’s dissertation and, accordingly, getting of a degree ofmaster.

To all educational establishments theright to render additional educational services is given. Additional servicescan be paid if they fall outside the limits of obligatory educational work withstudents that are defined by the curriculum of establishment and the programaccepted for it as basic.

2.2.4 Privateand alternative educational establishments

Since 1991 inRussia it is authorized to open private educational establishments. The Charterof the Russian association of non-state education was accepted. For receptionof the sanction to opening of a private school (a kindergarten, university,etc.) which is given out in the Department of education, it is necessary topresent a package of obligatory documents (the concept of training andeducation, the program and the charter of an institution, data on structure ofpedagogical collective, the information on means for the maintenance ofestablishment). On an orientation and the maintenance of work privateeducational establishments can be divided into some types:

— Exclusive inwhich for very high payment high quality of formation is provided;

— For children who require specialconditions for studying and individual development, badly adapt, hardlytransfer a rigid regulation of their behaviour and activity, intensity of arhythm of educational establishment; gifted children for whom are necessary aspecial atmosphere for development and the special program of training.

The new tendency in development ofeducational system of Russia became an occurrence of the so-callednon-conventional teaching and educational establishments, alternative massschools, kindergartens. For non-conventional teaching and educationalestablishments such attributes, as specificity of the purposes and maintenancesof education are characteristic; freedom of choice of establishment of thecertain orientation; relative administrative independence; a special atmosphereand moral climate, promoting the best adaptation of the child, his multilateraldevelopment.


Educationinfluences all kinds of activity of the person. Having left school, one entersthe institute, others go to technical school, and the third do not actanywhere. It shows the certain filter in a choice of the further trade of theperson. Marking a special role of education in history of humanity, foreign andRussian scientists speak about discrepancy of a modern education system toobjective requirements of a present stage of social development. This stage,which came in second half of XX century, is characterized by serious, dynamicalchanges in various social and economic spheres. Because of the interest to theperson as to the factor of economic progress the question about humanisticeducations became more important. Progress in science, techniques, cultural andinformation revolutions transform education into the necessary attribute of adaily life.

Today it is possible to allocatethree basic tendencies in sphere of education in Russia: crisis of classicalmodel, creation of the experimental schools, alternative forms of training,integration into world culture: democratization of school, an establishment ofcommunication with the basic subjects of culture, creation of system ofcontinuous formation, humanization and computerization of education. The thirdtendency is the restoration and development of traditions of Russian school.


1. Днепров Э.Д.Современная реформа образования в России: исторические предпосылки,теоретические основания, этапы подготовки и реализации. А. дисс. … канд. пед.наук. Спб., 1994.

2. Козлова С.А.,Куликова Т.А. “Дошкольная педагогика”. Москва, “Academa” 2000г.

3. Журналы“Дошкольное воспитание” №№ 5, 12 1997г., № 2 1998г., № 7 2000г.

4. Журналы “Вестникобразования” № 9 1998г., № 14 2000г.

5. Educationin the USSR / Kusin N. P. Moscow, 1972.

6. PhillipС. Slechty. “Schools for the 21st Century”. San Francisco, 1990.

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