Реферат: The basic features of translation informal lexicon




Discipline: «The English language»

«The basic features of translation informal lexicon»

Kyiv – 2009

The plan


1. Translation, as a specific kind of human activity

2. Methods, approaches and receptions which can be applied while translating informal lexicon

2.1 Methods, receptions and approaches of translation

2.2 Translational transformation and types of lexical transformations

2.3 Use euphemism while translating informal lexicon


The list of the used literature


During last decades especially intensive development in area translation is observed. Principal causes of this phenomenon are the certain gravitation of the world community to integration. Constantly there is an exchange of the got information (not at all levels, it is usual), cultural properties. The international conferences both with scientific, and on social questions are carried out. There is a vigorous exchange in the field of the film-industry. Though, probably, it would be more expedient to tell, that there is an intensive inflow of the western film-industry on our market. All this appreciably predetermines development translation, in fact any area whether sciences, whether cultures, whether a social life the understanding, adequacy demands the certain approach, on the part of speaking another language partners.

Very much frequently while translating the scientific, technical whether economic literature the translator encounters the certain realities which not to clear our reader and at all have no conformity in our language. In such cases of a task of the translator consists in that is whenever possible more exact, понятнееand more shortly to recreate them in our language. Certainly, not always it is possible to reach all at once – sometimes it is necessary to endow conciseness, managing in a descriptive explanation of this or that lexeme; sometimes it is necessary to replace simply their reality on such, that the certain measure перекликаетсяwith ours, has the common with ours of an attribute, thus deforming the certain measure the maintenance of the original.

Nevertheless, not beginning from all this the certain sides of translation remain poorly investigated. So, one of such problems is translation so-called «informal (not literary) lexicon» – oral colloquial lexicon which if it is used outside of sphere of informal dialogue of people, creates comic or ironical effect. The colloquial lexicon, as well as book, in informal dialogue can be common,reduced (popular speech) and to exist associal dialects .

Social dialects as L. Stavitska rebukes, it is the version of language used as means of dialogue between people, the connected close social or professional generality, i.e. it is language of the certain social group. Considerable the factor which causes occurrence of social dialects is social heterogeneity of a society which has various professional, and also century groups. The reason of occurrence of social dialects can be and social-class heterogeneity of a society [L. Stavitska, 2005: 20].

The most convenient in opinion Stavitska, there is such terminological – conceptual paradigm «social dialects»: jargon, professional jargon, slang , not normative lexicon [53, With 22]. And authors of the illustrated dictionary American slang M. Moskovtsev and S. Shevchenko in the definition of informal lexicon, except forslang and not normative lexicon, including the most rough and vulgar words and expressions, allocate alsoeuphemism s [34, C.25]. Popular speech, or the reduced (not normative) lexicon, characteristic for informal conversation, includes insulting, humiliating or swear words, and is mainly used in informal dialogue. It be rather relative covers forslang and slangs, and the greater attention concentrates on vulgarismsand depreciate to lexicon.

The use such gives a layer of lexicon speech of ironicalness and expressiveness, and recently starts to penetrate more and more to publicist, though and not to a semi-official organ.

Without knowledge of it to a layer of lexicon, on an idea of Century. Devkin’s, at investigated foreign language to do without very hardly. This lexicon represents powerful enough, absolute integral part of a lexicon [15, With 5]. Acquaintance to it necessary – to understand daily language to seize the important part regional geography to be able to decipher implied sense, witty expressions, the associative plan of statements what the good translator who aspires to pull together the reader to the author maximum cannot do without.

Therefore, very much frequently during translation of any literary work, a film, etc., having faced such foreign analogues, before the translator there is a question: how to transfer this or that word? How to recreate that or other expression? In fact, in most cases, the literal translation does not find exact display in language on which translation is carried out. And usual omission or unjustified mitigation vulgarisms, slangy words, or their replacement euphemismsvery much frequently damages translation through discrepancy of transfer of mood, emotions of the hero, to style of the author. Therefore, we adhere to idea which it is possible and sometimes it is necessary to shift the author's uses of such lexemes adequately.

The linguist – translator who deals with language in all its real variety, cannot shut eyes to that objectively exists. Which unadopted this lexicon would not be, it is and demands to itself attention. Any there ten words which cannot be used in the cultural society, known to everyone and their ignorance can lead to to serious funny things.

To receive the answer to the questions, the translator should be guided by the certain positions; there should be the certain scientific works devoted to a theme of translation slangy and informal lexicon (including), the certain parallel between such lexicon in language of the original and in language on which translation is carried out should be abusive. Insufficient amount of the works devoted to this theme, absence of the information in modern bilingual dictionaries about situations of the use of corresponding lexicon which in any measure complicates work of professional translators, and натолкнулаus on an idea to investigate this of a layer of lexicon, his{its} adequate reproduction in translation into the Ukrainian language.

If to base on classical literary works, it is possible to tell, that in the Ukrainian language there is no, so to say, «dirty a swear word». To tell the truth, in a program fragment from «Eneida» we read I. Kotljarevskogo: «…but malicious Yunona, the daughter of bitch…» [I. Kotljarevsky, t.1, an item 65]. The designated lexeme fixes «the Dictionary of the Ukrainian language» with a mark «abusive». It gives us the basis to not consider similar words «dirty a swear word» though in such context they have strong emotional painting.

As to the present the slangy and not normative lexicon, even more often appears in literary works of young Ukrainian writers, such as Oksana Zabuzhko, Jury Andruhovich, Irena Karpa where we can find rather realistic reproduction of an alive spoken language. Probably, in them there are those words and expressions which are perceived as «dirty a swear word», but there is no yet a unequivocal estimation of critics and public idea in this occasion.

The given lexicon can serve for emotional discharge. Expansion of sphere of action of a slang, a slangand not normative lexicon, their aggressive universal distribution should not only cause anxiety apologist morals but also as the phenomenon mass, it should predispose to itself attention of linguists, culturologists, sociologists. That is in language, should be collected and described. It is impossible to object objectively available! The task – to explain it.

In English there are linguistic works which shine this theme in different aspects. So, known works of such leading linguists, as Richard A. Spiers «The Dictionary American slang», Stirling Johnson «English as a Second F*cking Language», Stefan Marder«Additional Russian-English the Dictionary», Harold Uentuort and Stuard Fleksner«Dictionary of American Slang», etc.

On a material of the Ukrainian language linguists of Institute of the Ukrainian language were engaged in it this theme. O. Potebni. This lexicon on lexicographic a level G. Sagach in work «investigated Emotional suffixes of nouns in modern Ukrainian language». Lesya Stavitskain the monography of changes the Ukrainian language «the Slang, a slang. «Social differentiation the Ukrainian language» treats the basic jargon (criminal, youth, professional slangs) as phenomena, which structure language pictures of the world. In work is showen functioning of the Ukrainian colloquial lexicon and national – language aspects modern using of slang, and also a role of slang in a language life of the Ukrainian city.

Thus, the theme of slang lexicon, and especially not normative, abusive lexicon andtype, in English and the more so in the Ukrainian language at present poorly investigated, and in translational aspect also was not analyzed at all.

In the given work as us research of expressively-emotional lexicon of oral informal conversation – informal lexicon which presently is one of the most interesting for research of language systems of modern linguistics is offered: argo, jargon, professional jargonand slang.

Proceeding from this,the purpose of the given work is :

· Upholdingthe assumption, that informal (colloquial, nonliterary) lexicon – the phenomenoninlanguageindependentand such lexicon should consider inmodern knowing language precisely a separate category.

· Illuminationof somethe problems connected to existence of such phenomenon as informal lexicon.

· Researchof classification and feature of translation of such lexicon.

· The analysis of features of translationslanglexiconwhichmeetsinproductsof the modern English literature and publicistic texts.

For achievement of this purpose we put before themselvesthe following problems of the suggested work:

· Definitionof sphere of existence of informal lexicon.

· Researchof functioning of such lexicon as systems.

· Trackingsources of its occurrence.

· Researchof itsdivisioninto versions andinvestigationof features and problemswhicharise during translation of such lexicon.

In research workthe following methods have been used: describably-analytical and statistical methods, the descriptive, comparative analysis, a method of continuous sample.

Theoretical value of the given work consists that:

· Comparative research of the above-stated lexical subsystems in English and Ukrainian languages is carried out.

· Attempt to developuniformcriteria of classification of the English and Ukrainian informal lexicon behinddifferentaspects and features of its translationis carried out.

· Differentmethods and approaches while translating informal lexicon from the English language on Ukrainian are considered.

Practical value of work:

· The offeredmaterials on slang (youth,office,professional,political, mass-media, computer).

· Definitionof the most expedient methods and receptions while translating informal lexicon from the English language on Ukrainian.

· The conclusionanglo-ukrainianthe dictionaryof the most popular words and expressions of English slang.

The given works allow to expand knowledge of stylistic and grammatic features of translation of informal lexicon.

The basicsources which were used for a spelling of our work, were lexicographic editions (sensible and bilingual dictionaries, dictionaries of terms) and materials from the Internet. We used also works of above-stated linguists Richard of A.L. Spersa «the Dictionary American slang», Stirling Johnson «English as a Second F*cking Language», Stefan Marder» Additional Russian-english the Dictionary», Harold Uentuorta and Steward Flacksner «Dictionary of American Slang», M. Moskovtseva and S. Shevchenko «Is illustrated the dictionary American slangs», Lesya Stavytska» the Ukrainian slang. The dictionary» and the monography «the Slang, a slang. Social differentiation of the Ukrainian language», T. Kondratyuk «the Dictionary of modern Ukrainian slang», L. Zharkovo's scientific work «Emotional – estimated lexicon of modern Ukrainian language the/general names of persons /», etc. We were the used works from the theory of translation of such linguists as Z. Lvovska, Century. Komisarov, O. Schweitzer, I. Galper_n, V. Zhirmunsky, V. Homjakov, V. Krupnov, etc. Addressed to fiction of mainly modern English and Ukrainian writers and to periodicals.

In work the general theoretical problems of translation are considered, in particular, translation as a specific kind of human activity, is considered translational aspect of informal lexicon: methods, approaches and receptions which can be applied while translating emotionally painted expressions of colloquial lexicon.

As addition serves english-ukrainianthe dictionary of the most popular words and expressions American slangwhich of dictionaries of modern Ukrainian slangfound similar Ukrainian slangimisms, that include approximately sameexpressivity. The dictionary also contains the information on situations of the use corresponding slangimism in modern products of the English literature.

1. Translation as a specific kind of human activity

As the theme elected by us rather specific and to us was not possible to find the scientific researches devoted especially of translation of informal lexicon, we have addressed to the general{common} theories of translating.

There are some approaches to a technique of translation.

So, A. Fedorov in the linguistic sketch «Bases of the general theory of translation» considerstwo basic directions in the decision of problems of translating, such as grammatic questions of translation. Also it considers features of translation of different styles of language where rather in details submits the linguistic questions connected to interpretation of texts of fiction.

Interesting to us there was that idea which while translating of slang and popular speech (and all these concern to informal lexicon above the specified categories) the translator should recreate them on same stylistic equal, not managing {not going right} to replacement by literarier, book words and expressions. The author marks: «…if in translation which recreates dialecticisms, some elements of the original, at infringement of an author's plan are supposed especially literary words or word-combinations the last brings to nothing all efforts on reproduction of stylistic painting the original, destroys impression about integrity» [A. Fedorov: C.318]. Also A. Fedorov considers, that though both in practice, and in the theory while translating special attention it is given lexicon, not smaller value can get grammatical means that are capable to recreate stylistic painting of informal lexicon, in particular suffixes of value judgment, syntactic shifts and т.п.

V. Komisarov in work «the Word about translation» offers other approach to problems I shall translate and results some theories which, in our opinion, cover a number of problems which arise while translating more full. Advantage is that the author considers a question of translating not only in language aspect, and puts forward the theories connected to communicative function. Useful there is that last approach can be applied and in relation to informal lexicon as it frequently appears in direct language and carries out directly communicative function.

Pragmatically aspects of translation are shined also with O. Schweitzer in the book «the Theory of translation: the status, problems, aspects». Interesting its research concerning equivalence and adequacy of translation which explain translation process and possible criteria of its estimation as result.

Rather successful approach to classification of models of translation, in our opinion, offers Z. Lvovska in work «Theoretical problems of translation». Being guided by a principle of communication between language values and the maintenance of activity, the author divides all existing theories of translation on two basic types: language and communicative, thus an accessory of some theories to so-called transitive cases [30, C.43].

As the informal, colloquial lexicon represents that layer of lexicon which is directly connected to human dialogue, we would like to stop more in details first of all on communicative models of translation. To Z. Lvovska's this category carries the theory of dynamic equivalence and the theory of levels of equivalence.

The author counts main principle of the theory of equivalence idea of the functional contents of the initial message which is defined by communicative installation of the author of the original [30, With 66]. On the basis of this idea the author makes a line of conclusions, namely, necessity to take into account «person» of the author of the original as its communicative installation is a category subjective. So, the problem of the translator will be to understand and keep in the text of translation this communicative installation, and it is possible only under condition of a parity of value of the text or the statement with language a situation. Also this idea provides functional equivalence of the text of translation to the text of the original which is defined not on the basis of formal conformity of texts, and on the basis of reaction of the speaking another language addressee. I.e., in the text of translation reaction of the addressee has as to answer communicative installation of the sender, as well as in the text of the original (30, With 67).

Taking into account that not normative lexicon carries on itself precise expressively-emotional mark, the theory of dynamic equivalence is given out to us rather successful for application of it while translating texts which contain words and expressions of lexicon of informal dialogue. In fact, as marks Z. Lvovska, the dynamic model of translation includes a line of structural, semantic and stylistic – functionally-stylistic restrictions which narrow a choice and define a direction of translational transformations. And among these restrictions first of all it is necessary to note expressive characteristics of the text of the original, its stylistic features, rate of the use of this or that lexical unit in language of translation within the limits of corresponding style and etc.

Other theory of communicative models of translation is the theory of levels of the equivalence, for the first time the offered V. Komisarov, Z. Lvovska, having processed this theory on a material of the Spanish language, gives its more brief description. We shall result substantive provisions and we shall try to determine expediency of application of the specified theory for text translation in English where not normative lexicon is used.

The theory of levels of equivalence is based on idea that the plan of the maintenance language products has the «multilayered» structure. In it is possible to allocate the certain levels and to establish between them hierarchical communications. The top level – the purpose of the communications, which is put by the author in language product. The trace go four equal, that submit each other and the purposes of the communications:

· A level of the description of a situation (the information on material and ideal objects of the validity and communication between them);

· A level (structures)the message(a choice of one of possible synonymic ways of the description of a situation of the validity);

· A level of the statement (a linear number{line}ina special way of the selected signswhichare united by any rules and settle downinthe certain order) and

· A levelof languagesigns (words).

Process of translational activity according to the given theory occurs the following grade. At an analysis stage of the statement of the original the translator passes a way from below upwards (from signs up to the purpose of the communications, consistently finding out all levels of the maintenance). At a stage of synthesis of the statement language of translation «the translator passes all hierarchy of levels in the returnable order, consistently checking, whether defines unequivocally each level of the maintenancea final variant of translation» [30, With 69]. If it appears, that any level demands the obligatory use of the certain forms, the translator selects a variant language of translation, so to say, irrespective of the original.

Nevertheless we count, that in some cases this theory can be not absolutely expedient. The purpose of the use of the reduced lexicon, as usual, is statements of the negative attitude of the sender to the addressee or its prompting to any actions which in itself does not represent a problem for judgement. All we need is only as much as possible adequately to choose the lexical form of transfer of this purpose in the text of translation. Taking into account that in that case this problem has semantic character more likely, we count what to achieve it is possible, having executed not such difficult translational transformations. For example, application of translational lexical changes of the general type can be effective enough in that case.

So, as it is seen, while translating informal lexicon it is possible to apply both linguistic, and communicative methods of translation, but it is necessary to use the most rational methods. If on equal judgments of the purpose of the statement there are no problems, we count not obligatory application of such difficult methods, as a method of levels of equivalence. It is enough to apply simple translational receptions, for example, such, as the deputy.

2. Methods, approaches and receptions which can be applied while translating informal lexicon

2.1 Methods, receptions and approaches of translation

Fast development of information technologies and means of the communications allow to speak today about processes of globalization in the world community. It, on the one hand, results in unification and standardization of world cultures, and on the other hand, raises consciousness of some representatives of national cultures, deduces on the first place desire to keep specificity and features of the culture at respect for representatives of other cultures and clever acceptance of most these cultures.

The role of the translator of fiction – as link in amongcultural communications grows. On shoulders of the translator ложитсяthe responsibility for adequate transfer of the art text. Art «to inform the author» to the reader consists now not only in skill to transfer the text without infringement of usual norms of language on which translation is carried out, but also at the maximal reflection of cultural (mental) features of language of the original.

Translators on the experience know, how it is hard to recreate precisely other time the semantic contents as separate word-combination and all idea.

Not casually, K. Chukovsky rebukes, which before to undertake translation of any foreign author, the translator should establish precisely for itself style of this author, system of his images [61, C.146]. Only in case of a correct choice of a way of translation, being based on the detailed analysis of stylistic receptions of the author in comparison to possible receptions in language of translation, the translator can more all exact transfer that degree of influence which feels the native speaker at reading the original text. Only in this case it is possible to speak about qualitative translation.

The estimation of translation quality can conduct with the greater or smaller degree of detailed elaboration, emphasizes V. Komysarov, speaking about types of translation in the work «The Theory of translation». In his{its} opinion, for a general characteristic of results of translational process it is necessary to use such terms as«adequate translation» ,«equivalent translation», «exact translation», «literal translation» and «free translation» [25, C.233].

Adequate translation, into V. Komysarova's idea, translation which provides pragmatically problems of the translational certificate on greatest possible for achievement of this purpose equal equivalence refers to, not supposing infringement of norms of the use of words and their forms which was fixed in language of translation, adhering to tasks – stylistic requirements to texts of the given type and answering socially – the recognized conventional norm of translation. In not strict use «adequate translation» is a «beautiful» translation which justifies expectation and hopes of the person which carries out an estimation of translation quality.

V. Komysarov'sequivalent translation names translation which recreates the contents of the speaking another language original on one levels of equivalence. Under the contents of the original there is an information which is transferred, switching as subject – logic, and simple value of language units which make the text of the original, and also pragmatically potential of the text. By definition any adequate translation, counts V. Komysarov, should be equivalent (on this or that equal equivalence), but not any equivalent translation admits adequate, and what answers, except for norm of equivalence, and to other normative requirements which have been mentioned above.

The following kind of translation of V. Komysarov namesexact translation, i.e. translation in which it is equivalent reproduced only subject – logic part of the maintenance{contents} of the original at possible{probable} deviations{rejections} from janr-stylistic norm and usual (usual) rules of the use of language of translation. Exact translation can be recognized adequate if the problem of translation is reduced to transfer of the actual information on the surrounding world. Equivalent translation always should be exact, and exact translation by definition only in part equivalent.

Forexact transfer of informal lexicon of a subject – logic part of the text of the original some translators useslang and ephymysms, but thus reduce expressivety and abusiveness of phraseology. However doubtless plus of a similar way of translation is «adaptation» of the text for reading by different century groups or people which essentially do not read the literature which contains the reduced lexicon. At the same time a question on similar «advantage» of exact translation disputable. Among researchers there is an idea which through similar translational transformations the reader judges any more the product, and about its translation. So, K. Chukovsky wrote:» the Translator on the author gives out a self-made mask and this mask for its alive person " [61, C.19].

In some cases incompetence of the translator results in a literal translation of the reduced phraseology. V. Komisarov'sliteral translation names translation which recreates comunicative – formal elements of the original therefore or norms of language of the original text rise, or there is deformed (not handed) a valid contents of the original. «More often amusing examples of a literal translation meet at attempt to translate the text the help of electronic programs – translators» [25, C.235].

Bookwritter, as V. Krupnov rebukes, considers, that accuracy in translation is reached{achieved} due to literal transfer of all lexical and grammatic details of the text, it is frequent is declined before language of the original, forgetting about such psycholinguistic concepts, as norms of the use in language of these or those lexical units, idiomatic character of language (especially oral), language traditions which have developed during a history of development of any language [V. Krupnov http: // www.].

V. Komysarov names a principal cause of use of a literal translation desire to recreate semantic elements of higher level of equivalence, not having provided transfer of the contents at the previous levels. In such cases the literal translation can be accompanied by explanations or adequate translation which opens the sincere contents of the original.

But concerning informal lexicon to which a plenty slangs concerns, received by reconsideration of value of neutral lexicon, «literal» translation is caused to ignorances by the translator of slang word meaning more often:

Translation which is executed on lower equal equivalence refers toas free translation. Free translation can be recognized adequate if it meets other normative requirements of translation and not connected with the important losses in transfer of the contents of the original [25, C.235]. But here V. Komyarov, rebukes, which more serious deviations from the contents of the original make free translation nonequivalent and inadequate, transforming it in «retelling» or the independent statement on a theme of the original. And, as V. Krupnov in the work «In creative laboratory of the translator» rebukes, some separate translators who stand on positions of adherents of free translation, show attempts to ignore a gain of the translational theory and practice which, by V. Koptyova's entirely fair words, «all this V. Krupnov http: // www.] should result the translator in language negligence and slovenliness of style» [.

«Free translation, – writes V. Koptyov, – becomes the extremely aggressive and in the theory. Anything strange in it is not present. Theoretical reasons and requirements seem to new people which came in translation, any «sophistications crafty», attempts to throw лассоon a unrestrained mustang named Talent» [26].

2.2 Translational transformation and types of lexical transformations

V. Komysarov's translational transformation names transformation with which help it is possible to carry out transition from units of the original to units of translation in the specified contents. As translational transformations are carried out with language units which have both the plan of the contents, and the plan of expression, they have formal – semantic character, transforming both the form, and value of initial units [25, C.172].

Within the framework of the description of translation process, on V. Komysarova's idea, translational transformations are considered not in the static plan as means of the analysis of relations between units of the source language and their dictionary conformity, and in the plan dynamic as ways of translation which the translator while translating different originals can use when dictionary conformity absent or cannot be used on conditions of a context.

The basic types of lexical transformations on V. Komysarov is:

· Translational transcription and a transliteration,

· Tracing, lexic-semantic replacements (a concrete definition, generalization, modulation).

To V. Komysarov's the most widespread grammatic transformations carries:

· Syntactic likening(literal translation),

· Partitioningthe offer,associationof offers,

· Grammatic replacements (forms of a word, a part of speech ora sentence part).

As the object of our research is in the greater measure the lexical side of a spoken language in the work we do not consider grammatical kinds of transformations.

2.3 Use euphemism while translating informal lexicon

Frankness is capable to force to feel the person confusion, and sometimes and to shock, even if in it there is no also a hint on roughness, a swear word or a sneer.

«Simplicity – is worse than larceny» – is told about it!» [G. Moskovtsev 2005: 25].

That similar to avoid, that all felt like comfortably, use euphemism. These are softened, protected by a shade politeness words and expressions which give to express, tell the truth, having avoided undesirable expression or a word.

The word «euphemism» is familiarly far from being to everyone, but use euphemism all is universal.

«Euphemism is softened, more polite form which replaces a direct word which not always and not everywhere comprehensible and pleasant. In the English language euphemism– very much frequently simple reduction from strong expression. It is always perceived as less obvious, less rough hint, but usual value his{its} standard and it is known to all» [34, C.25].

To tell the truth, under «everyone» to whom value euphemism known, here toil on attention only really knowing language, i.e. its carriers. Those foreigners who have taught formal and daily language, in polite speaking another language expressions, not so confident. Having heard unfamiliar term, they are inclined to ask again: «Excuse, what means?» The situation comic, in fact also means that do not want to name directly. These foreigners (in particular – we in America) [M. Moskovtsev 2005: 25] rough and obtuse also look.

Euphemism are usually used in situations when it is necessary to be especially delicate: with people unfamiliar, old age (they frequently conservative), at women, children, the heads, etc. With the (on a floor, age, the social status) and adherents to communicate always it is easier. Especially freely we feel like in a circle of old friends or close relatives, therefore them and we love (or on the contrary). Strong expressions should be used only then in the another's country when of it you will grow fond, you will feel there yourself, clear and understanding others.

In general euphemism there is a set and they are used from time immemorial.

Especially widely euphemismare used in language of advertising, in slang and in a professional slang (shop talk – conversation on professional, business, service themes (in a time off)).

For the translator it is very important to know about features of the use euphemism in language correctly to estimate a role of implied sense, it is especial while translating publicist materials or fiction.

As a result of distribution and influences of mass media and different psychological levers on language presently construckting type euphemism will intensively penetrate into all spheres colloquial and a literary language. Were especially strongly distributed tendencies in the English language in the USA where advertising and business really without any restriction «break» language on the order. Not surprisingly because some American linguists even suggest to distinguish two languages: «language of the facts»(fact language) and «language of ideas»(іdea language) .

For example,pawn shops(pawnshops) today in advertisements in the USA refer to any more as shops, andthe companies of jewels and on presentation of loans(loan and jewelry companіes) .The guitarist(guіtarіst) prefers to name itself not the guitarist, andthe artist on a sound recording(recordіng artіst; entertaіner) ;the singer(sіnger), known only on performances{statements} in a number of local or private clubs, offering{suggesting} the " services, for example, to theatre, speaks about itself as about the performer(showman, entertaіner, performer) .

Before motor vehicles which many years used, in the USA simply referred toused cars orsecond-hand cars, however now businessmanswhich are engaged in resale of motor vehicles, even more often advertise old motor vehicles not as such, thatwere used earlier (used cars), and as motor vehicles whichwere in possession (pre-owned cars) earlier.

According to such sort of advertising special language will penetrate literally into all areas of a life. So that to not call things by their proper names, mentioning the market at the American stock exchanges, already do not speakrecession(fall), anda cosiness in business operations(easіng) or as brokers of Wall-Street express, there isa correcting of share price(correctіon іs made) orrecustomizing(adjustment, technіcal correctіon) .

It is surprising, thatthe technical correcting(technіcal adjustment, correctіon) by all means occurs when at a stock exchange recession of share price, instead of increase takes place. In order to prevent words, which draw aggravating picture of a pledge of capitalist economy to not use such, say, concept as,' chronic inflation ' – (chronіc іnflatіon ), some economists «correct» the pledge economic has put simply by application of a euphemism – synonym for a wordinflationgradual іncrease іn prіces and wagesa gradual rise in prices and salaries .

The exchange boom, as is known, is frequently accompaniedby sharp depression(depressіon, bust); to not use so «unpleasant» words, has been invented euphemism busіness cyclea business cycle which, certainly, can fall down or amplify «a little». Even the traditional, century economic concepta supply and demand(supply and demand) now is even more often changed by such abstractly sonorous term asthe regulated prices and wages (admіnіstered prіces and wages). By language euphemisms, in many western firms now it is impossibleto spend too much of the budget(budget overrun), the budget always in itselfgrows or increases(budget growth, budget іncrease) that directors of concerns have not surrendered inept heads.

Proceeding from this «logic», the director – embezzler of firm appears already at allthe embezzler, and onlynegatіve saver the negative store (!) of money .Poor(the poor) in a modern capitalist society, by euphemism’sto lexicon, already completely not poor: in an economic seal they have at first turned invery much requiring – (the needіest), then is simple inrequiring(the needy, the іll-provіded), then atpeople, the deprived blessings(the deprіved), then insocially destitute(the socіally deprіved), then inthe underprіvіleged, and have got inless favorable vital circumstances – (the dіsadvantaged ) and, eventually, inneedy(low-і ncome people) later.

There are stable euphemism, and are depending on situations. If constant is a constant synonym of the certain concept situational depends on the contents which at it is put or a context in which it is used.

It is possible to allocate also types euphemism behind features of construction. Is one-worded – synonyms – «features –crafty », is two-worded and an adjective –«evil spirit». So…it is possible to specify all:

· euphemism the edition(and here and there ispesialise) understandis rather narrow

· euphemism are asstable, so isituative

Not alwayseuphemism it is unequivocally defined without further explanations on the part of the author(speaking)

· Be expressed euphemism can as in a word, so is the offer

· Unfairly bypass atlanguageabout euphemism

· Atwanting, it is possible to buildwholeeuphemism lines behind an attributecloselinestoexchangedwords

· tabolose the value i frequently themchangers – euphemism are usedsimply assynonyms.

· Anywork of artpractically impossiblewithout use euphemism becausethey became a partliterary and traditionally without them as withoutsynonyms, metaphors, allegories it is impossible. That more, that euphemism can be assynonym, so a metaphor and allegory.


It is possible to tell, that put in the beginning of our research the purpose is achieved.

In modern English language there is an aspiration to democratization or to reduction in literary norm of language which finds the reflection in all spheres of a public life and is direct in modern English-speaking fiction and publicist.

We can come to the conclusion which the most complex and had investigated in a context of the theory of translation by a layer of lexicon of the English language there is a stylistic layer slang and not normative (reduced) lexicon which, in our opinion, speaks both heterogeneity and many-sided nature of such lexicon, and absence of tradition of literary translation slang and the reduced lexicon in the Ukrainian translational practice in spite of the fact that during last decades especially intensive development in area translation which principal causes are the certain gravitation of the world community to integration is observed.

Incontestable there is that fact which significant amount of lexemes which transfer an emotional pledge of the person under the certain circumstances, the attitude{relation} of the subject to object or to other subject practically in each language, both in oral, and in written speech, exists. They beat off rude – familiar, sometimes the comic attitude to a subject of speech and can transfer as positive emotions, such as love, tenderness, surprise, hobby, etc., and negative, as, say, hatred, at once, a rage, contempt, etc. Such layer of lexicon is considered informal and it is used mainly in conditions of easy dialogue.

As we did not manage to find scientific works in which the theme of translation of especially informal lexicon would full and deeply be considered, we addressed to dictionaries of linguistic terms, to an explanatory dictionary of the Ukrainian language and to modern dictionaries of Ukrainian slang and the Ukrainian slang, to dictionaries American and English slang, to Russian-English and English-Russian dictionaries which cover slangy and slang lexicon.

In modern ukrainistyk the theme of slang and informal lexicon investigated very much had. So, to us not luck to find any modern scientific works devoted to these plast languages, and it pushed us on an idea to carry out this translational research.

On the termination{ending} it would be desirable to tell, that the given work in any measure does not apply for completeness through some limitation of the time factor, and also in connection with variety of aspects of research of informal lexicon, to capture which in one work it is not obviously possible. To one of prospects of the further research could become more detailed analysis of features of translation of informal lexicon.

The list of the used literature

1. Английско-русский словарь. М., «Русский язык», 1988.

2. Аракин В.Д., Выгодская З.С., Ильина Н.Н. Англо-русский словарь: Ок. 36000 слов – 13‑е изд., стереотип., М.: Рус. яз., 1991.

3. Ахманова О.С. «Словарь лингвистических терминов». М.: Советская энциклопедия, 1966.

4. Ахманова О.С., Уилсон Е.А.М. Англо-русский словарь: 20000 слов – 30‑е изд., стереотип., М.: Рус. яз., 1985.

5. БАРС 1972: Гальперин И. Р. «Большой англо-русский словарь» под ред. в 2‑х т. М., «Сов. Энциклопедия», 1972.

6. Берков. В. О словарных переводах. «Мастерство перевода», М., «Сов. писатель», 1971.

7. БСРЖ 2000: Мокренко В. М., Микитина Т. Г. «Большой словар руського жаргона». СПб., «Норинт», 2000.

8. В. Крупнов http: Крупнов В. Н. «В творческой лаборатории переводчика» sch-yuri.by.ru/transltn/krupnov.htm#9

9. Галь Нора. «Слово живое и мертвое. Из опыта переводчика и редактора». М., «Книга», 1987

10. Гальперин И. Р. «Очерки по стилистике английского языка». М., «Издательство литературы на иностранных языках», 1958

11. Гальперин И.Р. «Стилистика английского язика». М., «Высшая школа», 1981.

12. Ганич Д. І., Олійник І. С. Словник лінгвістичних термінів. К., «Вища школа», 1985.

13. Ганич Д. І., Олійник І. С. Русско-украинский и украинско-русский словарь. К., «Радянська школа», 1984.

14. Горбач О. Зібрані статті 1. Арґо на Україні. – Мюнхен, 1993. – 327 с.

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