Реферат: System of education of Great Britain
1. System of education of Great Britain (simplified circuit of education of Great Britain)
Initial school education 5-12 years preparatory schools 5-7 years of elementary schools, 7-12 years of a day time type (private(individual) and state) or boarding-schools (as a rule, private(individual)); schools for the boys, school for the girls, school of joint training Average school education 11-18 years. Five obligatory classes for reception of the certificate GCSE:
— Various schools and colleges of a day time type or boarding-schools (private (individual) and state);
— School for the boys, school for the girls, school of joint training;
— Certificate GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) — analogue of the Russian school-leaving certificate; the further education — not necessarily Sixth class 1-2 academic years for reception of the certificate GCE — A Level (General Certificate of Education Advanced Level) or preparatory rates 16-18 years various schools and colleges of a day time type or boarding-schools (private (individual) and state);
— School for the boys, school for the girls, school of joint training; the certificate GCE — A Level or diploma about the termination (ending) of preparatory rates — necessary condition for receipt in high school the Further education 2-year's training in private(individual) or state college or institute on one of academic or professional specialties;
— Reception of the maximum national diploma — HND (Higher National Diploma) Maximum education 3-4 years training on day time branch of college, polytechnic institute or university on one of the academic or professional programs;
— Reception of a degree of the bachelor Maximum education 1-2 years of study on day time branch of polytechnic institute or university, including training or research job and protection of the diploma;
— Reception of a degree of the Foreman Maximum education 1-3 years of independent research job at university under the direction of the professors, protection of the dissertation;
— Reception of a degree of the doctor.
However highly the British education in the world, nevertheless in middle fifties was appreciated. The government of Great Britain has begun reform
All system, from an elementary school up to high school. Completely this reform is not completed and to this day. In result today in the country some types of high schools peacefully coexist, for example. The base educational minimum is legislatively fixed which should be given by (with) any school is not dependent on a type and programs of training. Obligatory secondary education (children also is study till 15-16 of years), and this obligatory education — free-of-charge. The graduates of high schools pass examinations and, as well as our Russian schoolboys, receive first in life the certificate — GCSE, however as against the Russian analogue GCSE does not give the right to act in high schools. After that the young people appear before a choice — either to look for job, or to continue to study.
The old system of high schools was saved in some areas of a countryside. Here after termination (ending) an elementary school by results of test.
Examinations children are distributed (allocated) for three types of high schools — most capable act in special school, others direct or to technical schools, or in modern school. At average technical schools is given general educational, general technical and initial professional training. The modern school was so is named because in the base program of training there were no ancient languages (Latin and ancient Greek), were taught only modern. At these schools the usual secondary education is given, but the significant part of the program is made by (with) practical employment (occupations). At once after leaving school the graduates basically act on job.
The reorganization of high school has resulted that in large cities the complex schools for children from 11 till 18 years have appeared. About it will be in detail told in the chapter devoted high school. High school finishing by examinations GCSE, — five years. Those who is going to further to act in high school, should end the sixth class and pass examination on the certificate GCE — A Level – general (common) certificate on the profound educational level. If to compare our system of education to English, the certificate GCE — A Level actually corresponds (meets) to the document on the termination (ending) of preparatory rates of high school, in which you are going to act. The terms " the sixth class" and «the programs of an And — level» are in Great Britain nominal and designate the various programs and rates conducting to reception GCE — A Level. For receipt in high schools in Great Britain besides schools there are colleges of the sixth class, younger biennial colleges and it is simple colleges, in which teach not only general educational subjects of the sixth class, but also professional disciplines.
After the certificate GCE — A Level is received, before the young people the further and maximum education is open. The term «maximum education» concerns to the programs, which purpose — award of a degree of the bachelor, foreman or doctor. " The Further education " of an academic degree does not give, it, as a rule, professional training. The rate of the «further» training is finished by examinations and reception of the maximum national diploma HND. In the field of vocational training the diplomas given by one of three professional committees are most appreciated: CGLI (City and Guilds of London Institute), RSA (Royal Society of Arts), BTEC (Business and Technical Education Council). Many colleges and institutes are authorized to give out the diplomas on behalf of one of these three committees. Other educational institutions give out or own diplomas and certificates, or diplomas of other examination committees.
The diploma HND is important for receiving by the one who is going to at once to begin job on the elected specialty and is not going to be protected on a degree of the bachelor. From the point of view of professional career, this diploma allows to advance on a service within the limits of the average technical or younger administrative board of firm. Besides having this diploma, it is possible to enter university (if all the same are convinced of necessity of maximum education), and to begin training at once from the second rate. Maximum education the Englishmen receive in colleges, polytechnic institutes and universities. After 3-4 years of study on day time branch the youth receives a degree of the bachelor. Having this degree, it is possible to count on a good post in a non-production part or average administrative board private(individual) or state-owned firm, at the industrial enterprise, or to open own private(individual) practice (for doctors and lawyers).
The degree of the bachelor suffices for some trades, and further education it is not required. But for the majority of specialties the degree of the foreman opens much more opportunities. For example, having the bachelor's degree of medicine, it is possible to work in clinic or to have small private (individual) practice. But to head branch in any hospital or even the whole clinic, the diploma of the foreman is necessary for expansion of private (individual) practice.
The degree of the foreman approximately corresponds (meets) to our diploma about maximum education, and degree of the doctor — degree of the candidate of sciences in Russia. The equivalent of a degree of the doctor of sciences in Great Britain does not exist. There is a number (line) of general (common) important features, characteristic for all universities. All of them appropriate (give) own degrees. Everyone have the identical requirements at reception on training under the program of the bachelor. The large universities such as London inside themselves are subdivided into colleges. These colleges are a part of university and give education on the certain specialty. Separately in structure of university the colleges specializing on preparation of the entrants to receipt on the basic programs (faculties) of university, improvement of professional skill of the experts, teaching of English language for the foreigners are allocated. The small universities are subdivided into faculties, and the name of colleges is appropriated (given) to preparatory branches and language rates of the large universities. Polytechnic institutes. The system of polytechnic institutes works in parallel university. Under the status all institutes are independent educational corporations. They appropriate (give) the diplomas and degrees on its own behalf or on behalf of the national authorized Advice (council) CNAA. On many parameters these institutes are very similar to universities, but have a number (line) of differences. Most important: in polytechnic institute it is possible to study wider spectrum of rates, than it is necessary on the chosen specialty. The second feature is the semi-annual or annual course job on a specialty which is carried out in one of the commercial or industrial companies. As well as university, the polytechnic institute gives education under the program of the bachelor, and then foreman and doctor. Recently some of polytechnic institutes were renamed into universities, but the features of training in them were saved.
Colleges of maximum education. It is the third variant of reception of maximum education in Great Britain. The colleges award nationally the recognized degrees and diplomas both on academic, and on professional disciplines. The graduates of colleges receive the maximum national diploma HND or degree of the bachelor, and the diplomas are awarded after each successfully finished program. The colleges seldom have rates under the program of the foreman and practically never are engaged in preparation of the students under the program of a scientific degree of the doctor of philosophy. Many colleges have special preparatory rates, at which successful termination (ending) the graduates are enlisted without examinations and competition for the further training under the program of the bachelor in polytechnic institutes and universities.
In Great Britain 30.000 comprehensive schools and 2300 – private (individual), named «independent sector» work. The majority of comprehensive schools (from 60 up to 90%) — mixed. The private schools work as mixed basically for the younger schoolboys, the training in the senior classes is conducted separately. In comprehensive schools children study, as a rule, complete day, the educational week makes 5 days. In England and Wales the school year proceeds since September till July. In Scotland — from middle of August till the end of June, in Northern Ireland — since September till July. The academic year is divided (shared) into three terms for 13 weeks everyone.
To go in school to children 2-4 years in England and Wales it is absolutely not necessary. Moreover, the parents and prefer to give back them in children's gardens having programs of preschool preparation, or in private (individual) groups organized frequently by parents. There are also special commercial groups, in which children train on the special techniques, for example on a method Montessori. In Ireland the system kindergarten of preschool education is not so advanced. Probably, therefore per 4 years in school is sent much more than children, than in other parts of Britain.
The obligatory education begins in England, Wales and Scotland — per 5 years, in Northern Ireland — per 4 years. Per 11 years in all parts of Great Britain children pass in high school (except for Scotland, where children translate per 12 years).
The elementary schools are different. Irrespective of a type of school the schoolboys should pass an obligatory base rate of an elementary school, thus the administration has the right independently to decide(solve), what subjects, in what volume and in what class are studied, under what manuals and techniques the teaching is conducted. A natural consequence is that fact, that learned for the certain period by the schoolboys of different schools the educational material does not coincide.
Now there are four types of high schools.
In Municipal technological colleges (MTC) most gifted children act, from which prepare the experts of a high class in the field of modern technologies and business; in 1992 of such colleges was only 14. MTC — the special educational institutions, in which are taught obligatory subjects of a general (common) cycle, but.
The most serious attention is given to teaching of subjects having the attitude (relation) to modern business, especially information technologies. To technological college can turn and usual school, if she is located, for example, in a countryside or industrial town, where the demand is much higher the experts, than on the graduate without special knowledge. The most part of financing of technological colleges gradually will be undertaken by (with) local business concerns. The majority of children (90%) England, the Wales and Scotland visit (attend) comprehensive schools. It is explained by that in these schools accept all children irrespective of abilities and train in all subjects, which enter into a base rate of high school. It is analogue of our usual regional schools without the profound study of subjects. From here teenagers who have reached (achieved) 16 years, are sent or in 6th form colleges, or in tertiary colleges.
About 4% of children become the schoolboys grammar schools are children shown abilities and proved, that they can study under the programs of an academic structure. Besides, by analogy, it some kind of our specialized schools with that difference, that in our specialized schools is profound teach one or several subjects, and at the British schools a level of teaching on all basic disciplines — profound. Children here study up to 18 and even 19 years.
Others attend secondary modern schools. Here accept children till 16 years having good practical skills.
Very much few high schools have the sixth class. As a rule, wishing continue education should to act in Sixth Form Colleges. In these colleges the teenagers from 16 till 19 years can study, the training is conducted only on day time branch. The young people older 19 years is not accepted in colleges – for them it is necessary to act in tertiary college or college of further education.
In Northern Ireland of children are still enlisted in school by results of testing. Only very much few schools accept children without preliminary testing.
In Scotland the majority of high schools all of them are not specialized — basically comprehensive, and in them there is also sixth class. The teenagers who have finished school, not having of the sixth class, can proceed (pass) in another to this last year, not testing thus of difficulties connected to search of school. 96% of children — schoolboys of state high schools, others 4% study in private schools. More than in half of private schools the teaching is conducted separately. In Scotland there is no system of a general base rate of subjects, as in England and Wales. The educational diagram, even after realization of reform, has remained much more intense, than at schools of England and Wales, and includes a lot of subjects. All subjects are distributed (allocated) on 8 groups: philology and communications; mathematical sciences; natural-scientific subjects; humanitarian and ecological sciences; technological disciplines; subjects of aesthetic development; physical education; religion and spiritual education. The schoolboys should choose a minimum in one obligatory subject from each group. On employment (occupations) on the chosen disciplines there leaves 70% of educational time of each schoolboy.
In private schools 7% of all children of Great Britain studies only.
In Great Britain today works about 550 private schools. In Northern Ireland is open 21 private schools.
The reforms of system of education of Great Britain have touched the contents of educational process. Both the parents, and experts did not accept that children too early began «to sort» by propensity to those or other sciences. In a result some subjects, necessary for the formed (educated) man, dropped out of a school rate absolutely.
As a result of reform the national school rate, obligatory for all types of schools was accepted: each schoolboy should pass four basic, key stages of training and 10 basic subjects.
1 stage — till 7 years, children;
2 stages — 7-11 years, teenagers;
3 stages — 11-14 years (precede preparation for delivery GCSE);
4 stages — 14-16 years (preparation for delivery GCSE and appropriate professional examinations).
The basic subjects are only three: English language, mathematics, science. Obligatory are 7: technology, history, geography, music, art, physical education, modern foreign language. Depending on a stage of training the greater attention to this or that subject is given. Some subjects are absent at the first stages, and occur only on last (for example, modern foreign language). Depending on what part of Great Britain the school is located in there can be subjects, specific to the given territory. For example at schools of Wales the schoolboys should study as the second obligatory language Welsh (requirement, which will work till 1999). On each of subjects the instructions work about what skills and skills should be developed in children. For example, as a result of study of a rate of English language children should find five basic skills: To be able to speak, to perceive speech from hearing, to read, to write, to know spelling and (is more tremendous!) to be able to write by hand.
The religion as a subject officially is not present at the list of school disciplines, nevertheless religious (and sexual, we shall add) education is obligatory. At lessons the basic attention give to a Christianity, but tell as well about others religious trends, which representatives live in Great Britain. Daily at schools there passes a collective church service. The parents have the right to release (exempt) the child from study of religion and visiting of services irrespective of, at school with what the child studies in a part of Britain.
As the circle of subjects investigated at schools of Scotland was already marked, it is much wider: besides subjects accepted in England and Wales, the obligatory study of modern European language, sociology, technological practice, music or drama is included still. The new requirements on testing in such subjects, as Latin language, mathematics, modern languages, fine arts, ecology are published. The religious and spiritual education also is switched on in school process. In Northern Ireland basic are religion and six disciplines: English language, mathematics, science and technology, environment and society (community), various kinds of art. The rate of each consists of disciplines from several subjects, some subjects are obligatory.
3. Sixth class and colleges of the further training
The colleges of the further training can be both state, and private (individual). The majority of them are specialized (professional) in others the students study general educational disciplines with a sight on academic education. The contents of vocational training is developed in close cooperation with the representatives of local business concerns, that the graduates were in demand and easily could find to itself job. It is possible to study both on day time branches, and on evening. Some programs named «sandwich» include theoretical disciplines and practical job in the elected area at the enterprises. About receipt in these educational institutions it is necessary to begin to think one year prior to leaving school. The majority have the strictly certain terms of reception of the documents.
4. Higher education
In Great Britain 89 universities (including institute of remote education and 70 high schools. From them 39 are considered new. They were created after the Certificate (act) of 1992.
Oldest universities — Oxford (is open in 12 century) and Cambridge (13 centuries). The Scottish universities St. Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Edinburgh were open at 15-16 centuries. The Oxford and Cambridge universities are known everything, even by (with) the people which are not going to study abroad. Will say by exaggeration nevertheless, that they — «best». Certainly, any high school in the world can not be compared to these by two universities on prestige. For eight centuries of existence history them has appeared filled various events. The famous people here studied. For example, Margaret Tetchier has ended faculty of chemistry in Oxford. These universities have turned to national legends. But also other «ancient» universities, as for example St. Andrews, have also very high reputation. After 1980 many young high schools, basically polytechnic have appeared, the level of teaching at those universities has changed which before did not compete to Oxford and Cambridge. In result some diplomas of these high schools are appreciated even above, than Oxford and Cambridge. Especially it concerns some modern specialties. Maximum education — First Degree Study (degree of the bachelor)
The government of Great Britain is regular spends an independent estimation of a level and quality of teaching in high schools. The estimation is spent on four-mark system, it are taken into account a saturation of the educational schedule, level of teaching, security by technical resources. To receive an estimation the high school «is approved» should on all parameters to receive an estimation not below 2.