Реферат: India

South Ural State University







The country`s history

Geographical situation



The economy





This work contents the material about India. It`s not so big country, but India the second largest country in the world populationwide. India presents an interest for tourists. There are: nice geographical situation, good climate for the rest, interesting traditions. There are many sightseeing: Agra, Taj Mahal, Jaipur and many others.

The country`s history

The roots of Indian civilisation stretch back in time to pre-recorded history. The earliest human activity in the Indian sub-continent can be traced back to the Early, Middle and Late Stone Ages (400, 000-200, 000 BC). Implements from all three periods have been found from Rajasthan, Gujarat, Bihar, parts of what is now Pakistan and the southern most tip of the Indian Peninsula.

These Paleolithic people were semi-nomadic hunters and gatherers for many millennia. Five main races of people were in existence when the move to an agricultural lifestyle took place, in the middle of the 9th millennium BC. These were the Negrito race, the Proto-Australoid; the Mediterranean race, the Mongloids and the Alpine people.

The first evidence of agricultural settlements on the western plains of the Indus is roughly contemporaneous with similar developments in Egypt, Mesopotamia and Persia. These settlements gradually grew and the inhabitants started to use copper and bronze, domesticated animals, made pottery and began trade activities.

Geographical situation

India, the second largest country in he world populationwide and seventh territorywide, is north of the equator, between 8 4` to 37 6` north latitude and 68 7` to 97 27` east longitude. The country`s land surface is flanked by the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian sea, along the south-east and along the south-west respectively. On the western border is situated Pakistan and in the east, Bangladesh and Burma. Along her northern boundary are Bhutan, Nepal, Tibet and Sinkiang region of China. The Gulf of Mannar and Palk Straits separate India at its southern end, from Sri Lanka.

From north to south, India veasures about 3, 214 km and, from east to west, about 2, 933 km. The total land area is 32, 68, 090 sq km. Its land –fontier is 15, 200 km and coastline 6, 103 km.

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal and Laksha – dweep in the Arabian Sea are parts of India are: the great and the Deccan Plateau and Peninsula.

The Himalayan ranges are interspersed wit wide plateaus and valleys like Kashmir and Kulu. Some of the world`s highest peaks are in the Himalayas.

The near-level Indo-Gangetic Plains, among the greatest stretches of the flat alluvium in the world, are formed by the basins of three distinct river system: the Sind, the Ganga, and the Brahmaputra

The desert regions are: the «Great desert» extending from the edge of the Rann of Kutch beyond the Luni river northward, embracing the whole the Rajastan – Sind frontier, and the «Little Desert » extending from the Luni river between Jodhpur up to the northern wastes.

The Deccan Plateau and Peninsula, extending south of the Vindhya mountains, are geologically the oldest portion of the Indian land, perhaps once of huge continent.

India`s National Flag

The Indian flag was designed as a symbol of freedom. The late Prime Minister Nehru called it a flag not only of freedom for ourselves, but a symbol of freedom to all people

The flag is a horizontal tricolour in equal proportion of deep saffron on the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom. The ratio of the width to the length of the flag is two is to three. In the centre of the white band, there is a wheel in navy blue to indicate the Dharma Chakra, the wheel of law in the Sarnath Lion Capital. Its diameter approximates the width of the white band and it has 24 spokes. The saffron stands for courage, sacrifice and the spirit of renunciation; the white, for purity and truth; the green for faith and fertility.


The Indian climate is a cycle of six seasons. There are areas where the distinctness of a season can be felt, but generully the six season overlap each other.

The approximately equivalent of the Indian seasons in the Christian will be: Vasanta or Spring – mid February to April; Grishma or Summer – May and June; Varshaor or Monsoon – July to September; Sharada or Autumn – September to mid-November; Hemanta or pre-Winter – mid-November to mid-December; Shita or Winter – mid-December to mid-February.

However, the three major seasons are the winter, summer and the monsoon.

The winter (November-March) is more or less pleasant throughout the country, marked by bright sunny days. In the northern plains the temperature at times drops steeply; there is snowfall in the hills. In the western, southern and eastern India the winter is pleasantly cool.

The summer (April-June) is hot in the greater part of India. But the country has her charming hill resorts to provide cool retreats for the tourists.

The south-west monsoon begins on the west coast in early June and speards to other parts. In most of India it rains during June to September. But the south-eastern region experiences the greater rainfall of the year during November to January to the advent of the north-east monsoon.


India, a union of States, is a Sovereign Democratic Republic, governed by a constitution which came into force on January 1950.

The constitution, federal in structure with unitary features defines the powers exercised by the States and the Union. The President of India is the constitutional head of the executive of the Union. He acts according to the advice of the Council of Ministers with Prime Minister at the head – real custodian of the executive power – which is responsible to the Parliament consisting of to Houses, the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.

Population and Religions

The population of India is 683, 81 million (1981 census).

Hindus formed 82, 72 percent, Muslims 11, 20 percent, Christians 2, 60 percent, Sikhs 1, 89 percent, Buddhists 0, 71 percent and Jains 0, 48 percent of the population, according to the 1971 census. India is a secular country.


India, according to a recent census, has 1, 652 dialects. Needless to say most of them are only spoken dialects.

The principal languages with rich literary heritage are (in alphabetic order): Assamese, Bengali, English, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu and Urdu.

The economy

India is the seventh largest and second most populous country in the world. A new spirit of economic freedom is now stirring in the country, bringing sweeping changes in its wake. A series of ambitious economic reforms aimed at deregulating the country and stimulating foreign investment has moved India firmly into the front ranks of the rapidly growing Asia Pacific region and unleashed the latent strengths of a complex and rapidly changing nation.

www.meadev.nic.in/economy/bus-ind-p/intro.htmIndia's process of economic reform is firmly rooted in a political consensus that spans her diverse political parties. India's democracy is a known and stable factor, which has taken deep roots over nearly half a century. Importantly, India has no fundamental conflict between its political and economic systems. Its political institutions have fostered an open society with strong collective and individual rights and an environment supportive of free economic enterprise.

www.meadev.nic.in/economy/ibta/mainpg.htmIndia's time tested institutions offer foreign investors a transparent environment that guarantees the security of their long term investments. These include a free and vibrant press, a judiciary which can and does overrule the government, a sophisticated legal and accounting system and a user friendly intellectual infrastructure. India's dynamic and highly competitive private sector has long been the backbone of its economic activity. It accounts for over 75% of its Gross Domestic Product and offers considerable scope for joint ventures and collaborations.

Today, India is one of the most exciting emerging markets in the world. Skilled managerial and technical manpower that match the best available in the world and a middle class whose size exceeds the population of the USA or the European Union, provide India with a distinct cutting edge in global competition.


Tourism has emerged as in important economic activity in South Asia. From the so called hippies of the 1960s, in search of music fulfillment to the luxury package tourists of the 1980s, the subcontinent has come to exert a magnetic hold over people from many other parts of the world, the West in particular. The Taj Mahal, Rajasthani palaces, the imperial splendors of Delhi, Kashmir with its houseboats and waterlilies and the palm – fringed beaches of Sri-Lanka are among the main places on wich tourists in their thousands now descend. The cooler part of the year from October to March is the favorite time for visiting much of the region, although altitude reduces temperatures in the mountains during the hotter months. Many wealthier South Asians living in the plains or on the coast migrate to hill stations to avoid the heat of the summer. Srinigar (Kashmir) and Murree (Pakistan) have become popular destinations for local honeymooning couples, as has Goa, another center much loved by overseas visitors.


Tourism has emerged as important economic activity in India. India can be interesting for tourism, because it has very rich history, it`s nature very beautiful. There are many sightseeing. The transport system in India is developed very well. It`s possible to go by ship or by plane. There are many modern hotels and restaurant.


1. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of India. Cambridge University Press. 2008.

2. India: A tourist Paradise. 2005.

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