Реферат: Hobby and keenness
1. Historical hobby
2. Nature and function hobby
3. Modification by community factors
4. Classification of hobbies
4.1 Basis for classification
4.2 Collection Hobby
4.3 Creative Hobbies
4.4 Educational Hobbies
4.5 Performing Hobbies
5. Promotion hobby interests
5.3 Older Folks
6. Advises for hobbyists
6.1 How Hobbyists Become Interested
6.2 How To Get Started — Suggestions to the Individual
6.3 How To Stimulate Hobby Interest
6.4 How To Help the Beginner
6.5 How To Help the Hobbyist
In the 16th century a favorite toy children of all age was the hobbyhorse. In appearance a hobbyhorse could be as a simple as a stick, or it could have a decorated wooden framework with an imitation horse’s heard attached. When their simple or elaborate, children used them for the games of the time involving war and knighthood, much as children in the early part of the 20th century played cowboys and Indians. In time the popularity of the hobbyhorse declined, but the pleasure of doing something outside the routine activities of daily life had brought a new word into the language, the word hobby, which is a shortened form of hobbyhorse.
Before the 20th century, hobbies were something that only wealthy people had the time and money to enjoy. The present day interest in hobbies throughout the world is the product of more free time for far more people, resulting from shortened working hours and greater prosperity.
Some popular hobbies are old as civilization. Ruler in ancient times often collected valuable objects, rare manuscripts, and art treasures. The monasteries of the Middle Ages maintained libraries to store the valuable documents and art works that they collected and produced. Later, individuals who were well educated and had broad range of interests made field trips and traveled to other countries, bringing back fossils, plants, artefacts, and other objects. Such people also build up extensive personal libraries and collections.
Hobby is a recreation activity joyously pursued with intense interest over a sustained period of time. It is usually not directly connected with the person’s livelihood or his professional and social ambitions. Hobby is basically an individual recreation pursuit which permits the hobbyist to start and to stop when he chooses. It can and often does lead the hobbyist into group participation. The collector of folk songs associates with others who have the same interests and sings with them.
A hobby offers the individual a deep and continuing interest in an activity which requires little outside stimulation to sustain hat interest. Hobbies are as varied as the field of human interest and experience. They contain the element of exploration which dives the hobbyist a chance to discover himself and his world. The same hobby activity will often satisfy different needs for different people.
Some of the individual’s social and psychological needs are not met through the pursuit of everyday responsibilities. The function of a hobby is to provide ways in which some of these needs can be met to insure balanced and enriched living. The choice of hobby is determined by unconscious wishes and desires. The choice is conditioned by experience and environmental factors. What a hobby does for the person depends on the foregoing plus the satisfaction obtained through participation. Some of the values of hobby are:
1. Hobbies are the means for relaxation to the person who has limited leisure — like the medical practitioner. His hobby may be the only recreation possible at times when the demands for his professional service leave him with little leisure.
2. The pursuit of hobbies can be an enemy of boredom brought about by too much leisure.
3. Hobbies provide a means for vigorous release of emotions.
4. Hobbies serve as a way of meeting the needs of people in period of frustration.
5. Hobbies offer many opportunities for creative expression.
5. Hobbies serve as a means for compensation, such as excelling in the hobby pursuit compensating for failing to reach desired goals on the job.
6. Pursuing a hobby means acquiring knowledge and leaning skills. It satisfied the desire for leaning.
7. When unwanted leisure creates anxiety the pursuit of a hobby may serve to help restore emotional balance.
8. Hobbies stir the imagination and lead to new experiences.
9. Hobbies can help in meeting the needs for social acceptance and recognition.
10. Hobbies can provide a refuge from people when time for contemplation is needed.
11. For the adolescent hobbies are a good way to try out career interests.
12. For the person retired from earning a livelihood the hobby pursuit becomes a way of adjustment. It can give new meaning and balance to the changed way of life.
13. Hobbies provide a means of satisfying the desire to collect knowledge and objects.
14. For many people a well-chosen hobby growing from innate desires, needs and abilities makes joyful contributions to the art of living. When people’s lives are affected by hobby pursuits the total community life reflects this influence.
Community life affects the hobby pursuit of the individual. Lack of music interest in the community may tend to discourage the individual from considering music as a hobby.
A community giving a great deal of its attention to the promotion of sports would indirectly be guiding hobby interests into sports and game activities. In towns where dancing is not tolerated, hobby interests in the dance would not be socially approved. Schools that do not reach a wide variety of skills and appreciation in music, arts, crafts, sports, dance, nature education, literature, science and others limit the student’s hobby choice and its development.
The physical environmental factors influence hobby interests. Urban sections without parks or open fields place a handicap on many outdoor hobbies. However, hobbies demanding access to libraries, museums, and educational classes thrive better in urban section. Hobbyists in music, creative writing literature, and similar activities receive greater stimulation in or near larger cities.
Our industrialized economy has created conditions which affect the individual’s life through speed, routine, specialization, and increased leisure. At the same time it has multiplied our resources in terms of tools, implements, and materials for hobbies in some areas like engineering, machines, science, and travel.
The fact that cultural and environmental factors may handicap the pursuit of certain kinds of hobbies does not mean these pursuits become impossible. Such barriers for some hobbyists become challenges for the individuals and the community.
The scope of hobbies is as broad as human interests because hobbies are different things to different people.
4.1 Basis for classification
For purposes of convenience the wide scope of hobbies will be classified into four categories: Collecting, Creating, Educational, Performing.
One of the most natural habits of man is collecting. Collection hobbies can be a real art or an accumulation of odds and ends. Collectors tend to group themselves into a few main classifications. People who collect odd objects are in a small minority. The most popular collection hobby is stamp collecting. Antiques appear to be next in popularity. They include China, glass, period furniture, laces, needlework, quilts, pictures of early fashion old document, books, autographs, firearms, Indian relicts, paintings, and coins. A large group consists of hobbyists with mechanical inclination who collect firearms, model ships, trains, plains, and autos. Memorabilia of great people are objects of hobbyists — their autographs, documents, manuscripts, books objects, furniture, possessions and articles supposed to have been used by the great persons. Items of purely art interest are much sought after such as bronzes, etchings, wood carvings, paintings, and objet d’art. Collecting historic relicts of one’s own part of the country provides fascination for some people. Other collections include:
Phonograph records: Old, swing, classical, or one particular artist.
Stamps: U. S., European, commemorative, covers.
Guns: Modern army rifles, old U. S. Rifles, old European.
Coins: U. S., European, Ancient Greek or Roman, novelty.
Books: Early American school texts, First editions, almanacs.
Paintings: Miniatures, water colors, old masters.
Dolls: Antiques, China, rag, rubber, paper, bride, foreign, wax, celluloid.
Man has a psychological drive to create, to make, or to construct. It is often referred to as the aesthetic drive because it satisfies the person’s sense of beauty and gives pleasure. Much of the creative urge is satisfied by designing, painting, composing, writing, inventing, and making objects of many kinds as exemplified in the areas of arts and crafts, drama, music, nature, and camping activities. The creative urge expression is satisfied in different ways for different people — writing a poem, developing a story, telling a story, painting a landscape, making a piece of furniture, constructing a telescope, baking a pie, organizing a club, developing a new bit of strategy in the sports contest, writing a song, and creating a new dance.
The area of hobbies is one of the greatest potential sources for satisfying the creative urge. It has become increasingly important as creative expression opportunities decline in many job. Every hobby offers some chance for creative expression but some are richer in their offerings. In a hobby which has creativeness as its major emphasis collective, educational, and performing benefits are also present.
A suggested list of creative hobbies follows:
Woodworking: Furniture, lathework, wood finishing, wooden models of trains, boats, and planes, children’s toys.
Sculpture: Soap, wood, plaster, clay, stone.
Puppetry: Making the puppets, building the stage, writing the script, presenting the play.
Leatherwork: Making articles such as bookcovers, handbags, belts; decorating leather, stamping, embossing, carving, flat modeling.
Photography: Used as an art medium to produce portraits, scenes, action shots; still life in black and white or color; developing the art of taking pictures; processing and printing, and enlarging stills, movie — black and white, color; amateur movie production; slides and transparencies.
Hobbies which emphasize the acquisition of knowledge and the leaning of skills cover a large variety of activities. Most of the hobbies listed under Collection and Creative serve as examples for educational hobbies when the participant makes them so. The educational hobbies provide many opportunities for exploring and adventure in a wide scope of activities. Very often a person’s hobby will be pursued for both collective educational satisfaction, or performing and educational satisfactions. These combinations are natural and complement each other.
A suggested list of educational hobbies is presented to indicate the scope. These the pursued individually, or in classes, or clubs.
Ornithology: Study of birds, their habits, calls, migrations, effect on nature’s cycle. Astronomy: Study of stars, planets, relationship of celestial phenomena to the earth, falling star plotting, lore related to constellations.
Meteorology: Study of weather, clouds, rainfall, storms, wind.
Music: Leaning to play instruments and sing, music appreciation, study of composers, history of music and instruments, study of types of music, relationship of music with peoples culture.
Arts and crafts: Leaning skills in the various media such as paint, metal, textiles, wood, photography, plastics; study of design artists, art periods; art appreciation, and art in its relation to peoples culture and economy.
Sport: Leaning to perform in athletics; study of specific sports, their history, the star performers, and records; developing hunting, fishing, camping, canoeing, sailing, riflery, and archery skills; study of history of sports and its development.
These hobby interests are based on the used of body skills. They include the sports skills, music skills, arts and crafts skills, camping skills and other. To understand this hobby category one must recognize that many persons seek their satisfaction in performing with and for others. The range of activities in music, arts and crafts, and drama has been illustrated by the other categories. This category recognize those areas as performing hobby sources.
Some specific examples of performing hobbies include: hiking, swimming, roller skating, hunting, fishing, dancing, camping, baseball, football, bowling, boxing, chess, checkers, orchestras, horseback riding, fencing, canoeing, boating, sailing, golf, tennis, wrestling, acrobatics, choirs, and magic.
Factors Related to Hobby Participants.
In the promotion of hobby interests needs and characteristics of the various age levels must be kept in mind. Some illustrations of applying these to hobby participation are presented as follows: Age Factors.
In collection hobbies the child collects bottle tops, campaign buttons, comic books, stones, toads, dolls clothing. The collection of these seems to be based on no logical purpose.
This is the age of exploration in all categories of hobbies. Children move from one hobby to another. Their span of interest is short.
Child’s participation in hobby is on a very elementary level.
Most children have a simple collection hobby.
Interest in educational hobbies does not seem evident.
Performing activities have great appeal at this age.
Youth’s hobbies become more discriminating.
Not all youths continue collecting hobbies.
There are fewer changes from one hobby to another.
Youth often use hobby pursuits to discover career interest.
Youth seeks greater opportunities to relate hobby interest with clubs and groups.
Youth wants to engage in performing hobbies.
At this age the foundation is laid for possible educational hobbies which are pursed in adulthood.
Their hobby interest are specialized.
They need the hobby more than in their earlier years.
They seek to express themselves through their hobby interests.
They pursue their hobby more seriously.
They join hobby clubs because they want to share their interest.
They have more leisure than adults and their hobby becomes a way to make life meaningful.
They use a hobby as a means of making adjustment to retirement.
They enjoy hobbies that require study and offer creative opportunities.
They want hobbies that give them a chance to receive recognition.
6.1 How Hobbyists Become Interested
The following represent means of helping individuals get started on a hobby:
1. Parents, grandparents, or friends give instruction, guidance, and encouragement.
2. A gift received starts the person on his hobby.
3. Children and youth get their hobby ideas while in school or while participating in an agency program.
4. Camp programs arouse interest.
5. Some hobbies are an outgrowth of vacations.
6. Some hobbyists get started by attending classes in instruction in crafts, music, radio, speech, etc.
7. Some persons become interested through seeing a hobbyist in action.
8. Others are stimulated while visiting a hobby show or an arts and crafts display.
8. Some are interested as a result of trips to museums. Libraries, and parks.
9. Reading magazine articles and books arouses the interest of some people.
11. Listening to a talk on a hobby or hobbies start some people on their interest.
10. Talks on radio or demonstration on television start some folks on their hobby.
1. Talk to other persons pursuing same hobby.
2. Read books and magazines on hobbies.
3. If necessary attend classes for instruction.
4. Visit hobby show exhibits.
5. Check on source of supplies.
6. If a collection hobby is selected limit the collection and begin at once to classify collection.
7. Join a hobby club.
7. Go to the library, museum, recreation and other agencies.
8. Start on a hobby in a small way.
10. Subscribe to a magazine specializing in the hobby selections.
The recreation agency can help the potential hobbyist as well as the person who has a hobby. For the beginner it can expose him to activities that may lead up to hobby selections.
1. Provide classes on beginning arts and crafts, photography, music and drama.
2. Provide classes in hobby exploration.
3. Have displays featuring hobbies.
3. Advise the beginner of resources in the community such as library, schools, and hobby clubs.
5. Plan trips to local points of interest.
6. Provide talks by hobbyists.
7. Organize hobby clubs for older adults who do not have hobbies.
8. Use older adults hobbyists in teaching and guiding beginners.
1. Provide space for hobby club to meet regularly. Help clubs by providing facilities and acquaint them with other resources.
2. Provide special facilities and equipment that can be made available to hobbyists who cannot afford their own. Examples are;
a. Photography room (dark room);
b. Shop with hand power tools;
c. Ceramics room and kiln;
d. Room for radio amateurs;
e. Field for operation of model planes.
3. Arrange to exhibit hobbies in store windows.
1. Sponsor hobby interviews on the radio and television.
2. Sponsor a hobby show or fair. This requires much planning, organization and promotion.