Реферат: Топики по английскому языку
The United Nations
The United Nations is an organization ofsovereign nations representing almost all of humanity. The United Nations hasplayed and continues to play, an active role in reducing tension in the world,preventing conflicts and putting an end to fighting already under way.
The name UN was devised by US President F.Roosevelt.
The UN Charter was drown up by therepresentatives of 50 countries and was signed on 26 June 1945. The UNofficially came into existence on 24 October 1945 when the charter had beenratified.
There are six main organs of the UnitedNations — the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic andSocial Council, the Trusteeship Council, the Secretariat and theInternational Court of Justice. The Court has its seat at The Hague,Netherlands. All other organs are based at the United Nations Headquarters inNew York.
All UN Member States are represented in the GeneralAssembly. Members of the General Assembly talk toeach other in many languages, but officially there are only six — Arabic,Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish.
The Security Council consists of 15 Council membersand answers for the international safety.
The Economic and Social Councilconsists of 54 members, elected for three-year terms and coordinates on theeconomic and social work of the UN.
The Trusteeship Council was established to provideinternational supervision for 11 Trust Territories administered by 7 MemberStates.
The International Court of Justice is the main judicial organ ofthe UN, consisting of 15 judges and decides disputes between countries.
The Secretariat carries out the substantiveand administrative work of the UN. At its head is the Secretary-General.
* The NATO*
North Atlantic Treaty Organization is the organizationdeveloped to implement the North Atlantic Treaty, signed on April 4, 1949 andentered into force on August 24, 1949. It was created to establish a militarycounterweight to the Soviet military presence in post-World War 2 EasternEurope.
NATO’s governing body – the North Atlantic Councilwhich was established soon after the Treaty came into effect. The council iscomposed of ministerial representatives of the member states and meets of leasttwice a year. Its chairman, chosen by rotation among the member states.
NATO is the organization which serves the Alliance. Itis an inter-government organization in which member countries retain their fullsovereignty and independence. The Organization provides the forum in which theyconsult together on any issues they may choose to raise and take decisions onpolitical and military matters affecting their security.
NATO’s essential purpose is thus to safeguard thefreedom and security of all its members by political and military means inaccordance with the principles of the UN.
The Court system of the USA
The American court system is complex. Itfunctions as the part of the federal system of government. Each state runs itsown court system, and two are identical. In addition, we have a system ofcourts for the national government. These federal courts coexist with statecourts.
Individuals fall under the jurisdiction oftwo different court systems, their state court and federal courts. They can sueor be sued either system, depending mostly on what there case is about. Thevast majority of cases are resolved in the state courts.
The federal courts are organizedin three tiers, like a pyramid. At the bottom of the pyramid are the districtcourts, where litigation begins. In the middle are the US courts of appeals. Atthe top is the US Supreme Court. To appeal means to take a case to a highercourt. The court of appeal and the Supreme Court are appellate courts, with fewexceptions; they review cases that have been decided in lower courts. Mostfederal courts hear and decide a wide array of cases; the judges in thesecourts are known as generalists.
Судебная система США
Американскаясистема судопроизводства сложна. Она функционирует как часть федеральнойсистемы правительства. Каждый штат управляет своей собственной системой судопроизводства,и не существует двух одинаковых. Кроме того, мы имеем систему судов длянационального правительства. Эти федеральные суды сосуществуют сгосударственными судами.
Частные лицапопадают под юрисдикцию двух различных систем судопроизводства, судов их штатови федеральных судов. Они могут искать по суду или предъявлять иск в любойсистеме, зависит это главным образом от того, в чем состоит суть их дела.Огромное большинство дел было разрешено в судах штатов.
Федеральные судыорганизованы тремя рядами, подобно пирамиде. На дне пирамиды – окружные судыСША, где тяжба начинается. В середине — апелляционные суды США. Наверху –Верховный суд США. Обжалование санкции происходит для того, что бы передатьматериалы в суд более высокой инстанции. Апелляционный суд и Верховный суд –апелляционные суды, за немногим исключением, они рассматривают дела, по которымуже были вынесены решения в судах низшей инстанции. Большинство федеральныхсудов разбирает и выносит решение на счет широкого списка дел рассматриваемыхприсяжными; судьи в этих судах известны как носящие общий характер.
The court system of England
British court system includes 2 main kinds of courts:civil and criminal. Criminal courts are crown and high courts. Themost common type of law court in England is the magistrates’ court, which dealswith the less serious offences. There are about 700 magistrates’ court, whichare open to the public and the media, and about 30000 magistrates, known asjustices of the peace.
More serious criminal cases such as murder, drugtrafficking, rape then go to the Crown Court, which has about 90 branches indifferent towns and cities. The judge in the Crown court acts as a controllingpower; he decides questions of law, gives directions on procedure and evidence.The jury is the main element, consisting of 12 jurors. They decided questionsof fact.
Civil cases such as divorce or bankruptcy cases aredealt with in Countycourts. Criminal appeals are heard by higher courts. For example, appeals frommagistrates’ courts are heard in the Crown Court, unless they are appeals onpoints of law. The highest court of appeal in England is the House of Lords.Certain cases may be referred to the European Court of Justice inLuxemburg.
The legal system also includes juvenile courts whichdeal with offenders under 18 and coroners’ courts which deals with investigateviolent, sudden or unnatural deaths. There are administrative tribunals whichmake quick, cheap and fair decisions with much less formality. Tribunals dealwith professional standards, disputes between individuals, and disputes betweenindividuals and government departments (for example, over taxation).
Наиболее общий тип суда в Англии — мировые суды.Существуют 700 мировых судов и приблизительно 30000 мировых судей. Тогда какболее серьезные уголовные дела направляются в Суд Короны, который имеет 90филиалов в различных маленьких и больших городах. Гражданские дела (например, разводили дела о банкротстве) рассматриваются в Судах графства.
Апелляции слушаются высшим судом. Например,апелляции на мировые суды, слушают в Суде Короны, если они не являютсяапелляцией по статье закона. Верховный апелляционный суд в Англии и Уэльсе — Палата лордов. Определенные дела могут быть направлены в Европейский Суд вЛюксембурге. Кроме того, гражданские лица заставили британское Правительствоизменить свою практику решений в ряде областей в результате ходатайств (жалоб)в Европейский Суд по Правам Человека.
Судебная система также включает суды поделам несовершеннолетних (которые имеют дело с правонарушителями, не достигшимисемнадцати) и суды коронеров суды (которые расследуют насильственные, внезапныеслучаи смерти). Существуют административные суды, которые выносят быстрые,дешевые и справедливые решения с намного меньшим количеством формальностей.Трибуналы рассматривают дела с профессиональными нормами, споры между частнымилицами, и спорами между частным лицом и правительственными отделами (например,по чрезмерному налогообложению).
The British Education System
All state schoolsin Britain are free. Nine million children attend 35.000 schools.
Children receive preschooleducation under the age of 5 in nursery schools or in infant's classes inprimary schools.
Children start primaryschool at 5 and continue until they are 11. Primary schools are subdivided into infantschools (ages 5 — 7), and junior schools (ages 7 — 11). Then, most pupils goto secondary school called comprehensives which accept a wide range ofchildren from all backgrounds and religious and ethnic groups.
At 16 pupils takea national exam called “G.C.S.E.” (General Certificate of Secondary Education)and then they can leave school if they wish. This is the end of compulsoryeducation.
Some 16-year-oldscontinue their studies in the sixth form at school or at a sixth formcollege. The sixth form prepares pupils for a national exam called “A”level (advanced level) at 18. You need “A” level to enter a university.
Other 16-year-oldschoose to go to a college of further education to study for morepractical diplomas relating to the world of work, such as hairdressing, typingor mechanics.
Universitiesand colleges of highereducation accept students with “A” level from 18. Students study for a degreewhich takes on average three years of full-time study. Most students graduateat 21 or 22 and are given their degree at a special graduation ceremony.Generally, universities award two kinds of degrees: the Bachelor’s degree andthe Master’s degree.
In England thereare 47 universities, about 400 colleges and institutes of higher education. Theoldest universities are Oxford and Cambridge.
Political system of the USA
The USA is afederal republic consisting of 50 states. Each state has its own government. Insome ways the USA is like 50 small countries.
The government ofthe USA act according to the Constitution which was signed in 1787. Accordingto the Constitution the USA is a republic and there is a federal system ofgovernment. So, the officials of any rank are elected by US citizens, from 18.
The federal poweris located in Washington, D.C. It is based on legislative, executive andjudicial branches of power.
Thelegislatives power isvested in Congress, which consists of 2 houses: the Senate, which makes lowsand the House of Representatives, which introduce legislation, establishedfederal taxes. There are 435 members in the House of Representatives and 100senators in Congress. Each state elects 2 senators. They are elected for 6years. Representatives to Congress are elected every 2 years.
The executivebranch is headed by thePresident who is assisted by the Vice President. The President enforces federallaws, commanded of the Armed Forces. The President can veto a bill unlesscongress by a 2-3s vote shall overrule him. The Vice President acts as chairmanof the Senate, and in the event of the death of the President, assumes thePresidency. The President of the USA is chosen in nation-wide elections every 4years together with the Vice President. The President can’t to be elected morethan twice.
The judicialbranch is made up ofFederal District Courts, 11 Federal Courts and the Supreme Court. Federaljudges are appointed by the President for life. Federal Courts decide casesinvolving federal law, conflicts between citizens of different states andwatches over the other 2 branches.
The nationalpresidential election consists of 3 stages. The Primaries, the Conventions andthe General election.
USA has 2 partysystem. There are 2 leading parties: The Democrats (are associated with labor)and the Republicans (are associated with business and industry).
Political system of Great Britain
The UK is aconstitutional monarchy. The Queen is head of the State, but she has littledirect power.
The constitutionhas 3 branches: Parliament, which makes laws, the government,which “executes” laws and the courts, which interprets laws.
The Parliamentconsists of the House of Commons, the House of Lords and the Queen.
The House ofLords has very littlepower and consists of more than 1000 hereditary lords and peers.
The function ofthe House of Lords is debating a bill after the House of Commons.
Members are notelected, they sit there because of their rank and the chairman of the House ofLords is the Lord Chancellor (he sits in special sit, called Woolsack).
The House ofCommons has true power. Itis made up of 650 Members of Parliament. Members are elected by the people.
The function of the House of Commons is introducing anddebating the Bills.
The chairman ofthe House of Commons is the Speaker.
Parliament has amaximum duration of 5 year. The election campaign lasts about 3 weeks; theBritish parliamentary system depends on political parties. The party which winsthe majority of seats forms the government and its leader usually becomes PrimeMinister. The Prime Minister chooses about 20 Members of Parliament from hisparty and forms his cabinet of ministers. The second largest party becomes theofficial opposition with its own leader and “shadow cabinet”.
The session is opened by the Queen. Each session lastsfor 160-175 days.
There are 2leading parties in GB: the Conservative Party (the Tories) and the LabourParty. (The Liberal and the Social-Democratic party)
(The Green Party,the Communist Party, the Nation Front)
Tony Blair is theleader of the labour Party and Britain’s Prime Minister.
The Palace ofWestminster.
Mass media (newspapers)
The mass mediaplays the important role in reflecting the life of society and in buildingopinions. It can draw the publics’ attention to the most serious political,economic, social and ecological problems. The mass media include newspapers,magazines, radio, television and internet. The earliest kind of mass media wasnewspaper. The first newspaper was Roman handwritten newssheet called “ActaDiurna” started in 59B.C. Most newspapers come out daily, besides there are some weekly, monthly, yearlynewspapers too. Many newspapers have traditional columns such as «Lettersto the Editor», „Contacts and Information“, „Events: Details andAnalysis“. The edition board of a newspaper usually deals with the topicalissues of the day. The reader’s questions, opinions and suggestions which theysend in letters the editor help to improve the newspaper and make it moreinteresting.
There are two main types ofnational paper — the „popular“ papers and the „quality“papers. The popular papers are smaller in size (they are tabloidsize), with lots of pictures, big headlines and short articles. They usuallyhave „human interest“ stories — stories about ordinary people andevents.
»Quality" papersappeal to the more serious reader, who wants to read about politics and foreignaffairs. These papers are bigger in size (they are called«broad-sheets»), with longer articles and a wider coverage of events.They have different pages for home news, foreign affairs, features articles,fashion, business, sport and so on.
Practically all newspapers also give radioand TV programs, weather forecasts. Every newspaper has its readers. One canfind newspapers of all kinds: national and local, official and private, qualityand popular, newspapers issued for children, teenagers, older age, for all kindof fans: sport-fans, car-fans, music fans, etc. The freedom of press has becomeactual and real today. Most of the newspapers can boast their independence, theirindividual styles, and their peculiarities.
Education in the USA
Americans view their public school system as aneducational ladder, rising from elementary school to high school and finallycollege undergraduate and graduate programmes.
Schools in the USA can be divided into state, orpublic schools, and private schools. State schools are free, and privateschools are fee-paying.
Elementary education begins at the age of 6 with thefirst grade and continues through to the eighth grade. The programme of studiesin the elementary school is different in different schools. It includesEnglish, arithmetic, geography, history of the USA and elementary naturalscience. The elementary school is followed by high school as it is called. Itconsists of 2 parts: Junior high is for the children aged 12 until they are 15and Senior high school is attended by students until they are 18.
During the school year the students study 4 or 5subjects. They must complete a certain number of courses to receive a diplomaor certificate of graduation.
After graduating the most of Americans goon to higher education.
The most common types of higher education are thecolleges and universities. During the first two yearsthe students follow a basic program. It means that every student must select atleast one course from each of the basic fields of study: English, Naturalsciences, Modern languages, History or Physical education. After the first twoyears every student can select subjects according to his professional interest.
The 4-year undergraduate studies lead to a bachelor’sdegree or “college diploma”. The bachelor’s degree can be followed byprofessional studies. 2-year graduate studies lead to a master’s degree.
Our planet Earthis only a tiny part of the universe, but nowadays it’s the only place where wecan live.
People alwayspolluted their surroundings. But until now pollution was not such a seriousproblem. Men have polluted the air, water and land; used most of the Earth’soil, gas and coal; completely killed more than 500 kinds of animals, birds andplants; made and used atomic bombs. It’s a disaster and it’s still happening.
Many animals andbirds are disappearing nowadays. This is because man hunts them, destroys andpollutes their habitat. There is only one way to save wild animals and wildhabitats – conservation. That means protecting animals in danger by low,opening more national parks, building fewer new roads, planting more newforests, cutting pollution.
Waterpollution. Most bigcities pour their waste into seas and rivers. They are filled with poison:industrial and nuclear wastes, pesticides. Polluted water kills fish and othermarine life.
Airpollution. Fume fromthe chimneys of factories, gases which are in refrigerators and sprays pollutethe air. They damage the ozone layer that covers the earth; also they are themain reason for the greenhouse effect and acid rains. It can cause illness, andeven death. The rainwater mixes with the gases in the air, and then the airpollution also becomes land and water pollution.
Landpollution. The mainproblem is making large piles of trash. Trash is made of boxes, bags, paper,plastics, bottles and others.
Today, manyscientists and world leaders realize that the Earth is in danger. It’s reallyvery simple. We have the time, the money and even the technology to make ourplanet a better, cleaner and safer place.
Thefollowing radical measures must be taken:
1. The replanting of trees that have been cut down;
2. Nuclear tests should be stopped;
3. Purification systems must be installed at plants and factories;
4. Natural resources should be used more rationally;
5.Rare and dying out birds, animals and plant's should be protected;
6.Precaution measures should be taken against the destruction of the ozonelayer.