Реферат: Куча тем по английскому языку для школы /english/
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
1. Geographical position and physical features:
The USA occupy a large territory and are situated in the central and southern part of north America. The USA is washed by the Atlantic ocean in the east and by the Pacific ocean in the west. In the north, the USA is borders on Canada and in the south on Mexico.
Mountain rangres cross the country from north to south and don't protect it from the north and warm ear from the south. The USA has a continental climate.
3.Riches of the USA:
Large reserves of oil, coal, iron and other minerals from solid Base from development of America industry.
The USA is divided into free arias: Eastern area a highland, central area a plain and Western area which is Mountains and includes the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada.
There are five great lakes in the northern part of the USA. There are: Huren, Michigan, Supireo, Ontario, Erie. There are connected by channels cut by rapids one of them the Niagara Falls.
The Mississippi together with the Missouri is the longest river in the world. The rivers of the west are unsuitable for navigation. The largest of them are Colombia and Colorado rivers.
PART 2 National Economy.
The USA is a hardly developed capitalistic country. Heavy industry prevails in the USA, including such branches as the mining, metallurgical, engineering out chemical industries. Being well developed light industry includes, textile, leather and footwear industries. The food industry is also well developed.
As agriculture both animal husbeudry and arally farming are prominent in the economy of the USA.
1. The Commonwealth of Australia is a self governing federal state. It is situated in the south-west of the Pacific ocean, occupying the continent of Australia and a great number of islands of which Tasmania is the most important. Australia is a continent-island washed by the Indian and the Pacific Oceans.
2. The country consists of 6 (six) states and 2 (two) territories. 16 million people live in Australia. The capital is Canberra. The official language is English.
3. Australia has a Parliament has two chambers, the house of Representatives and the Senate. the government of the country is headed by the Prime Minister.
4. Australia is not only far from the rest of the world, it has a bad climate, too. The climate is better in the east and south-east, where most big cities have grown-up. But the northern coast has too much rain, and the western coast is too dry.
5. The highest part of Australia, and almost all the mountains are near the coast. The whole central part of the country is dry; it never rains, there are no large rivers and no water there. So there is no very rich plant life in Australia, except in the east and south-east.
6. Australia is an important producer and exporter of primary products: wool, meat, sugar, fruit, black, coal, iron, copper, lead, gold and so on.
7. Most of the factories are situated near big cities. There are 5 (five) big cities in Australia: Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Perth and bris bane. These cities are also the country's main ports.
8. Canberra was specially planned as a capital. It is a quiet city. All the government buildings are situated there. There no industrial plants in the city. About 300000 people live in Canberra.
9. Sydney is the oldest and largest city in Australia. It was founded in 1788. Sydney is a big industrial centre. About 3 million people now live in the city.
1. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Island is situated on the British Isles not far from Europe. It consists of the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of Ireland and a great number of small islands. Such as: the Orkney, the Hebrides, the Isle of White and many others.
2. If you look at the map of Europe you will see that Great Britain is not large. It takes 6 hours to travel in a fast train, from London, the capital of England, to Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. And the June from London to Plymouth takes a little over 4 hours by train.
3. There are 4 part of Great Britain England, the capital is London, Scotland the capital is Edinburg, Wales the capital is Cardiff and Northern Island the capital is Belfast. Great Britain lies not far from continent. It is separated from Europe by the North Sea and England Channel. The channel in it's narrowest part The Strate of Dover is only 32 kilometres.
4. Great Britain has a very good geographical position, as it lies on the crossways of the sea routes from Europe to other parts of the World.
The sea connects Britain with most European countries such as: Belgium,
Holland, Denmark, Norway, Russia and some other countries. The main sea route from Europe to America also passed through the channel.
5. British climate is mild and damp. It often rains frogs are quitrequent especially in the West and south-west. The Gulf Stream a warm ocean current warms to seas around the British coast moderating the climate, giving it cold Summers mild winters. The temperature in winter seldom falls below zero and the field and meadow are green all year round.
Russia occupy a large territory. It stretch almost 10 000 (ten thousand) kilometres from east to west and nearly 5 000 (five thousand) kilometres from north to south. It's population is 150 000 000 (one hundred and fifty) million people.
From spring till autumn the sun never sets over Russia: in Kaliningrad people see it sitting in the Baltic, while in Kamchatka it rises out of the Pacific Ocean at the some time. People in our country see the New Year in eleven times in one night.
If you begin to travel in the Far East by air and fly 8 000 (eight thousand)kilometres towards the west, you will land in Moscow on the same hour same day that you left the Far East.
It is a wonderful sight you see our country from the plane. One can hardly imagine a country more interesting to travellers than Russia.
Siberia covers millions of square kilometres. You fly over mountain, endless forests, large and small rivers, railways, motorways. You leave behind the lights of young and small towns, plants and factories. Siberia is a region of untold riches.
Father West are the Ural Mountains the border between Asia and Europe. The Urals are riche in different minerals.
The country's European part covers the territory from Urals to the Baltic Sea. The largest cities of the Russia are situated between the Black Sea in the south and the Black Sea in the north. Such an our country from East to West. There is no over countries in which the climate differs so much from one part to another. When it is still winter in the northern regions of our country the first warm days arrive in the south. In the central regions show storms and cold are still in power, while in the south people begin to think of spring crops. In the same season nature looks different in different parts of our country.
Russia is rich in oil, coal, iron, gold, silver and other minerals.
SPORTS IN GREAT BRITAN.
The English are great lovers of sport; and they are neither playing nor watching games, they like to talk about them. However, there is important thing about sport in Britain which we must know. Today, an big sports is professional and famous players can make a lot of money.
et's take Football for example. It is the most popular team game in Britain. It is played in most of the schools, and there are thousands of amateur teams for young man in all parts of the country. But for most of the public, football is a professionals games which is watched on Saturday afternoons at the stadium.
Professional football is big business. Every large town has one or more professional clubs.
Rugby football is played with an oval ball which may be carried. The players in the other team try to stop the man running with the ball by throwing him to the ground. There are fifteen players in each team.
Sports competition get big crowds in Great Britain. All people in Great Britain are fond of sport and Englishman know is they train hard Sport will make them strong and healthy.
An educated person is one who knows a lot about many things. He is always finding out more about the world around him. I think it is very important that everyone should be educated. The more we know the more interested we are in the world around. Each pupil ought to do his best to become a useful member of our society. Education is so important in our life and for the good of society. The activities of the school day afford different opportunities for the pupils to participate in some useful work. They give opportunities to develop good work habits and writing compositions gives us opportunities to develop speaking, reading and writing skills.
I am interested in Mathematics, I tried my best to be good at them. I think that chemistry is hard. I believe my efforts in my further studies will be successful. All kinds of activities the pupils participate in are valuable to them.
THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF GREAT BRITAIN.
The educational system of GB is extremely complex and bewildering. It is very difficult to generalise about particular types of schools as schools differ from one to the other. The department of education and science is responsible for national educational policy, but it doesn't employ teacher or prescribe curricular or text books. Each school has it's own board of governers consisting of teachers, parents, local politicians, members of local community, businessmen and sometimes pupils. According to the law only one subject is compulsory. Such as religious instruction. Schooling for children is compulsory from 5 to 16, though some provision is made for children under 5 and some pupils remain at school after 16 to prepare for higher education. The state school system is usually divided into 2 stages (secondary and primary). The majority of primary schools are mixed. They are subdivided into infant schools(ages 5 to 7),and junior schools(ages 7 to11). In junior schools pupils were often placed in A,B,C or D-streams, according to their abilities. Under the pressure of progressive parents and teachers the 11+ examination has now been abolished in most parts of the country. There are some types of schools in GB Grammar schools provided an academical cause for selected pupils from the age of 11 to 18. Only those children who have the best results are admitted to these schools. They give pupils a high level of academic education which can lead to the university. Technical Schools offer a general education with a technical bias and serve those pupils who are more mechanically minded. The curricular includes more science and mathematics. Secondary modern schools were formed to provide a non-academic education for children of lesser attainment. The curricular includes more practical subjects. The comprehensive schools brings about a general improvement in the system of secondary education.
British education emas us to develop fully the abilities of individuals, for their own benefit and of society as a whole. Compulsory schooling takes place between the ages of 5 and 16, but some pupils remain at school for 2 years more, to prepare for further higher education. Post school education is organized flexible, to provide a wide range of opportunities for academic and vocational education and to continue studying through out life.
Administration of state schools is decentralised. The department of education and science is responsible for national education policy, but it doesn't run any schools, if doesn't employ teachers, or prescribe curricular or textbooks. All schools are given a considerable amount of freedom. According to the law only one subject is compulsory. That is religious instruction. Children receive pre-school education under the age of 5 in nursery schools or in infant's classes in primary schools. Most pupils receive free education finenst from public funds and the small proportions attend schools wholly independent. Most independent schools are single-sex, but the number of mixing schools is growing.
Education within the maintained schools system usually comprises two stages: primary and secondary education. Primary schools are subdivided into infant schools (ages 5 — 7), and junior schools (ages 7 — 11). Infant schools are informal and children are encouraged to read, write and make use of numbers and develop the creative abilities. Primary children do all their work with the same class teacher except for PT and music. The work is beist upon the pupils interests as far as possible.
The junior stage extend over four years. Children have set pirits of arithmetic, reading, composition, history, geography nature study and others. At this stage of schooling pupils were often placed in A, B, C and D streams according their abilities. The most able children were put in the A stream, the list able in the D stream. Till recently most junior school children had to seat for the eleven-plus examination. It usually consisted of an arithmetic paper and an intelligent test.
According to the results of the exam children are sent to Grammar, Technical or Secondary modern schools. So called comprehensive schools began to appear after World War 2. They are muchly mixed schools which can provide education for over 1000 pupils. Ideally they provide all the courses given in Grammar, Technical and Secondary modern schools. By the law all children must receive full-time education between the ages of 5 and 16. Formally each child can remain a school for a further 2 or 3 years and continue his studies in the sixth form up to the age of 18 or 19. The course is usually subdivided into the lower 6 and the upper 6. The curricular is narrowed to 5 subjects of which a pupil can choose 2 or 3. The main examinations for secondary school pupils are general certificate of education (the GCE) exam and certificate of secondary education (the CSE) exam. The GSE exam is held at two levels: ordinary level (0 level) and advanced level (A level).
andidates set for 0 level papers at 15 — 16 years away. GCE level is usually taken at the end on the sixth form. The CSE level exam is taken after 5 years of secondary education by the pupils who are of average abilities of their age.
EDUCATION IN RUSSIA.
An educated person is one who knows a lot about many things. I think it is very important that everyone should be educated. Each pupils ought to do his best to become a useful member of our society. Education is very important in our life. Going on educational excursions gives us opportunities to acquire some scientific knowledge.
In the Russian Federation the school education is compulsory. Pupils begin to go to school at the age of six. When they complete high grades they can either continue to study at school for more 2 years, or go to a professional school where they study not only main subjects, but are able to learn some profession. When school pupils leave school they can try to continue their education in institutes or universities.
There are many school types of schools in Russia: specialised, politechnical, musical art and others. Nowadays appeared some new types of schools: gymnasiums and colleges.
MY FAVORITE PAINTER
One of my favourite artists is Rembrant is the greatest Dutch master, one of the supreme geneses in the history of art. To this day the art of Rembrant remains one of the most profound witness of the progress of the soul in it's earthly pilgrimage towards the realisation of higher destiny. The son of the prosperous miller, Rembrant was born in Leiden in 1608. He studied at Leiden University, but his real vocation was painting. His rapid success promoted him to move to the Amsterdam in 1631. In 1632 Rembrant bought a splendid house, started a collection of paintings and rarities. The universal artist dealt with many world subjects. Rembrant created a number of portraits and some group portraits which were traditional to the Dutch art. The best of them are «Anatomy lesson of Dr. Tulp» and «The night watch». In 1655 Rembrant found himself in the midst of several financial troubles. At that period he painted «The Polish Rider», which is an allegory of the man's earthly journey.
Probably in 1669, the year of his own death, Rembrant painted his famous «Return of the Prological son», which stands at the ultimate peak of Christian spirituality, illuminating the relationship of the self to the eternity.
The biblical theme was very important to Rembrant. He painted «Artakserks, Oman and Eshpir», «The Saint Family». Rembrant was not understood when he was alive. He died in poverty. But it is the spirituality of his art that distinguishes Rembrant from his Dutch contemporaries making him the greatest artist of the world.
MY FUTURE PROFESSION
What I would like to become? This question puzzles me greatly. Every job has its elements of difficulties and interest. I think that nearly all the professions are very important in life. But to choose the right occupation is very difficult, because we must take in to consideration many factors. We must consider our personal taste and our kind of mind. At the same time we must satisfy the requirements of our society and peoples needs in one profession or another.
The end of school is the beginning of an independent life, the beginning of a more serious examination. In order to pass that very serious exam we must choose the road in life which will help us best to live and work. Each boy and girl has every opportunity to develop mind and use knowledge and education received at school. Some may prefer to work in factories or works, others want to go into construction: to take part in building power stations and new towns. Many opportunities to work and to satisfy at the same time the requirements of the society and your own personal interest are offered in the sphere of the services transport, communications and many others. I have a specially liking for to became a programmist. I like this profession because it very interest.
MASS MEDIA .
Mass media ( that is the press, the radio and television ) play an important role in the life of society. They inform, educate and entertain people. They also influence the way people look at the world and make them change their views. Mass media mould public opinion. Millions of people in their spare time watch TV and read newspapers.
Everybody can find there something interesting for him. On the radio one can hear music, plays, news and various discussions or commentaries of current events. Lot’s radio or TV games and films attract a large audience. Newspapers uses in different ways, but basically they are read.
There is a lot of advertisement on mass media. Some of the TV and radio stations and newspapers are owned by different corporations. The owners can advertise whatever they choose.
But it is hardly fair to say that mass media do not try to raise cultural level of the people or to develop their artistic taste. Mass media brings to millions of homes not only entertainment and news but also cultural and educational programs.
There are more then six TV channels and lot’s of radio stations and newspapers now in the Russian Federation.
Everybody sometimes has a free time. Somebody prefers only to sleep in their leisure time, but the largest part of us prefer to do a great amount of things which are pleasant and interesting for us. It may be reading, a various types of sport game, watching TV, listening music and others. If we have a few day or a week we prefer to go to the attractive places. Many peoples thing that pupils and students have too much leisure ,but in my opinion, they are wrong. We are very busy. Many pupils have six or seven lessons a day and go to school live or six day a week. Even during the holiday we learn our lessons after school. And we just no time to go some-there. Oldest of us are working after school or institutes. I'm not spend my time at school and after I have a free time. The large part of my free time devote to reading. I like to read books about another countries, another times and another worlds. Also I read books about history of our country. Besides reading I like to do physical exercises. I and my school friends often gather after school and play basketball, football or other active games. But my favourite hobby is travelling. Usually I travel in summer and after it is a trip to the south, to the warm sea. thing all peoples must have other occupation besides their basic work, because it extend the boundaries of the familiar world and teach us something new about people and thing.
THE NEWSPAPERS AND ITS READER.
1. Press is often called a mirror of current events. The information we get from newspapers and magazines helps us to know the life at home and in other countries.
The newspapers aim is to inform the readers as fully as possible of the events taking place in Russia an abroad. They try to cover domestic and foreign policy and the public opinion on all topical usenes.
2. My family receives…. I think… is most interesting I prefer it because…. It's a daily (weekly, monthly) newspaper (magazine).
3. If you are a regular reader of the press, you can got a lot of information.
RADIO AND TELEVISION.
Of all the discoveries ever made by man, radio or wireless, is one of the most wonderful. By means of wireless, you can speak to a man on the other side of the world. Seated conformably in your own home, you can hear music or talks, broadcast thousand of miles away from your- talks on national and international affairs, on science, history and other educational subject.
I listen to the wireless almost every evening, mine is are eight-valve set an arial which gives splendid results. I t has medium, long and short wave-lengths and it quit simple to manipulate. All I have to do it's to tune into the station I require.
I use my set a good deal for keeping up my foreign languages.
THE PROBLEMS OF TEEN-AGES.
There are many young people in our country. Each of them has one's own view point on their life and their future. There are many problems which are common for all young people. For Example: how to spend their free time, what to do after school, choosing a profession, how to deal with girl and boy-friends and so on.
The problem number one of most of the young people is the problem of fathers and sons. All young people want to be independent, they want their parents to listen to their opinion, not to interfere in their private life. Some parents neglect their children, because they cant find a common language with each other.
Many problems were hushed up, but now we can speak openly about them. I think that the most difficult and serious problem of modern teen-ages is drug-habit. Some young man use drugs, because they think that will be cool guys. But they don't understand, that it's wrong. Some of them can't stop that, and they become dependent on drugs. And they commit different serious, because they need some money to buy drugs. There are also many other problems: alcoholism, smoking and so on. There are many youth organisations in our country, which unite young men on different principles. Members of every organisation has ones own world out looks. Each of them has their own moral qualities. There are some informal organisations, for example: skinheads, hippies, panks and so on. Now there exists the problem of misunderstanding between different youth groups.
We also face the problem how to spend our free time. We can do it in different ways. Some of teen-ages spend their free time in different night clubs. Other young people spend their free time in the streets.
As for me, I spend my free time at home or in the night clubs. I also have some problems with my parents. But every time then I have them I try to solve them without quarrel.
Now we are young people and we are the future of our country. Teen-agers play an important role in the modern society. Grown ups must remember that we are the future of our country and in present moment our character is formed and that's why our parents must not assert pressure on us.
PROBLEMS OF UNEMPLOYMENT OF YOUNG PEOPLE.
People of almost every age are susceptible to this pernitious disease but it hits the youth the hardest. It's name is unemployment. The present age of unemployed youth in the total number of the jobless is high. In many developing countries the situation is more serious. Many young people to commit suicide. Unless the economic situation in the world changes, youth unemployment will mount. This productions refer to all categories of workers-with high and low skills in town and country. For all there possible distinctions, these young people over outside the production structure of society. The are deprived the possibility of creating there are «surplus» from time to time some may get a hit of luck, but the lot of the majority is to feel their unless to lose their ideals and become disillusioned. Unemployment greatly intencilicselle tendency among the youth towards, drug education, frustration and crime. This is a time bomb and is a heavy accusation of any social economic system.
Music — it art, reflecting validity in sound art images, one of the forms of public ideology. Having by powerful force direct emotional effect, music during of all history of man-kind plays a huge social, cultural and educational role.
Leading composers are connected to progressive public movements, life, interests and aspirations people. Each nations differs by peculiar national features. Folk music, being improved by creative efforts of many generations of the people, reaches a high degree of art maturity. On the basis of riches of national music professional musical creativity of composers is developed. Rejection of music from advanced ideas epoch of national culture, national roots of art leads to it's to decline and degeneration.
Idea emotional contents of music is passed through sound art images, implemented in musical sounds. The basis of music is the tune. According to the way of performance music is divided into 2 main branches: instrumental and vocal.
There are a great number of different styles of music. Such as: Jazz, Pop, Rock, Classic; and new musical directions. One of new music directions is Rave. It includes: Hard Core, Jungle, Break Beat, Trance, Gabber and many other. I like to listen Jungle and Hard Core.
As for me I like these styles because they are very rhythmic and dancing. The beginning of techno music was put very known singer Freddie Mercury was the first to compose music in the style techno. In those years very few people evaluated new style of music. But with the years a new style has grown up to such global sizes. Now this music is listened to by large part of youth. I think it's very good that such musical direction as raiv has appeared. Because in Rave there are a lot of musical directions. Young people that are fond of music can easily choose just that style which appeals to them.
When Charles Babbage, a professor of Mathematics at Cambridge university, invented the first calculating machine in 1812 he couldn’t imagine the situation we find ourselves in today. Nearly everything we do in the world is helped, or even controlled by computers, the complicated descendants of his simple machine. Computers are used more and more often in the world today, for the simple reason that they are far more efficient than human beings. They have much better memories and they can store much information. No man alive can do 500000 sums in one second, but a computer can. In fact, computers can do many of the things we do, but faster and better. They can predict weather, and ever play chess, write poetry or compose music.
The use of computers
Just as television has extended human sight across the barriers of time and distance, so the computers extend the power of the human mind across the existing barriers.
Computers in medicine
Computers are one of great importance in modern hospital. The chief use of computers is the storing and sorting the medical knowledge which has been equired in the last 50 years. No doctor can possible keep up with all discoveries. The only solution of the problem is store medical knowledge in a computer. Today there are medical computer centers were all existing knowledge of symptoms of various diseases and of their treatment is stored. Doctors feed data on symptoms in the computer and get the necessary information on correct diagnostics and treatment.
Computers that can be learn
Ordinary computer can remember only the data stored in the hard disk. Now scientists have designed machines, that are capable of learning from experience and remembering what they have learned. Such a machine is capable of recognising objects without human help or control. Of course, they made many mistakes.
There is another similar machine which can look at letter alphabet a simple words and they “say” thought a loudes speaker what it has seen. The machine has as certain learning power.
Computers at the school
Information science with the ideas and message of processing and storing information is of great importance today. That’s why computer technology must be told in secondary school. The new subject “basic information science”, and “computing machine” was intreduste for the siner forms at schools. The pupils teach computers to anlestigate school problems. Contact with the machine increases the interest in learning, makes them more serious about studying new subject. School computers are used not only for studying information science, but also examinations purposes. Young people who finish the school must be trained to operate computers.
300-400 years ago a great deal of the world was undiscovered. But now there seems little more to explore, the wild north was conquered, the jungle was conquered too. And it seems that all the pages of the great book called “The Earth” has been filled in, but exploration still goes on.
In the 15th century people knew only 3 continents: Europe, Asia and Africa. They knew nothing about America. The man who was thought to be the discoverer of America was born in 1451 in Italy. His name was Christopher Columbus.
Knowing that the earth was round he decided to reach India by sailing to the west. It was very difficult for him to organise an expedition as nobody wanted to help him. At last the Spanish government gave him some money. In the 1492 he sailed with 3 small ships in to the Atlantic ocean. They had been sailing for more than 2 months and at last they saw land. Columbus was certain that the lands he discovered were part of India and he called these islands “The West Indias”. He made 3 voyagers to America. His last voyage was made in 1502-1504. After that, seriously ill, he remained in Spain until his death. He died believing that Cuba was part of Asia. Columbus's voyagers gave Europe first important knowledge of the new world. Many places have been named in his honour. America however was named after another explorer Amerigo Vespucci.
Americus Vespucius (or Amerigo Vespucci, as the name is spelled in Italian) was born in Florence, Italy, in 1454. He was in Spain at the time of Columbus' first and second voyages. In a letter, written in 1504 and printed in 1505, he claimed to have made four voyages, on the first of which, in 1497, he explored the South American coast. This would make him the first European to land on the American continent, for at that time Columbus had only reached the outlying islands. Most scholars reject Vespucius' version of this voyage. Vespucius perhaps did accompany a Spanish expedition that of Alonzo de Ojeda to South America in 1499, and in 1501 and 1503 he probably went with Portuguese expeditions. Probably he never commanded an expedition himself and, of course, was not the first person to set foot on the continents to which his name is given. Vespucius died in Seville, Spain, in 1512.
The problem of learning languages is very important today. Foreign languages are socially demanded especially at the present time when the progress in science and technology has led to an explosion of knowledge and has contributed to an overflow of information. The total knowledge of mankind is known to double every seven years. Foreign languages are needed as the main and most efficient means of information exchange of the people of our planet.
Today English is the language of the world. Over 350 million people speak it as a mother tongue. The native speakers of English live in Great Britain, the United States of America, Australia and New Zealand. English is one of the official languages in the Irish Republic, Canada, the South African Republic. As a second language it is used in the former British and US colonies.
It is the major international language for communication in such areas as science, technology, business and mass entertainment. English is one of the official languages of the United Nations Organization and other political organization. It is the language of the literature, education, modern music, international tourism.
Russia is integrating into the world community and the problem of learning English for the purpose of communication is especially urgent today. Learning a foreign language is not as easy thing. It is a long and slow process that takes a lot of time and patience. But to know English is absolutely necessary for every educated person, for every good specialist.
It is well known that reading books in the original, listening to the BBC news, communicating with the English speaking people will help a lot. When learning a foreign language you learn the culture and history of the native speakers. One must work hard to learn any foreign language.
THEATRES, MUSIC HALLS AND CINEMAS
Theatres are very much the same in London as anywhere else; the chief theatres ,music halls and cinemas are in the West End. If you are staying in London for a few days, you'll have no difficulty whatever in finding somewhere to spend an enjoyable evening. You'll find opera, ballet, comedy, drama, revue, musical comedy and variety. Films are shown in the cinemas during the greatest part of the day.
The best seats at theatres are those in the stalls, the circle and the upper circle. Then comes the pit, and the last of all the gallery where the seats are cheapest. Boxes, of course, are the most expensive. Most theatres and music halls have good orchestras with popular conductors.
You ought to make a point of going to the opera at least once during the season if you can. There you can get the best of everything — an excellent orchestras, famous conductors, celebrated singers and well dressed audience. But, of course, if you are not fond of music and singing, won't interest you.
At the West End theatres you can see most of the famous English actors and actresses. As a rule, the plays are magnificently staged — costumes, dresses, scenery, everything being done of the most lavish scale. Choose a good play, and you'll enjoy yourself thoroughly from the moment the curtain goes up to the end of the last act. Get your seats beforehand, either at the box-office of theatre itself or at one of the agencies. When you go to a theatre, you'll probably want to seat as near to the stage as possible. But if you are at the cinema, you may prefer to seat some distance from the screen. In fact, I would say, the further away the better.
Until recently the history of the English theatre has been build around actors rather then companies. It has been hard to find any London theatre that even had a consistent policy. There are no permanent staff in British theatres. Apply is rehearsed for a few weeks by a company of actors working together mostly for the first time and it is allowed to run as long as it draws the odious and pays it's way.
Another peculiarity of the theatres in Great Britain is an follows: there are two kinds of seats, which can be booked an advanced (bookable), and unbookable once have no numbers and the spectators occupy them on the principal: first come — first served. And ancient times plays were acted inside churches and later on the market places.
The first theatre in England «The Blackfries» build in 1576, and «The Globe» build in 1599, which is closely connected with William Shakespeare. Speaking about our times we should first of all mention «The English National theatre», «The Royal Shakespeare company» and «Covent Garden».
«Covent Garden» used to be a fashionable promenade — it was, before then, a convent garden — but when it became overrun with flower-sellers, orange-vendors and vegetable-growers, the people moved to more exclusive surroundings farther west, such as «St. Jaime's Square».
The first «Covent Garden theatre» was build in 1732. It was burnt down in 1808 and rebuild exactly a year after. It opened in September 1809, with Shakespeare's «Macbeth». Since the middle of the last century «Covent Garden» became exclusively devoted to
Now «Covent Garden» in busier than ever, it is one of the few well-known opera houses open for 11 months of the year and it employs over 600 people both of the Opera company and the Royal Ballet.
THE NATIONAL THEATRE
It took over the hundred years to establish a national theatre company. It's first director from 1962 was Lawrence Olivier. This is the first state theatre Britain has ever had. A special building for it was opened in 1976. It has three theatres in one: «The Oliver theatre», the biggest is for the main classical repertoire; «The Lyttilton», a bit smaller is for new writing and for visiting foreign countries and «The Cottesloe theatre», the smallest is used for experimental writing and productions. «The Royal Shakespeare company» are divided between the country and the capital and it's produces plays mainly by Shakespeare and his contemporaries when it performs is «Stratford -on-Avon», and modern plays in it's two auditory in the Cities, Barbican centre.
For decades Moscow has had a reputation as a city of theatres. The birth plays of the historic «Bolshoy», «Maly» and «Moscow Art» theatres the city has been and steel is a centre for the development exploratory modern ideas in the dramatic art and is famous for it's great number of highly gifted, interesting directors, actors, playwrights and artists.
Every evening the doors of Moscow theatres open to streams of theatre-goers. The best Moscow theatres devoted themselves to developing the principals of directing and acting laid down by Stanislavsky, Meerhold, Nemerovich-Danchenko, Vachtangov and others. The discoveries and successes of Moscow theatres today exists due to experience and triumphs of preceding generations. I'd like to tell you about the Bolshoy Theatre. The majestic building of the Bolshoy Theatre stands in Theatre Square in Moscow's central quater, not far from Kremlin. This is the leading Russian opera house with the best vocalists and choreographers in it's company.
The Bolshoi traces it's history to 1776 when a standing opera company was organized in Moscow. The first opera shown in Bolshoi theatre was opera «life of tsar» (now «Ivan Susanin»).At later times operas by Dargomyzhsky, Serov, Tcaikovsky, Borodin, Moussorgsky, Rimsky-Korsakov and Rubinstein were produced here. At the same time the Bolshoi company staged the best operas and ballets by West European composers-Mozart, Rossini, Weber, Verdi and others.
The Bolshoi ballet company enjoys well-deserved fame as the world's finest. This is equally true of it's brilliant realistic style of performance and repertoire.
My visit to the theatre.
In our time the rhythm of life is very fast, especially in big cities. That’s why people want to see plays full of action, and many theatres offers such plays. One of my favourite play “Женитьба Фигаро” is one of them. It staged in “Ленком” and the cast was excellent: there were a great amount of young actors in this play. All of actors played with great feeling. Besides this in play acted my favourite theatre-actor Лазарев (junior). I know that this play is a hit, that’s why it have a long run and were very popular, but when I and my friend saw it, it was new place and audience were surprised by the scenery and the power of the music. All of us had a wonderful evening.
ART IN MY LIFE.
Nobody can imaging his life without art. The role of art in our life is tremendous. Art develops in us the sense of beauty, such qualities as kindness, sympathy, dignity. It teaches us to hate cruelty selfishness, cowardice. Art helps us to leave and makes our life more interesting. It develops our cultural level. History of arts dates back to ancient times. Art arises with the bothof a man. All kinds of art: painting, sculpture, music, literature, theatre, architecture are closely connected with each other. Art is immortal. Now we enjoy the best works of ancient masters of many countries. Each nation has it’s own unique art. People try to express through their works their attitude to life, describe the world around them, expiration and thought of people living with them.
Every of us has favourite artist, but for me there are a few famous name in the history of art. One of them is Michelangelo Buonarotti. He was a painter, a sculptor, and architect and a poet.
Michelangelo was born in 1475 in a small Italian town near Florence. At the age of twelve, he was apprenticed to Ghirlandaio, a well-known Italian artist. He learnt to draw copying other artist’s painting. He soon became interested in sculpture, too.
Michelangelo’s first great work was the Pieta for St. Peter Cathedral. After this, in Florence, he produced his famous statue of David. We have a copy of this statue in Pushkin Fine Art Museum.
From 1508 to 1511 he was painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican. People consider the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel to be one of the world’s greatest and most amazing works of art.
Michelangelo embodied the perfect multitalented Renaissance man. His influence on later artists is immense.
ART IN MOSCOW
Speaking about art galleries of Moscow we must mention the most famous galleries.
The State Tretyakov gallery
The State Tretyakov gallery is one of the best known picture galleries in Russia. It takes it's name from it's founder Pavel Tretyakov, a Moscow merchant. In the 19'th century Tretyakov began to collect Russian paintings. He visited all the exhibitions and art studios and bought the best pictures. Little by little Tretyakov extended his interests and began to collect earlier Russian paintings. In 1881 Tretyakov opened in St. Petersburg to the public, 11 years later he donated it to the city of Moscow. Since then the gallery has received hundred paintings from other museums and private collections. The Tretyakov gallery reflects the whole history of Russian paintings from 11'th century to the present day.
The State Pushkin Museum of Fine Art.
Also I'd like to tell you about state Pushkin museum of fine art. The building was built in Greek stile by Roman Klein in 1898 — 1912 to house a museum of fine art, founded of initiative of professor Ivan Cvetayev. Since 1937 it has be known as The Puskin museum of fine art. It has one of the worlds largest ancient collections of European art. Now the picture gallery has over 2 thousands works of various schools of painting which enaibous us to understand and appreciate the variety of staills over the centuries.
The Pushkin museum periodically hald's exhibition of the art of various countries and of individual outstanding artist of past and present.
ART GALLEREYS OF LONDON
Speaking about art galleries of London we should first of all mention The national gallery, The national portrait gallery and The Tate gallery. I would like to tell you about National portrait gallery and about Tate gallery.
The national gallery houses one of the richest and most extensive collections of painting in the world. It stands to the north of the Trafalgar Square. the gallery was designed by William Wilkins and build in 1834-37. The collection covers all schools and periods of painting, but is a specially famous for it's examples of Rembrant and Rubents. The British schools is only moderately represented as the national collections are shared with the Tate gallery. The National gallery was founded in 1824 when the government bought the collection of John Angerstein which included 38 paintings.
The Tate gallery houses the national collection of British painting from the 16-th century to the present day. It is also the national gallery for modern art, including painting and sculpture made in Britain, Europe, America and other countries. It was opened in 1897 as the national gallery of British art. It owes it's establishment to Sue Henritate who built the gallery and gave his own collection of 65 painting.
National portrait gallery.
The National portrait gallery adjoins the National gallery. The collection was founded in 1856 with the object of illustration British history, literature, arts and science. By means of portraits of the most famous men and women. The collection numbers over 4500 paintings, sculpture and drawing representing about 3500 persons. A part from those of the Royal family no portrait is admitted until it’s subject has been dead for ten years. Only about one third of the collection is on view but any portrait can usually been show on request. The portraits in the gallery are arranged more or less in chronological order.
Outstanding British artists.
William Hogarth (1697-1764) is sometimes called “the father of English painting”, he created a great body of work based on English life and culture, and work hard to improve the position of British artists.
Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788) was with Reynolds the greatest British portraitist of the 18th century. But he personally prefer landscape painting and made a central contribution to the development of this important aspect of British art.
The Renaissance or the revival of learning was the period then European culture was at it’s high. It lasted from the 14’th century till 17’th century, and was coursed by complex economic situation and social conditions. The feudal system was been shuttled by the bourgeoisie, which was getting stronger and stronger. It was more profitable to unite under a single rouler. Absolute monarchy came into being. This lead to the forming of nations and the true sense of the world. New social and economic conditions called for the new ideology, because the catholic dogmas didn’t correspond to the new trend of life. For this reason in many European countries the protestant religion spread up and national churches were established.
Instead of the blind face ordered by the catholic then appeared a new outlook which was called humanism. The time demanded positive recional knowledge and this demand was supplied: in astronomy by Copernicus, in philosophy by Tomas More, in geography by Columbus, Vaska de Gama and others. Leonardo de Vinci was force a new theory of art: “It was the greatest progressive revolution that mankind have so far experience, a time, which called for “Giants” and produced Giants in power and thought, passion and character in universality and language.”
An example of a typical men of the Renaissance period was: the famous Englishmen sir Walter Raleigh, he was a soldier, sailor, explorer, pirate, coloniser, historian, philosopher and a poet. He was much interested in science and literature. He wrote works of geography and lead expedition to South America. He was an outstanding poet. His poems are full of profound wisdom, written with great elegance and salacity of style. He organised of “academy”. Christopher Marlowe the greatest dramatist (before Shakespeare). But the most important of most this writer and one of the greatest men of this period was sir Thomas More.
He came into great favour and made a repaid carrier as a statesmen, at the same time writing works of a political, philosophical and historical character. His most famous book is “Utopia”. “Utopia” — means “no place, no there”. The work is writing in Latin and divided into two books. Thomas More was the first writer in Europe to formulate communist principals as a bases of society.
THE RRNAISSANSE IN ENGLAND.
The prides of Shakespeare.
The most brilliant period of English literature was in the second half of the 16’th and beginning of 17’th century. Sometimes it’s called “Elizabethan age” after queen Elizabeth 5. England had become a great world power. It had established wide commercial contact with countries And rich trading company had been organised. The English people were now a great nation and the English language enriched was now not unlike the language of Chaucer. Many famous poetical and prose works appeared. Among those who enriched the literary heritage of this period ere sir Philip Sydney, Adnond Spenser and Christopher Marlowe. There were fine works of poetry and prose in the Elizabethan age but the greatest hight’s of literature of this period were reached in drama.
Life of Shakespeare.
The great poet and dramatist William Shakespeare is often called by his people “Our National Bard”, “The Immortal. Poet of nature” and “The Great Unknown”. More than two hundred contemporary references to Shakespeare have been located among church records, legal records, documents in the Public Record Office, and miscellaneous repositories. When these owe assembled, we have at least the skeleton out line of his life, beginning with his baptise on April 26, 1564, in Trinity Church, Stratford-on-Avon, and ending with his burial there on April 25, 1616. Shakespeare native place was Sratford-on-Avon, a little town in Warwickshire, which is generally described as begin in the middle of England.
Shakespeare’s father, John, was a prosperious glove maker of Stratford who, after holding minor municipal offices, was elected high bailiff of Stratford. Shakespeare’s mother Mary Arden, came from an affluent family of landowners.
Shakespeare probably received his early education at the excellent Stratford Grammar School, supervised by an Oxford graduate, where he would have learned Latin smattering of Greek.
In 1582 Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway, who lived in a neighbouring hamlet. The first child born to Ann and William was their daughter Susanna. In about two years Ann bore him twins a boy and a girl, Hamlet and Judith.
Then life in Stratford became intolerable for William Shakespeare and he decided to go to London and began a theatrical career. Shakespeare major activity lay in the field of drama. He became a full shareholder in his acting company, he was part-owner of “the Globe” theatre and later of “the Blackfriars” theatre, and in 1597 he purchased property in Stradford. Including new place, one of the largest houses in the town. He probably refired there about 1610, travelling of London when necessary to take cave of his theatrical business. In all, 154 sonnets sequence. The sonnets were probably written in the 1590 but were first published in 1609.
Shakespeare’s literary work is usually divided into three periods. The first period of his creative work falls between 1590 and 1600. Shakespeare’s comedies belong to the first period of his creative work. They all are written in his playful manner and in the brilliant poetry that conveys the spectator to Italy. Some of the first plays of the first period are: “Richard 3” (1592), “The comedy of errors” (1592), “Romeo and Juliet” (1594), “Julius Caesar” (1599), “As you like it” (1599), 1600 — “Twelfth night”. Shakespeare's poems are also attributed to the first period, “Venus and Adonis” and “Lucrece”, and 154 sonnets. “Venus and Adonis” was the first of Shakespeare’s works that came off the press. The second period of Shakespeare’s creative work during from 1600 to 1608. His famous tragedies appeared at this time. In the plays of this period the dramatist reaches his full maturity. He presents great humans problems. His tragedies and historical plays made Shakespeare the greatest humanist of the English Renaissance. Some plays of the second period: 1601 — “Hamlet”, 1604 — “Othello”.
Shakespeare’s plays of the third period are called the “Romantic dramas”. There is no tragic tension in these plays. This period lasted from 1609 till 1612.
1609 — “Cymbeline”, 1610 — “The Winters Tale”, 1612 — “Henry 8”.
To be, or not to be, that is the question:
Whether its nobler in the mind to suffer.
The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune,
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,
And by opposing and then. To die, to sleep —
No more, and by a sleep to say we end
The heart — ache, and the thousand natural shocks
That flesh is hear to; ‘tis a consummation
Devoutly to be wished. To die to sleep —
To sleep! Perchance to dream! Ay, there’s the rub
For in that sleep of death what dreams may comes,
When we have shuflled off this mortal coil
Must give pause — there’s the respect
That makes calimity of so long life.
The history of England and second part of the 17’th century, and during the 18’th century was marked by British colonial, expression and struggle for the leading role in cowers. The writers and philosophises of this age protested against the sovivals of feudalism in which they saw the main evil of this time. Man they thought was vertains by nature and wise was duty ignorance to they started a pubic movement for enlightening the people. This movement was called “the enlightenment”. The enlightens believed in the power of reason and the period was also called “the age of reason”. This period saw a remarkable rise in literature. English literature of this period may be characterise by the following features: 1.The rise of the political pamphlets and issue. The novel became the leading genre. 2. The prose style became clever graceful and polished. 3. The hero of the novel was no longer a prince but a representative of the middle class. 4. Literature became very instructive.
The literature of this age may be divided into 3 periods:
The 1’st period is caricaturised by classicism in poetry. The greatest follower of the classical style was Alexander Pope. There appeared the first realistic novels written by Defoe and Swift.
The 2’nd period saw the development of the realistic social novel, representative by Richardson, Fielding and others.
The 3’rd period is marked by the appearance of a new trends: sentimentalism. Typified by the works of Goldsmith and Stern. This period also saw the rise of the realistic drama (R. Sheridan).
DD was the founder of the realistic novel. He was also a brilliant journalist and in many ways the father of modern English periodicals. He founded and paved the way for many magazines ( “The Revue”, “The Spectator”).
DD was born in London, his father a butcher, was wealthy enough to give his son a good education. D was to become a priest, but it was his cherished desire to become wealthy. His wished was never fulfilled. D was banckrote several times. He was always in deep debt. The inly branch of business in which he proved successful was journalism and literature. When D was about 23 he started writing pamphlets on question of the hour. He started writing pamphlets prassing King William 3, who was supported by the whig party. D wrote a setire in woth. No matter in whose defends his brilliant pamphlets were written they are irony was so subtle, that the enemy didn’t understand it at first. But as soon as his enemy realised the real character of the pamphlets D was sentensed to 7 years inprisonment. It was a cruel punishment, and when the came for him to be set free people carried him on their shoulders… This was the climax of his political career and the end of it. In 1719, he tried his hand at another kind of literature — fiction, and wrote the novel he is now best known: “Robison Crusoe”. After the book was published, D became famous and rich and was able to pay his creditors in full. Other novels which D were also very much talked about during his lifetime, but we do not hear much about them now. For example “Captain Singleton”(1720), “Moll Flanders”(1722).
Books about voyages and new discoveries were very popular in the first quater of the 18’th century and many stories of this then had been written but while Defoe was busy with politics he didn’t think of also trying his hand at it. However one story in in Steel magasine attracted his attention.
It was about Scotish sailor, who lived quite alone 4 years and 4 month on a desert island. Defoe’s hero, R.C., however spend 26 years on a desert island. The novel was a prase tohuman labour and the triumph the men over the nature. Labour and fortitude help Robinson to endure hardships. They save him from dispair. The very process of hardwork gives his satisfaction. R’s most characteristic tract is his optimism. His guiding prencipal in life was: “never said die” and “in trouble to be troubles is to have your trouble double.”
7. Jonathan Swift (1667-1745)
JS was the greatest of English satiriste. His better satire at the contempro-rary social order in jeneral and an the policy of English government towards in particular. That’s why the Irish people considered Swift the champion in the struggle for the wealthy and freedom of their country.
JS was born in Dublin, but he came from English family. His father died at the age of 25, liaving his wife and daughter penuiless. His son was born seven month later after his death. The boy knew little of his mother chearch. He hardly ever saw her, during his childhood. J was supported by his uncle Godwin. At the age of 6 he was send to school, which he left at 14. When he entered a college in Dublin and got his bacheloris degree in 1686.
In 1726 Swift’s masterpiece “Gulliver’s Travels” appeared. This work made a great sensation in Ireland as well as in England, it equally strirred the interests of those in politics as well as the readers of novels.
In this work Swift intended to satirise the evils of the existing society in the form of fictions travels. It tells of the adventures of ship surgeon, as related by himself and divided into four parts of four voyages:
1. A voyage to Liliput.
2. A voyage to Brobdignag.
3. A voyage to Laputa.
4. A voyage to the country of Houyhnhnms.
The first voyage was to a strange country Lilliput. As the result of a shipwreck Gulliver finds himself in a country, inhabited by a race of people about six inches high. Everything else in this country is on a correspondent scale. Swift meant this small country with it’s shallow interest, corrupted laws and evil customs to symbolize the England of the 18’th century, the court with it’s atmosphere of hostility, hypocrizy and flattery where the author felt as lonely as his hero when among the liliputians.
2. Before long Gulliver undertakes another voyage. The ship anchors near the land of the giants to take in a supply of water. While on shore Gulliver is captured by the giants. They are good-natured creatures and treat Gulliver kindly, though they are amused by his small size and look upon him as a plaything.
Brobdingnag is an expression of Swift’s desire to find the ideal and escape from the disgusting world of the Liliputians. The author idealizes an agricultural country ruled by ideal monarch. Swift creates such a monarch in the king of Brobdingnag. He is clever, honest and kind to his people. He hates wars and wants to make his people happy.
3. The third voyage is to Laputa, a flying island Laputa. Swift’s imagination the bitterness of his satire reach their climax in the third part where he shows the academy of sciences in Laputa (the author touches upon all the existing sciences). It is easy enough to understand that in ridiculing the academy of Laputa. Swift ridicults the scientists of the 18’th century. The scientists are shut in their chambers isolated from all the world.
3. In the 4’th part Swift describes Gulliver’s adventures at the Heuyhnhnms — a ideal land where were is neither sickness, dishonesty, non any of the frivo-lities of human scociety. The human race ocupies a position of servility there and a noble race of horces rules the country by reason and justice.
“Gulliver’s travels was one of the greatest works of the period of the Enlightenment in world literature. Swift’s democratic ideas expressed in the book had a great influence on the English writers who came after Swift.
RB is the national poet of Scotland. Every year on his bithday scotsmen all over the world gather together for a traditional celebration in which his memory is glorified,his poems are recited and his song are sung. Burns poetry is loved and enjoied by all his countrymen. They love Burns for the generosity and kindness of his nature, for his patriotism and truthfulness. In his poems he sang the pride and dignity of the Scotish peasantry.
Burns sang the beauty and the glory of his native land. He gloryfield true love and friendship.
Burns was born in Alloway, near Ayr, on the 25 of January, 1759. His father was a hard-working man and he took great trouble to give his family all the education he could.
When Robert was 6, he was send to a school at Alloway Miln. Robert were given a good knowledge of English.
For some years Burns worked on the family farm. They lived very poor.
Burns wrote his first poem at the age of 14. And from then till his death his poems and songs came out, giving delight and joy to the himself, his countrymen and all the world around. Burns worked with his father and brothers. The death of his father in 1784 left Burns free to chose his own kind of life, but it also gave him new resposobilities as head of the family. As a farmer he was unsuccessful and moved to other place — Burns published his poems in Kilmarnock in 1786. The success was great.
Burns wrote many poems and songs. After a short illness he died on 21’st July, 1796. Millions of people all over the world highly esteem and love Burns poems.
S. Marshak, a great soviet poet, brought Burns to Russian people throught his fine translate.
My Heart’s in the Highlands.
My heart’s in the Highlands, my heart is not here;
My heart’s in the Highkands, a chasing the deer;
A-chasing the wild deer, and following the roe -
My heart in the Highlands wherever I go.
Farewell to the Highlands, farewell to the North,
The birthplace of valour, the country of worth:
Wherever I wander, wherever I rove,
The hills of the Highlands for ever I love.
Farewell to the mountains high cover’d with snow;
Farewell to the straths and green valleys below;
Farewell to the forests and wild-handing woods;
Farewell to the torrents and loud pouring floods.
My heart’s in the Highlands, my heart is not here;
My heart’s in the Highkands, a chasing the deer;
A-chasing the wild deer, and following the roe -
My heart in the Highlands wherever I go.
LONDON, Jack (1876-1916).
The novelist and short-story writer Jack London was, in his lifetime, one of the most popular authors in the world. After World War I his fame was eclipsed in the United States by a new generation of writers, but he remained popular in many other countries, especially in the Soviet Union, for his romantic tales of adventure mixed with elemental struggles for survival.
John Griffith London was born in San Francisco on Jan. 12, 1876. His family was poor, and he was forced to go to work early in life to support himself. At 17 he sailed to Japan and Siberia on a seal-hunting voyage. He was largely self-taught, reading voluminously in libraries and spending a year at the University of California. In the late 1890s he joined the gold rush to the Klondike. This experience gave him material for his first book, 'The Son of Wolf', published in 1900, and for 'Call of the Wild' (1903), one of his most popular stories.
In his writing career of 17 years, London produced 50 books and many short stories. He wrote mostly for money, to meet ever-increasing expenses. His fame as a writer gave him a ready audience as a spokesman for a peculiar and inconsistent blend of socialism and racial superiority.
London's works, all hastily written, are of uneven quality. The best books are the Klondike tales, which also include 'White Fang' (1906) and 'Burning Daylight' (1910). His most enduring novel is probably the autobiographical 'Martin Eden' (1909), but the exciting 'Sea Wolf' (1904) continues to have great appeal for young readers.
In 1910 London settled near Glen Ellen, Calif., where he intended to build his dream home, «Wolf House.» After the house burned down before completion in 1913, he was a broken and sick man. His death on Nov. 22, 1916, from an overdose of drugs, was probably a suicide.
FEDOR DOSTOEVSKY (1821-1881)
The Russian writer Dostoevski is regarded as one of the world's great novelists. In Russia he was surpassed only by Leo Tolstoi.
Fedor Mikhailovich Dostoevski was born on Nov. 11, 1821, in a Moscow hospital where his father was a physician. At 13 Fedor was sent to a Moscow boarding school, then to a military engineering school in St. Petersburg. Shortly after graduating he resigned his commission in order to devote his time to writing.
Dostoevski had published two novels and several sketches and short stories when he was arrested along with a group of about 20 others with whom he had been studying French socialist theories. After the 1848 revolutions in Western Europe, Russia's Czar Nicholas I decided to round up all of that country's revolutionaries, and in April 1849 Dostoevski's group was imprisoned. Dostoevski and several others were sentenced to be shot, but at the last minute their sentence was changed to four years of hard labor in a prison in Omsk, Siberia. There, Dostoevski said, they were «packed in like herrings in a barrel» with murderers and other criminals. He read and reread the New Testament, the only book he had, and built a mystical creed, identifying Christ with the common people of Russia. He had great sympathy for the criminals.
As a child Dostoevski suffered from mild epilepsy, and it grew worse in prison. After four years in prison, he was sent as a private to a military station in Siberia. There in 1857 he met and married a widow named Marie Isaeva.
In 1860 Dostoevski was back in St. Petersburg. The next year he began to publish a literary journal that was soon suppressed, though he had by now lost interest in socialism. In 1862 he visited Western Europe and hated the industrialism he saw there. Dostoevski had been separated from his wife but visited her in Moscow before her death in 1864. In 1867 he married his young stenographer, Anna Snitkina. He died on Feb. 9, 1881, in St. Petersburg.
Customs and traditions of English speaking countries.
Every country and every nation has it's own traditions and customs.It's very important to know traditions and customs of different people. It will help you to know more about the history and life of different nations and countries.One cannot speak about England without speaking about it's traditions and customs .They are very important in the life of English people.Englishman are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up. There are six public holidays a year in G.B… Cristmas day is one of their favourite holidays.It's celebrated on the 25-th of december. There are some traditions connected with it.One of them is to give presents to each other.It is not only children and members of family.It's a tradition to give cristmas presents to the people you work with.Another tradition is to send cristmas cards.All these cards are brightly and coloured.Most of big cities of G.B.,especially London, are decorated with coloured lights and cristmas trees. On Trafalgar Square, in the center of London stands a big cristmas tree.It is a gift from the people of Oslo.It is over 50 feet high. Many families celebrate cristmas day in the open air near the cristmas tree in order to catch the spirit of cristmas.Children find cristmas presents in their stockings.The traditional English dinner on cristmas is turkey and pudding.Other great holidays are:FatherТs day,MotherТs day,Helloween and other.