Реферат: Russia's institutions of higher education
There are a lot of institutions of higher education in our country. The Linguistic University, previously known as Maurice Thorez Institute of Foreign Languages, Pedagogic University, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia are well known not only in Russia but also abroad. There are numerous regional educational centres in our country. Almost every city of Russia has its university and colleges.
Moscow State University is the largest educational institution in Russia. Mikhail Lomonosov (1711-1765) inspired the foundation of Moscow University. On the Day of St. Tatiana, Count I.I. Shuvalov officially asked the permission of Empress Elizabeth to establish the University. The University was set up by the edict of the Empress issued on January 12, 1755 (according to the Russian old style). Since that time St. Tatiana has become the patron saint of Moscow University, and January 25 is celebrated as University Day in Russia.
When Moscow University was founded there were three faculties — philosophy, law and medicine there. Today there are 24 faculties mere. From the outset the best Russian scholars lectured at Moscow University. Professors were invited from all European countries. The instructions were given in Russian and in Latin. Young people from all estates but serfs could be enrolled as students. Moscow University was the centre of advanced Russian science and social thought. In the Age of Enlightenment the University was patronised by Catherine the Great. In 1785 the Empress granted the University some land for the construction of the central building.
The fire of Moscow of 1812 destroyed the magnificent classical building of the University. Precious books and archives were also lost. The construction of the new building was carried out under the supervision of D.I. Zhilyardi. Today the Institute of Asia and Africa, one of the University faculties, is housed there. In 1832 Nicholas I granted the mansion of the Pashkovs to the University. Today the Journalist Faculty is located here. During the period 1833-1836 the mansion was reconstructed into a Lecture Block. The library was located in the left wing. The University Chapel occupied the right wing. Following the October Revolution of 1917, the University got the state status and became known as Moscow State University (MGU in Russian). In May 1940 it was named after M.V. Lomonosov. In 1953 the modern University building on the Vorobyevy Hills was constructed. Sciences faculties were transferred here. In the years 1950-1970 the University campus was laid out. Now almost all the faculties are located there.
Moscow State University teaches almost in all subject areas: Arts, Sciences, Law, Economics, Psychology, Biology, Chemistry, Engineering, etc. I do not know yet which faculty to choose. The Law Faculty is the centre of legal training in Russia. It is known for its high level of teaching. Professors of the Faculty do detailed research in the field of law. Moreover, they participate in the working out the Russia laws. The Lawyers, the Faculty graduates, use their knowledge in courts of law. The Faculty of Journalism is proud of its graduates who work in different fields of mass media: in editorial boards, television, radio stations and news agencies in Russia and abroad. Two-level system of economic and business education is offered at the Economics Faculty. At the Faculty students study Economics and business. They do research work and gain professional skills. The Faculty of Philosophy has always been the centre of progressive philosophical thought in Russia. The greatest Russian philosophers lectured at the Faculty. Today the best home and foreign scholars give lectures at the Faculty. Psychology was among the courses taught at first at the Faculty of Philosophy. The works of Russian psychologists are recognised in the whole world. The Biology Faculty, the largest scientific and research centre in the country, comprises the most important fields of modern Biology. Students take practical courses in Zoological Museum and Botanical Gardens. The Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics is one of the leading scientific centres in Russia. World leading professors deliver their lectures there. The Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics is popular among the applicants for entry too. Applied Mathematics and Computer Science undergo rapid changes. The usage of computers in various fields of education, science, technology, economics, management and linguistics is provided by the Faculty.
The top research institutions of Moscow State Lomonosov University enable to keep research and teaching up to date. Here students can learn skills, which fit them for a better career. Moscow State Lomonosov University reputation stays with its graduates — and their achievements in turn glorify it.
— Who can enter universities or colleges in Russia? -Any school-leaver can enter any university or college he likes if the entrance exams are passed successfully. Everything depends upon the ability of the applicant for entry to work hard. At school pupils acquire the necessary knowledge that will fit them for the competitive exams. Each University or Faculty within a University can choose what exams the applicants should take and what results should be considered worthy for an applicant to become a student. In order to apply for a University a person should have certificate a school-leaving, confirming that school-leaving exams have been passed successfully.
— Will you continue your education after finishing school? — Yes, certainly, I would like to continue my education. I am going to enter Moscow State Lomonosov University. This is the best institution of higher education in Russia. I have not made up my mind yet which faculty to choose. I have two years more at my disposal to think about it. Whatever faculty I'll choose, I am sure that knowledge I'll get at Moscow State Lomonosov University will enable me to become a good specialist in the chosen field.
— Is it difficult to make a conscious choice of the future profession?
— Now I am 14 but I think that even at 17 it is really difficult to make a proper choice of the future profession. The proper choice of the future profession is the pledge of success in life. Whatever my choice is, I know that at the moment my aim is to get knowledge that will enable me in two years to enter any institution of higher education I'll choose. It should be said that school provides pupils only with general knowledge that's why I want to continue my education in order to become a specialist in the chosen field.
— What should be done to help teenagers to find their way in life?
— Perhaps, first they should think over the possibilities of the future profession. Then, it is necessary to get as much information as only possible concerning it. When the teenagers do not know what to choose they should ask their parents or teachers to help them to make the right choice.