Реферат: William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare is the greatest of allplaywrights and poets of all times. Notmuch is known of his life. He was probably the son of a businessman and wasborn in 1564 in Stradford-upon-Avon. He probably attended the local grammarschool and got a classical education. In 1582 he married Anne Hathaway and had3 children. Little is known of his life before 1592, when he appeared as aplaywright in London. Soon he became an actor playing supporting roles like theghost in «Hamlet». In 1599 Shakespeare became a part owner of theGlobe Theatre in London.

Shakespeare's work as a playwright issubdivided into 3 periods. Written in the first period, Shakespeare's plays aremostly history plays like «Henry VI», and comedies with strongelements of farce. His masterpiece of this period is «Romeo andJuliet». In the second period Shakespeare wrote a number of comedies wherehe moved away from farce towards romance. In the third period, after 1600,appeared his major tragedies — «Hamlet», «Othello». Theypresented a clear opposition of order to chaos, good to evil. Shakespeare was agreat poet and would be well known for his poetry alone. His major achievementas a poet is his sonnets, first published in 1609. A sonnet is a poemconsisting of 14 lines, with a moral at the end. The sonnets are addressed tosome «W.H.», and to mysterious «Dark Lady of Sonnets». Thesonnets deal with the great themes of love, friendship, death, change andimmortality. Shakespeare looks at his own poetry as a means of immortality.Shakespeare's sonnets are excellent. They are full of harmony and music; theypraise love, friendship and beauty, though there is no sentimentality in them.Shakespeare's poetry is at the summit of human achievement. Many centuries havepassed since his death in 1616, but Shakespeare is still considered to be thegreatest of all playwrights and poets. The prideses of Shakespeare. The mostbrilliant period of English literature was in the second half of the 16'th andbegining of 17'th centure.Sometimes it's called «Elizabethen age»after quen Elizabeth 5. England hadbecome a geat world power. It had established wide commercial contact withcountries And rich trading company had been organaized. The english people werenow a great nation and the english language inriched was now not unlike thelanguage of Chaucer. Many famous poetical and prose works appeared. Among thosewho inriched the literary haritage of this period ere sir Philip Sydney, AdnondSpenser and Christother Marlowe. There were fine works of poetry and prose inthe Elizabethen age but the greatest hight's of literature of this period wereriached in drama. 2. Life of Shakespeare. The great poet and dramatist WilliamShakespeare is often called by his people «Our National Bard»,«The Immortal. Poet of nature» and «The Great Unknown».More than two hundred contemporary references to Shakespeare have been locatedamoung church records, legal records, documents in the Public Record Office,and miscellaneous repositories. When these owe assembled, we have at least thesceleton out line of his life, begining with his baptist on April 26, 1564, inTrinity Churche, Stratford-on-Avon, and ending with his burial there on April25, 1616. Shakespeare native place was Sratford-on-Avon, a little town inWarwickshive, which is generally described as beign in the middle of England.Shakespeare's father, John, was a prosperious glove maker of Stratford who,after holding minor municipal offices, was elected high bailiff of Stratford.Shakespeare's mother Mary Arden, came from an affluent family of landowners.Shakespeare probably recieved his early education at the exellent StratfordGrammar School, supervised by an Oxford graduate, where he would have learnedLatin smattering of Greek. In 1582 Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway, who livedin a neighboring hamlet. The first child born to Ann and William was theirdaughter Susanna. In about two years Ann bore him twins a boy and a girl,Hamlet and Jidith. Then life in Stratford became intolerable for WilliamShakespeare and he dicided to go to London and began a theatrical career.Shakespeare major activity lay in the field of drama. He became a fullshaveholder in his acting company, he was partowner of «the Globe»theatre and later of «the Blackfriars» theatre, and in 1597 hepurchased property in Strarford. Including new place, one of the largest housesin the town. He probably refired there about 1610, travelling of London whennecessary to take cave of his theatrical business. In all, 154 sonnetsseguence. The sonnets were probably written in the 1590 but were firstpublished in 1609. 3. Shakespeare's works. Shakespeare's literary work isusually divided into three periods. The first period of his creative work fallsbetween 1590 and 1600. Shakespeare's comedies belong to the first period of hiscreativ work. They all are written in his playfull manner and and in thebrilliant poetry that conveys the spectator to Italy. Some of the first playsof the first period are: «Richard 3» (1592), «The comedy oferrors» (1592), «Romeo and Juliet» (1594), «JuliusCaesar» (1599), «As you like it» (1599), 1600 — «Twelthnight». Shakespe-are's poems are also attributed to the first period,«Venus and Adonis» and «Lucrece», and 154 sonnets.«Venus and Adonis» was the first of Shakespeare's works that came offthe press. The second period of Shakespeare's creative work during from 1600 to1608. His famous tragedies appeared at this time. In the plays of this periodthe dramatist reaches his full maturity. He presents great humans problems. Histragedies and historical plays made Shakespeare the greatest humanist of theEnglish Renaissanse. Some plays of the second period: 1601 — «Hamlet»,1604 — «Othello». Shakespeare's plays of the third period are calledthe «Romantic dramas». There is no tragic tension in these plays.This period lasted from 1609 till 1612. 1609 — «Cymbeline», 1610 — «The Winters Tale», 1612 — «Henry 8».


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