Реферат: Топики по Англ. языку
Educational System in Russia.
I think that education is a key to a good future.
Russia has always shown a great concern for education. The right to education is stated in the Constitution of the Russian Federation. It is ensured by compulsory secondary schools, vocational schools, and higher education establishments. It is also ensured by the development of extramural and evening courses.
Russian children begin to go to school when they are 7. Education is compulsory up to the 9th form inclusive. If a pupil of secondary school wishes to go on Higher education, he or she must stay at school for two more years. Every school has a number of general subjects such as Russian, Literature, Mathematics, History, a foreign language and others. Some private schools, Lyceums and gymnasiums offer special programs giving a profound knowledge in some fields of study.
After finishing the 9th form one can go on to a vocational school which offers a programme of training in a technical field, or a profession.
After finishing the 11th form of a secondary school, a lyceum or a gymnasium one can go on in higher education. All applicants must take competitive examinations. Higher education establishments, which are institutes or universities, offer 5-year programme of academic subjects for undergraduates in a variety of fields, as well as a graduate course. If one finishes a graduate course and writes a thesis, he or she receives a candidate’s or a doctoral degree.
The system of secondary and higher education in Russia is going through a transitional period. The main objectives of the reform are: to decentralize the higher education system, to develop a new financial mechanism, to give more academic freedoms to faculties and students. All secondary schools, institutes and universities until recently have been funded by the state. Now there is a number of private fee-paying schools and some universities have fee-paying departments.
Today Russian education is one of the best in the world. But I think that if our educational system wouldn’t be changed in the nearest future we will lose this place.
Higher Education in the U.K.
I think that education is a key to a good future. And universities are the main step on the education-way.
There are more than 60 universities in the U.K. The leading universities are Cambridge, Oxford and London. English universities differ from each other in traditions, general organization, internal government, etc.
British universities are comparatively small; there are about 7 thousands of students. And most universities have fewer than 3000 of students. London and Oxford universities are international, because people from many parts of the world come to study at one of their colleges. A number of well-known scientists and writers, such as Newton, Darwin, Byron and others were educated in Cambridge.
A university consists of a number of departments: art, law, music, economy, education, medicine, engineering, etc. After three years of study a student may proceed to a Bachelor's degree, and later to the degrees of Master and Doctor.
Besides universities there are about 300 of technical colleges, providing part-time and full-time education.
The organization system of Oxford and Cambridge differs from other universities and colleges. The teachers are usually called Dons. Teaching is carried out by tutorial system. Each student goes to his tutor's room once a week to read and discuss an essay which the student has prepared. Some students get scholarship but the number of these students is comparatively small.
There are many societies and clubs at Cambridge and Oxford. The most celebrating at Cambridge is the Debating Society at which students discuss political and other questions with famous politicians and writers.
It should be mentioned that not many children from the working-class families are able to receive the higher education as the fees are very high. And there are special fees taken for books, for laboratory works, exams and so on.
Recycling is the urgent problem of Novosibirsk.
That the problem of pollution and ecology has become the most important one for mankind is evident to all. The more civilization is developing, the greater the ecological problems are becoming.
The problem of recycling attracts the great attention of society.
It’s very actually today. Only in Novosibirsk we have more than 1.5 million cubic meters of trash in a year.
Today we only have one glass-recycling plant. And we haven’t any trash-recycling plants in Novosibirsk. It isn’t good of course. Streets are dirty and there are many waste places in our city. Unrecycled trash is burnt by people. It makes smog that is very bad for ecology.
As the government says a trash-recycling plant is going to be built in Novosibirsk in the nearest two years. It will be invested by the private company.
Well, I think it’s strange that local powers aren’t able to do this for our city and people have to do it themselves. But at the same time it’s good.
We see that Novosibirsk is a city with very bad ecology. And we shouldn’t think that our government will improve this situation for us. Everybody must do everything he can to protect our environment. All society as a whole must fight against pollution.
We must get more knowledge about environment. We must learn how to make new products from old things. There are some charitable funds where you can invest your money if you want to do something.
Novosibirsk State Technical University
Novosibirsk State technical University, founded in 1953, gained its status of a technical University in 1992. It is one of the top ten technical universities in Russia, and a large scientific and educational centre of Siberia.
NSTU trains specialists and offers additional training in 35 areas and 10 faculties: Automation and Computer Engineering; Applied Mathematics and Informatics; Automated Electromechanical Systems; Automated Machine Building; Aircraft; Business; Power Engineering; and Humanities.
The period of study is 4-6 years depending on the qualification as follows: Bachelor of Science 4 years; Engineer 5 years; Master of Science 6 years. Students are awarded M.Sc. degree in Engineering after defending their Master’s theses in the corresponding fields of study. Postgraduate students are offered a 3 year program of study and research leading to candidate of Science degree in Engineering.
The number of students at NSTU is about 10000. The number of academic staff is about 1000. They work and study at 61 departments.
The students actively participate in all types of scientific research. The University publishes the journals, scientific works, textbooks, monographs, and teaching manuals.
The university participates in some international programs. It has relations with 12 Universities in Europe, Asia and America.
The University has 8 teaching blocks. Its research laboratories are equipped with modern facilities. The campus includes 7 students’ hostels, a sport centre with a swimming pool and sky centre. The University has sports camps in the picturesque Altai Mountains and in suburbs of Novosibirsk.
The rector of the University is Professor Anatoly S. Vostricov. He took office in 1990. He continues the tradition began by Professor Georgi P. Lyshchinsky, to keep the University on the leading edge, a place where students and academic staff are justifiably proud to work and learn.
Faculty of Automation and Computer Engineering.
The Faculty of Automation and Computer Engineering is one of the largest NSTU faculties. The faculty was set up in 1963. It comprised three departments at that time. These were the Department of Automation and Teleautomaties; Electric Metering Technology; and Mathematical and Calculating Machine and Devices.
Since 1994 the Faculty has been located in the seventh teaching block, being the only faculty occupying separate building.
At present the faculty comprises six major departments awarding degrees. These are the following ones: Department of Automation; Department of Automated Control System; Department of Computer Engineering and others.
Students are given an opportunity not only to obtain the most up-to-date knowledge in the area chosen, but also to carry out research and participate in engineering developments. The Faculty has about 40 instructional and research laboratories and computer classrooms.
The Faculty offers multi-level system of training awarding Bachelor’s, Master’s and Engineer’s degrees. The Bachelor degree is awarded after 4 years of study, Engineer’s degree after 5.5 years, and Master’s degree after six years of study.
Some departments give training in additional area expanding the student’s major field.
More than a 1000 students study at the Faculty. The number of teaching staff is about 100 of teachers and professors.
Students acquire fundamental knowledge and practical training in various fields of science and engineering. They actively participate in all types of work. There are a journal and some teaching manuals, published by the faculty. The dean of the faculty is Professor V.V. Gubarev.
As conclusion, I can say that I study at this faculty, and I’m really proud of this.
In the past, computers were used only in the workplace. They were commonly used for mathematical explorations and innovations. The earliest computer was Babbage’s Analytic Engine. Charles Babbage designed his Difference Engine in the nineteenth-century because people were making many errors in calculations.
First computers were really huge. They occupied whole rooms. And many people were needed to work with them.
Modern computers are able to do great number of things, not only to calculate. In today's society, computers are necessary. They are used in all kinds of jobs. They are used in Science, Math, Medicine, mechanics and so on.
We can’t imagine our life without computers. They have a respected place in the modern world. New generations are using them for everything: to learn, to communicate, to do research, etc. And old generations have become to accept them as well.
As a student of NSTU, I use computers every day both in my studying and in my personal life. They help me to relax when my stress is maximum. I can also find a lot of interesting and useful things by using the internet. By using e-mail to communicate with my friends I save a lot of money because I don't need to make long distance calls.
Computers help me to make my life easier.
But on the other hand computers are dangerous for people. They are very bad for our eyes and nervous system. But in spite of this millions of people use computers in their ordinary life. They can spend hours and hours in front one of them.
I think my future profession will be connected with computers. At real I think that all professions in the nearest future will be connected with them.
Alexander Bell never planned to be an inventor; he wanted to be a musician or a teacher of deaf people. The subjects that he studied at school included music, art, literature, Latin and Greek. They did not include German which all scientists used in their books. Alexander’s mother was a painter and a musician. His father was a well-known teacher of deaf people.
When Alexander was only sixteen, he became a teacher in boy’s school in Scotland. He liked teaching there, but he still wanted to become a teacher of deaf people as his father.
At twenty five Alexander became interested in finding a way to send human voice through an electric wire. The parents of his pupils invested money for the equipment. He found an assistant, Tom Watson, who worked in an electrical shop. For two years Tom and Alexander were working together to build a machine that people could use to talk to one another over long distances. One day, when they were working on a new transmitter Alexander spilled some acid on himself. Tom Watson, who was alone in another room, heard a voice. The voice was coming through a wire on the table. It was Alexander’s voice.
The first telephone line was built in Germany in 1877. Then a telephone lines were opened in the United States. First telephones were big. And the distance of talking wasn’t very long.
Now there are such great inventions as mobile and video telephones. And you can speak with your friend from any part of the world.
Who knows, may be in the future telephones will transmit smells and feelings.
Today, Novosibirsk is the 4th large city in Russia by population and the third large by area. The city is divided into 10 districts, 2 of which are situated on the left and 8 – on the right bank of the Ob River.
Novosibirsk was born in the point of intersection of the mighty Siberian River Ob and Trans-Siberian Railway in 1893. It was called Novonikolaevsk those days. The god-father of Novosibirsk was famous Russian engineer Garin-Mikhaylovsky, who selected a place for the construction of the railway bridge across the Ob River.
The city was developing at a super fast rate of growth. In the twenties it became the centre of new administrative formation – the vast Siberian territory.
Today, Novosibirsk is an important industrial, cultural and educational centre.
The city’s rich cultural life includes the world-class Opera and Ballet theatre, the Conservatoire of Music, more than a 100 libraries, museums and so on. Novosibirsk Picture Gallery is one of the finest and valuable in Russia.
The city is also home to The State and Public and Scientific and Technical Library that celebrated its 80th anniversary in 1998.
Novosibirsk is also a scientific centre. Academgorodok, the township of the Siberian branch of Russian Academy of Sciences is famous throughout the world. It was founded by the Academy in the 1950’s in a picturesque place near the Ob Sea. Today a number of research institutes, laboratories, schools and Novosibirsk State University are situated there.
The 2nd half of the 1980s is a very remarkable time period in the history of Novosibirsk. That is when a metro was built in the city. Today its passenger turnover is the 3d in Russia.
As conclusion, I can say that I live in Novosibirsk. I love my city. And I’m very proud of it.
Attributes of a Good Employee
Sadly, most people don't realize how valuable and rare a good employee is, nor how good it is to be one themselves, until they own their own business or are in charge of their own employees.
First, it is important to have a fundamental information about the product of your company or group. You have to use the product yourself.
Second, you need a real interest in discussion with customers about how they use your product, what they like or don’t like in order to know where your company’s product could be better.
Third, once you understand your customer’s needs, you have to enjoy thinking through how this product can make work more interesting.
These first three points are related. Success comes from understanding and caring deeply about your products, your technology and your customers’ needs.
Fourth, you as an individual employee should develop your own skills and those of the people you work with. If maximizing your next bonus or salary increase is all that motivates you, you will lose out.
Fifth, you need to have specialized knowledge or skills. Big companies, in particular, need employees who can learn specialties quickly, so a willingness to learn is critical.
Sixth, a good employee will want to learn the economics of the business. And a company, in turn, should educate its employees in the fundamental financial realities of its industry.
Seventh, you must focus on competitors, you must think about what is going on in the marketplace.
Finally, being a good employee means being a good person. You should be patient, attentive, courteous and reliable. Good companies know that those values cannot be learned in any college, or on the job training. They must be within you before you work for them and not only are they the most valued characteristics to find in an employee, they are also the most rare.