Реферат: Темы по английскому за 10 класс
1. Speak about the most striking traits of peoples character
During our life we get in touch with many people. We all know a password: “So many characters, so many people “ and it is really true. Character is the most important thing in a person which attracts or repulses other people. Each of us has his or hers good and bad features of character, but some of them come to the fore that’s why we can say: “He is a bad man, because he is rude or impertinent. And he is a good man because he is courageous, generous, kind-hearted. I have many friends & a lot of acquaintances and they are all different. Some of them are very kind-hearted and friendly some are not so kind but they are devoted friends and always help me and their friends, but they can be very cold or indifferent to other people. Also some feature have a double nature example: modesty or perseverance and others. Modest people are usually polite, quite, but sometimes they tend to be too reticence. Persevering people can become obstinate. As for me I like devotedness, wittiness, kindness, friendliness, in people. I think that there are 2 sorts of kind people. The first sort is really ,kind-hearted people who are always ready to help all people in the world no matter what social position they have The other sort who only try to look kind and friendly. But they are friendly only with people whom they interested in. I hate such people because you don’t know if they are really good or only want to look friendly and I cannot trust them. A lot of things can change a person’s character. If you are a kind man and you has grow up with rude, cruel people you can become the like them or vice versa a bad man can become kind. Some people have a strong character and they can try to change and become good. For example people why often let of their steam it is necessary to control themselves and so on. Every character forms in the society therefore in the society determines one’s character. Also I believe that Signs of Zodiac influence one’s character. Every Symbol has own features common for all people born under this symbol. For example I’m Libra ,in my Horoscope it says that in me there are 2 persons. And other good and bad features. But I also believe that everyone can change his character, adding more good or bad features.
2. Travelling by air .Give your counter reasons in fever of flying.
It is very interesting to travel. You can see other countries, continents, you acquainted with other people, their traditions and customs. You can travel by car, by train, by air, by sea. If you like to see the nature, and you enjoy the process of travelling and you have a route it will be easier if you travel by car. Travelling by train is usually chosen by people who have enough time to get from one place to another. Travelling by air usually preferred by people who haven’t got much time and they must quickly get to another city, country or continent. Nowadays there are a lot of businessmen who have to communicate with people from other countries. Every day they must sign a lot of contracts. Sometimes they have to sign several contracts within one day ,for example in France and in Spain .And if there were no planes it would be impossible. Each of us has a lot of relatives and friends. Some of them live in other countries. For example you live in Russia, Moscow and you have some relatives in France or in Britain. You certainly can get to GB by train, and by sea but it will take you a lot of time. It would be easier if you choose a plane. Imagine that something has happened to your friends and you are need very immediately. The plane will help you in this case. Nowadays we try to use fast means of travelling such as a modern high-speed railway in France and certainly planes. As for trains there are railway stations, for planes there are airports. In every airport there are some formalities without which you cannot come or leave the country .At first it is Customs. Every country has it’s regulations. Then you are given luggage tags and boarding passes. The last is the Passport control. When you decide to travel by air you can buy first and economy class tickets. The first class is more comfortable than economy and it is always more expensive .In spite of first class tickets being very expensive have some advantages over economy. At first it is more comfortable seats. The dinner is much better then in economy class, and if you have bought a first class ticket you can have 30 kg luggage free of charge. Also you have a private emergency exit for the first class passages only. You have one more advantage: you can take any drinks free. Although flying by plane is very fast it has some inconveniences. There is a jet-lag, a difference between the time you are accustomed to and the new time. At first you won’t be very well because of it, but don’t worry – it won’t take you long to get used to it. As a whole to fly by planes is pleasant and convenient
3. Speak about airport formalities
Passengers are requested to arrive at the airport 2 hors before departure time. They must register their tickets, weigh in and register the luggage. Most airports have at least 2 classes of travel, first class and economy class, which is cheaper. Each passenger of more than 2 years of age has free luggage allowance. Generally this limit is 20 kg for economy class passengers and 30 kg for first class passengers, excess luggage must be paid for except for some articles that can be carried free of charge. The rules for passengers who are going abroad are similar in most countries but sometimes there might be a slight difference in formalities. If, for instance, you are supposed to begin with going through the Customs, you’d better fill in the customs declaration before you talk to the customs officer. He may ask any passenger routine questions about declare the things, spirits, tobacco, presents. Then you do to the check – in counter where your ticket is looked at, your things are weighed and labelled. The next formality is filling in the immigration form and going through passport control. The form has to be filled in block letters. You write your name, nationality, permanent address and the purpose of your trip. In most countries there is also a security check when your carry-luggage is inspected. This is an anti-hijacking measure, and anything that might be dangerous or disturbing to other passengers must be handed to one of the crew and only returned to the owner after the plane has reached its destination. After fulfilling all these formalities you go to the departure lounge where you can have a snack, read a paper buy something in the duty-free shop and wait for the announcement to board the plane. Some of these formalities are repeated when you arrive at your destination. The customer declaration and the immigration form are often filled in on board the plane. At the airport you may be met by a specially trained dog who’ll make sure that you are not earring drugs, and the immigration officer might want to know on whose invitation you are coming and whether you have a return ticket. There is one inconvenience you have to be prepared for when you travelling long distances by plane. It’s a difference between the time you are accustomed to and the new time. At first you won’t be feeling very well because of it, but don’t worry – it won’t take you long to get used to it.
4. Staying at the hotel. Speak about everyday services available at the hotel.
When you come to another country or city you can stay at your friend’s house or flat. But if you haven’t got any relatives or friends you may stay at a hotel. There are 2 sorts of hotels: at the seaside and in city The hotels at the seaside usually occupied big territory. And the services and facilities are usually better there then in city hotels. You can get more things free. Also at the seaside hotels food is served usually 2 of 3 times a day and in city hotels you can get only breakfast. Before you arrive somewhere you can make arrangements about a room of the hotel you’ll choose. You can call at the hotel of send them a fax or telegram which numbers you can find in the advertisement. If you haven’t done it, when you arrive at the hotel it is necessary to come up to the reception desk .There a person can order a room. First of all you must fill in an arrival card. In this card you must gave information about yourself. Your name and surname, telephone number and address besides it is necessary to point out how long are you going to stay here. Also among the seaside hotels the best with club system. Usually on the territory of such hotels there are 4-5 storied building with single rooms, double rooms, and suites and separate there are family cottages. The area of such hotels is usually very big about 50hectores. Club system allows to take free any, soft drinks, food 24 hours a day, because everything is included into the price of the tour. There are all day room services, dry cleaners, laundries. In the rooms there is a refrigerator, bathroom, a satellite TV and direct dial phone. Also such hotels have their own place on the beach with comfortable sun beds .You can spend time riding horses, playing tennis, golf, polo, visiting shops, which are usually situated in the territory of the hotels. In the evenings you can go to the disco or to the restaurant. The menu in the restaurants including different cuisine’s such as :French, Spanish, Chinese, Turkish, Russian and so on. You can order a yacht tour to some historical places (if any) or something like that. After visiting such hotels you’ll return home happy and refreshed.
5 . Speak about foods you like and dislike. Describe any recipe.
Meals play an important role in human life. Because it contained indispensable ingredients for life activity of our organism. Such as dioxides, fats, minerals and vitamins. They are contained in fish, vegetables, fruits, meat and other food stuffs. To be healthy man should eat 3 times a day. For lunch people usually eat buiscuits, toasts, sandwiches, cheese and drink coffee or tea with cream and sugar accordingly to your taste. For dinner we eat some soup, salad and fowl, fish or meat with garnish. Many people have to eat out of home in restaurants or in cafes. In such places you can order French fries, hamburgers, cheeseburgers, crisps, pizza and many others, but these meals are very harmful for our health. There are people who like salty and spicy or sweet food. Also we all like roasted and grilled food, but such it is also very harmful. Nowadays a lot of people believe that only healthy food must be eaten. They don’t eat spaghetti, chops, sausages, grilled meat fish, fowl. They prefer to eat boiled and stewed vegetables such as cabbage, cauliflower, egg-plants, carrots. They certainly eat meat and fish but only boiled. Also there are people who don’t eat meat or fowl at all. They are vegetarians. But it isn’t good, because in fish and in meat there are some ingredients without which our health won’t be strong. In all big cities you can find Indian, Chinese Japanese and other oriental restaurants. Nowadays you can order you favourite meals by telephone, but despite it a lot of people like to cook themselves .Before cooking something you must buy some food stuffs. In big cities there are supermarkets and department stores where you can buy everything you need in daily life: from a tooth brush up to cars and furniture. Certainly you can buy there any you food stuffs. like Also there are food shops and markets. In markets it is better to buy greens, vegetables and fruits. Meat, fowl and fish it is safer to bay in shops because they must be kept refrigerator. As for me I like salty and spicy food. For example I’ll never refuse to eat grilled meat or stuffed egg-plants. I like caviar, shrimps, pate, bacon, cold pork.
6. Speak about shopping in GB.
Europe dictates a fashion to the whole world. Nowadays France is the centre of fashion. But in the last century her place was occupied by GB. At that time a lot of new modern shops appeared. Now their branches are situated all over the world. you can find. The Most famous of them in London in Oxford Street, Regent Street, and Knightsbridge. Besides book’s ,clothes’, food shops in GB there are a lot of supermarkets and department stores where you can buy everything from a button to a car and furniture.
Here there are the most famous British shops:
The Body shop: sells perfumes, soap, shampoo and skin-care products for men and for women.
Dillons : was open in 1936 as the bookshop to the University of London.
Next: is the a chain of Popular fashion clothes shops for men and women. It became famous for the suits which were worn by the businessmen and businesswomen at the beginning of the 1980s.
W.H.Smith: is a national chain of shops which sells newspapers and magazines. Smith’s also sell books, videos, stationary, pens and office equipment.
Harrods : is the famous London department store
Sainbury’s supermarkets are one of the leaders in food and drink selling in Britain.
But the most famous of British shops all over the world is Marks & Spencer. It attracts a great variety of customers, from housewives to millionaires. Princess Diana, Dustin Hoffman and the British Prime Minister are just a few of its famous customers. Last year it made a profit of £529 million, which is more than £ 10 million a week. It all started 109 years ago, when a young Polish immigrant, Michael Marks, had a stall in Leeds market. He didn’t have many things to sell: some cotton, a little wool, lots of buttons, and few shoelaces. Above his stall he put the notice: “Don’t ask how much-it’s a penny. 10 years later, he met Tom Spencer and together they started Penny Stalls in many towns in the north of England. Today there are 564 brunches of M&S all over the world – in America, Canada, Spain, France, Belgium, and Hungary. In M&S the best selling clothes are :for women: jumpers, bras, and knickers; for men: shirts, socks, pyjamas, dressing gowns, and suits; for children; underwear and socks. Best – sells in food include fresh chickens, bread, vegetables and sandwiches. Why is M&S so successful? The store bases its business on three principles: good value, good quality, and good service. Also it changes with the times –once it was all jumpers and knickers. Now it’s food, furniture and flowers as well .Top fashion designers advise on styles of clothes.
7. Speak about your experience of shopping abroad, (if any) and in your city.
In the world there are a lot of women who like to do shopping. they can spend all day visiting different supermarkets and department stores searching to new clothes and trying on them. As for me I don’t like shopping. I think that there are a lot of other interesting things in the world. Many people like to buy things in other countries, because they remind them later of their nice trip. When I was in Finland I saw a lot of big supermarkets such as Stockman, Sockas and Galagen. Also I visited the biggest shopping centre in Europe – Etackeskas. European shops usually occupies 4-5 storied buildings. On the ground or first floor you can buy any food staffs you like. On the second floor there are lady’s and men’s departments. On the third level you can usually buy clothes for children. We try to buy different things and clothes abroad because we think or know that’s their quality of them is better in European countries than in ours. The service in them certainly better than in ours shops because it began to develop much earlier than in Russia. When a customer comes to a shop the shop assistant will always answer any question and try to do his best for you. Also every season there is a week or two of sales. In Europe the biggest sales begin two weeks before Christmas. Since for standards of living in Europe are higher and the economic situation is better than in our country it is much more convenient to pay the bill in shops. In all civilised countries the system of credit cards is introduce. Due to it you needn’t carry money with you at all, a credit card allows to pay for everything from the cars and to buttons. Not long ago the credit card system come to Russia. Every day there is more shops permit clients to pay bill by credit cards. For the last 10 years in Moscow modern shops have been opened such as Okhotniy rayd, Petrovskiy Pasazh, Gallery Nautilus, Ramstore and many others. The level of these shops is close to the European one.. I hope that with every year a lot of new boutiques appeared and they will sell the Russian made goods.
8. You like your flat and your district. Speak in fever of the place.
I live in Moscow, in North Orekhovo — Borisovo district. It is situated in the South of the city. In my district there is Tzarizansky park. It is a very old park and it has it own interesting history. Catherine I liked the village called “Black mud” and she ordered architectures Kazakov and Bazhenov to build there a residence, but as the name of the village was not appropriate for a summer residence of empress it was decided to rename it to Tzarizano. When everything was ready Catherine I didn’t like the building of Big Palace and the architects began to remake it but they didn’t finish their work. For the many years it remained unfinished. But about 5 or 7 years ago old buildings were restored. A lot of people like to walk there and breathe fresh air. It is very important that in our district there is a forest. It cleans the air. Ecology conditions in our district are bad as the winds from the North bring polluted air, also in our district there are a lot of industrial projects. For example near my house the Tobacco fabric “Ducat” are situated. I live in a 3 room flat. There are 2 bedrooms, a living room, and a kitchen. In my room there is a wardrobe, a bed, a desk ,a computer, a tape recorder and some pot plants. In the kitchen there is a table with chairs, a refrigerator, a microwave oven, roaster, and a TV set. In the living room there is a sofa, a TV set, a hi-fi system and a table with chairs. Besides Tzarizansky park there is another historical place in our district Kolomenskoe .It is a park too. In warm days it is very pleasant to walk there with friends. I like my district because nowadays a lot of new interesting shops and places opened here and in has become more modern. Certainly it is a pity that out district is situated very far from the center of Moscow and it takes me a lot of time to get there, but near my house there is Domodedovskaya metro station which is very good. The only thing I wish is a better ecological situation in our district and then everything will be OK .
9. Speak about advantages and disadvantages of living in a big city, in a small town and in the country
The city is the place where all industrial cultural and educational centers are situated. In big cities you can find museums, theaters, clubs, cinemas ,big shops and hospitals, comfortable modern flats. People try to live in cites because all necessary objects are situated near by. For example if you get ill a hospital or a chemist’s shop will be situated near your home in the city, and if you live in the country it will be hard to find any medical help very quicly. Also in big cites you can fiend all sorts of entertainment such as cinemas clubs entertaining parks and so on. Many people like to spend their free time in them because it helps them to relax and bring them a lot of pleasure. It is really convenient that everything you need in daily life is situated near you. One of the most important comforts of big cites is that you can fast get everywhere you like by underground, bus, trolley bas. Also in big cities there is electricity therefore you can use electrical devices such as TV sets, computers, radio, microwave owen, refrigerators and so on. One more thing, without which it would be impossible to live today is the telephone and where there is a telephone there is also Internet. The connection has huge value in the life of people and we have got used to it to such extent, that it there is no telephone we feel uncomfortable and lonely. Yes, it is really comfortable, and at first glance everything is good but nowadays big cites there are a great amount of cars and factories Big cites suffer of overpopulation, dirty air, and water, The streets became noisy and after hard working day people cannot relax. People try to do everything to go to the countryside because only there they can find quietness. Every holiday and every week-end people try to leave their houses and go to the country. I live in Orekhovo-Borisovo North district. The ecological conditions here are very bad because near my house a lot of industrial objects are situated. For example near the Tobacco factory “DUCAT” is situated. As for me I prefer to live in a big city because A lot of big shops are situated near my home, but I also like to spend my holidays in the country because after living in the city for about 9 months I begin to get tired.
10. Speak about advantages and disadvantages of living in modern flat and in the country house.
Nowadays a lot of people live in big cities because it is very comfortable, as you can find everything you need in everyday life very quickly. But too many people cannot live there because there isn’t enough place for everybody. People have to live in high buildings in modern flats. In Moscow we can see 12-17 storied buildings with one, two and tree- room flats. There are modern facilities such as telephone, central heating, running water, electricity and gas. You can use such electricity devices as: TV sets, hi-fi systems, vacuum cleaners, washing machines, microwave ovens, electric irons and many others. They help in our daily life .There are people who don’t like to live in cities they prefer to be alone in a small country house near a river or a lake. They like to walk in the morning in the forest and breath fresh air, and enjoy silence. Many people will gladly spend a few days in the country but despite of it we have got used to achievements of civilization that when we find out ourselves appear fare from them we do not know what to do and feel lonely. Besides in Russian villages there aren’t any conveniences at all. Certainly there is electricity but usually it is not on. Also there isn’t central heating and in winters people have to burn oven as in the last century. In the day time you can walk in the garden, but in the evening everything you can do is to read a books by a candle. To living in such conditions is very hard for a city dweller. Nowadays a lot of people try to build big houses near cities and spend their week-ends there. Because besides all facilities there are some inconveniences. The main reason why people leave cities are bad ecological conditions. Noise, polluted air and water makes health of the man weak. After hard working day people come home and want to rest but nose from heavy traffic in streets will not allow to do that. As for me I prefer to live in the city, because I feel uncomfortably. When I’m fare from telephone, electricity and other facilities. People invented one more way to communicate with other people it is internet. Without the telephone and electricity I cannot use it. I like city but some times it is pleasant to stay in the country for a while.
1 1.Speak about environment problems and protection. What should be done?
The poisoning of the world's land, air, and water is the fastest-spreading disease of civilisation. It probably produces fewer headlines than wars, earthquakes and floods, but it is potentially one of history's greatest dangers to human life on earth. If present trends continue for the next several decades, our planet will become uninhabitable. Overpopulation, pollution and energy consumption have created such planet-wide problems as massive deforestation, ozone depletion, acid rains and the global warming that is believed to be caused by the greenhouse effect. The seas are in danger. They are filled with poison: industrial and nuclear waste, chemical fertilisers and pesticides. The Mediterranean is already nearly dead; the North Sea is following. The Aral Sea is on the brink of extinction. If nothing is done about it, one day nothing will be able to live in the seas. Every ten minutes one kind of animal, plant or insect dies out for ever. If nothing is done about it, one million species that are alive today will have become extinct twenty years from now. Air population is a very serious problem. In Cairo just breathing the air is life threatening- equivalent to smoking two packs of cigarettes a day. The same holds true for Mexico City and 600 cities of the former Soviet Union. Industrial enterprises emit tons of harmful substances. These emissions have disastrous consequences for our planet. They are the main reason for the greenhouse effect and acid rains. An even greater environmental threat are nuclear power stations. We all know how tragic the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster are. People are beginning to realise that environmental problems are not somebody else's. They join and support various international organisation and green parties. In my district the ecology conditions in our district are bad as the winds from the North bring polluted air, also in our district there are a lot of industrial projects. For example near my house the Tobacco fabric “Ducat” are situated… Human life is the most important and Polluted air, poising water, wastelands, noise, smoke, gas, exhaust and lead in leaves all influence on your half makes it weak. To improve ecological conditions it is necessary to put abstersive equipment on factories both to land more f trees and to put hums to blocking boards near to motorways.
12. Imagine you are going on a trip around the world. Make a route for your trip showing where you’ll visit
Last year I made a round-the-world voyage and I visited many English speaking countries such as GB, Canada, USA and Australia. I was in the USA in Washington, D.C. it is the capital of the Untied States. I saw some historical monuments and places. The Capitol, The White House, Museums and Galleries Monuments and Memorials. Also I visited an Australia it is situated in the south-west of the Pacific Ocean, occupies the continent of Australia and a great number of islands near it. Australia is a continent-island washed by the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The capital is Canberra. But the oldest city is Sidney, it was founded in 1788. GB is situated on the British Isles and it has a very good geographical position as it lies on the crossways of the sea routs from Europe to other parts of the world. The capital of GB is London. It is the world’s most enjoyable cities. There are a lot of interesting historical monuments in it such as :Houses of Parliament, Westminster Abbey, St. Paul’s Cathedral, Trafalgar Square and The Tower of London. Westminster Abbey is a national shrine where the kings and queens are crowned and famous people are buried. Founded by Edward the Confessor in 1050, the abbey was a monastery for a long time. The present building dates largely from the time of henry III who began to rebuild the church, a task which lasted nearly 300 years. Since William I almost every English monarch has been crowned in this great church, which contains the tombs and memorials of many of Britain’s most eminent citizens. The capital of Canada is Ottawa. It is rather a small, quiet city. Here there are no large industrial factories, but there are a lot of ministries, embassies of foreign states, private residences of officials and diplomats. In the centre of Ottawa the parliament of Canada is a little bit diminished replica of a the parliamentary buildings in London. In the city there are two universities, English and French, large libraries, the National gallery, the National museum, the research and development centre.
.13. Speak about the state of medical servers in Russia. How do you imagine the medical care of the future?
In our country medical service is provided free of charge. There is a wide network of local out- patient clinics. If a person falls ill he calls a local physician. The doctor visits his patient. And examines him. He usually sounds the patient’s chest, listens to his heart, fells his pulse and sometimes sahes, his blood pressure. He also examines his throat and tonque. After the physician has diagnose the case the prescribes medicine for the descase. Then he writes out a search leave and gives advice If the patient follows the doctor’s instructions, it doesn’t take him long to recover. As soon as he feels better, he comes to the local out-patient clinic for final examination. If the case in complicated and the patient needs shecial treatment he is taken to the hospital.The situation in medical service has changed as compared to the previory years. Medicine has become very expensive. Treatment and special tests or surgery cost a lot of money. Mist people cannot afford being operated. Nowadays we cannot say that medical service is must be given by the government to run medical service properly. Hospitals and clinics should be better equipped. Many of them are old-fashioned and need repairing. Doctors and nurses are overworked and underpaid. One of the positive features, which still exists in Russia, medical service in regular medical check-up of school children. It is very important to prevent illness. They are vaccinated and examined by specialists. I think that medical service should be free of charge for all people.