Реферат: Список + все темы по английскому языку для сдачи выпускного экзамена в 11 классе 2001 года
Examination Topics Form 11.
What can you tell your English-speaking partner about Russia as the biggest country in the world (it’s geographical position, its weather and climate, etc.)?
What makes you proud of your Motherland (classic and modern writers, scientists, politicians, etc. )?
Why does Russia attract tourists from all over the world? What would you show to your friends in your country?
What cities, lakes, rivers is Russia famous for? Talk your partner into visiting them.
Is Moscow really a political, cultural and scientific center of Russia? Prove it.
What facts from the history of Moscow could be interesting to your friends from other countries?
Have you ever been to Moscow? What surprised you most of all?
What places (towers, streets, squares, churches, museums, concert halls, theatres, monuments, etc.) is Moscow famous for?
Which of them would you like to show to your friends coming to Moscow for a visit?
My School. My future career.
What would you like to do after school? Was it your own decision?
Who helped you to make your decision?
Have you tried a part-time or summer job to find out what interests you most of all? What professions are in demand now?
What are advantages and disadvantages of your future profession/job?
Which of your personal characteristics will help you to succeed in your career? Which qualities of your character would you like to develop? Why?
Those who chose their career correctly are really happy, aren't they? Did you have «born teachers» at school?
Why teaching as a career is so important? I interview your teacher of English.
You've got a lot of really difficult problems to solve, haven't you? Share them with your
What jobs, attitudes, looks, arts, books, outfits, hobbies are popular among the teenagers?
Would you like to get a good education? Why? Where?
Is it easy for a teenager to get a job and to earn some money? Have you ever tried to? Say a few words
about your experience.
Do you always understand your parents? Do they understand you?
What are the reasons of misunderstanding?
Do you spend much time with your friends?
What do you usually talk about? How do you choose friends?
What do you value in yourself, in your friends?
Sport. Healthy living guide.
How does your health depend on your life style?
Is sport a hobby or part of your everyday life?
Why is it important to exercise every day?
What do you do to keep fit?
Would you like to be a professional sportsman? Talk about its advantages and disadvantages.
What famous sportsman do you know?
What questions would you ask him/her if you were a correspondent?
What sports are popular in your family?
Do your parents do sports regularly? Do you do it together? Is sport popular in Britain/America/Russia?
Which sports are especially popular in these countries?
Why is travelling so popular?
Do you (your family) travel? How often? Where and why?
Speak about the most interesting trip you have ever made.
Would you prefer to go abroad or to discover your own country? Explain why.
Why does Russia attract so many tourists from all over the world?
What would you show to your friends from other countries? Have you ever been to English-speaking countries? Anywhere abroad? Share your impressions.
Environment. Ecological problems.
Why are people so interested in environmental protection?
How does your health and your life depend on the environment? Give your reasons.
Who needs protection nowadays (people, animals, plants, oceans, etc.)?
Can you name any society fighting fog environmental protection? What do they do?
Would you like to join the society?
How do you protect the environment?
Does your school and your family, your town and your country do its best to solve this problem?
Outstanding personalities of Russia and English-speaking countries.
Who can be called a famous/great person?
What makes a person great?
What famous people of Russia would you tell your British/American friend about?
Why are you proud of them?
What famous Britons and Americans do you know? Are they known in your country?
What for? Talk about the famous politicians who helped nations to get closer in the 20th
Do you regularly read newspapers and magazines?
Which are your favourite ones?
Do all the members of your family read the same newspaper/magazine or don't they? Why?
How often do you watch TV?
Which are your favourite TV programs?
What is good and bad about the TV programs for youngsters?
What new youth programs would you suggest? Share your opinion.
Hobbies and past time.
Have you got much free time?
How do you spend it?
What kind of rest do you prefer very active (disco, travelling, doing sports, etc.) or less active (reading, watching TV. collecting, etc.)?
Are you anybody's fan?
Are your hobbies connected with your future profession?
What are they? Do you share your hobbies/activities with your friends?
Do you find understanding in your family?
What are typical British/American hobbies and sports?
Are they popular in Russia?
What English-speaking countries do you know?
Do the people in these countries speak the «same English»?
Do they have similar traditions?
What do you know about the UK?
Why is the UK called an island state?
What is special about the political system of the UK?
What is important to know about the UK if you go there as a tourist (cities, towns,
monuments, historical places, etc.)?
What is the official name of the USA?
What city is the capital of the USA?
How many states does the USA have? Name some of them.
What places of interest in the United States would you like to visit? Why?
What is a true/typical American like?
Which famous Americans do you know? Speak about your favourite one.
What parts does London divided into?
Why is the central square in London named Trafalgar square?
What is the West end famous for?
What is situated in the East end?
Why is the City called the business center of London?
What do you know about the British Museum and the National Gallery?
Books and libraries.
Have you got many books in your home library?
Who usually buys books in your family?
Are there different reading tastes in your family?
What do you think of poetry? Is a book the best present for you?
What kind of books do you enjoy reading? Explain why.
Who is your favourite Russian/British/ American writer?
Which of his/her books do you like best of all?
Say a few words about the writer and the book.
Why do some people prefer to watch TV
adaptations of novels instead of reading books?
Do you think reading books will be
popular in the 21st century? Share your opinion.
Holidays in Russia and English-speaking countries.
What would you tell your British/American friend about traditional Russian holidays?
Which international holidays do you know?
How are they celebrated in the English-speaking countries?
Are they celebrated in Russia in the same way?
What specific British/American holidays and traditions do you know?
What are traditional Russian/British/ American dishes offered on different holidays?
Why do people give presents to each other? How do they choose presents?
Arts and culture.
Do you often listen to music?
To what kind of music?
Does it make you happy?
Can you play any musical instrument?
Is a special musical training necessary to understand music?
Are you a fan of any pop or rock group?
What makes it your favourite?
Do you listen to music at home or at the concert/disco?
Do you think the theatre and the cinema are modem arts?
Why is video so popular nowadays?
Who is your favourite actor (composer/ musician/artist)?
What makes him/her special for you?
Which do you prefer ballet, opera, drama or comedy? Explain your choice.
Are you a member of any drama circle? Do you enjoy it? Why?
Economic system of England and the USA.
What type of economic system exists in the USA (England)?
What is it characterized by?
What are traditional branches of industry in these countries?
Enumerate the biggest industrial centers of England, of the USA.
Is agriculture developed? In what regions?
Economic system of Russia.
What period is Russia going through at the present moment?
What measures are being undertaken to overcome economic crisis?
What factors are the main obstacles to reform?
Is it possible to make transition to capitalism by changing only economic structure of society?
What are the main branches of industry?
What does Russia traditionally export?
What are the richest areas of Russia?
When does the history of Russian industry go back to?
Political system of Russia.
What kind of political system is there in Russia?
What does the federal government consist of?
What are the responsibilities of the President?
What is the judicial branch represented by?
What is state symbol of Russia?
What is the origin of the national emblem?
Political system of the USA and England.
What are the three branches of the U.S. government?
What are their responsibilities?
What is the system of checks and balances?
What power does the President have under this system?
What are the major political parties of the USA?
What does the legislative branch consist of?
Great Britain is a constitutional monarchy, isn’t it?
What is the name of the Queen of Great Britain?
Is her power limited by Parliament?
How many chambers does the British Parliament consist of? What are they?
What are the main political parties in Great Britain?
Which political party does he represent?
Russia (My Motherland)
Russia was the largest Republic in the former USSR. But now it has become an independent State.
It is situated in the Eastern part of Europe and in the Northern part of Asia.
The country is washed by 12 seas of three oceans: the Pacific, the Arctic and the Atlantic oceans. The seas are: the White Sea, the Barents Sea, the Okhotsk Sea, the Black Sea, the Baltic Sea and others.
The climate in Russia varies from arctic in the north to continental in the central part of the country and subtropical in the South. Winters are cold, windy and snowy, especially in the northern part of the country. The coldest point of the northern hemisphere, where temperatures are minus 70*C, is located in Siberia. Summers are hot and dry, especially in the South region of the country, in such cities like Sochi, Anapa and others. Autumn usually brings rains and fogs.
The land of Russia varies from thick forests to barren deserts, from high peaked mountains to deep valleys. There are two great plains in Russia: they are the Great Russian Plain and the West Siberian Plain. There are some mountain chains. The biggest mountain chain, the Urals, separates Europe from Asia. In Asian part of Russia we can find another big mountain chain, the Altai. There are about 150 volcanoes in Kamchatka Peninsula, 30 of which are active. One can find deserts in the Far East, Arctic zones of tundra in the North. These territories are inhabited by various animals, birds, insects. In the north of Russia live the walrus, seal, white bear, polar fox and reindeer. In the forest zone live the bear, wolf, fox, linx, sable, ermine, elk, roe, wild bear and in the Far East the tiger and leopard. Among the trees growing in the European part of Russia are birch, pine and oak: in Siberia – cedar, larch and fir trees and in the Far East – iron and cork trees, lotus, ginseng and lianas.
There are very many rivers in Russia, the longest of them are the Volga in Europe and the Yenissei and the Ob in Asia. The world’s deepest lake — Lake Baikal, with the depth of 1600 metres, is situated in Russia, too. Its water is the purest in the world.
Russia borders on many countries: Norway and Finland in the north-west, Estonia, Latvia, Belarus and the Ukraine in the west, Georgia and Azerbaijan in the south-west, and Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China in the south
The capital of Russia is Moscow and it is also one of the main political, scientific, industrial and cultural centres. It’s population is about 10 million people. Other big cities are St. Petersburg, Sverdlovsk, Samara, Omsk, Novosibirsk and many others.
Russia has population of about 150 million people of over a hundred nationalities. Nearly one hundred languages are spoken in the country. The European part of the country is densely peopled, and most population live in cities and towns and their outskirts.
Russia is a highly-industrialized-agrarian country. Its vast mineral resources include oil, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, zinc, lead, aluminium, gold, diamonds, zinc and almost all other minerals. Russia has the world’s largest oil and natural gas resources. Three-quarters of the country’s mineral wealth are concentrated in Siberia and the Far East.
Approximately 10 million people are engaged in agriculture and they produce half of the region’s grain, meat, milk and other dairy products. The largest granaries are located in the North Caucasus and the Volga and the Amur regions.
Russia has very long and rich history. That’s why we have many different customs and traditions. For example, there are many villages in Russia famous for their specific crafts: painted boxes in Palekh, wooden tableware in Khokhloma and toys in Dymkovo. Log houses, usually decorated with wood carving are typical for Russian villages. People in Russian villages performed traditional Khorovods (a kind of round dance) and chastushki (folk chanted rhymes) and rode in troikas (carriages drawn by teams of three horses abreast) and, of course, village residents still prefer to drink tea from samovars. Traditional Russian Cooking includes porridges, pancakes, various aspics, cabbage, chiken and fish soup, pirozhki (tuknovers) and kvass (a beverage made from fermented rye bread). Siberian causine has such dishes as stroganina(frozen fish) and pelmeni(meat-filled dumplings).
Our country has always played one of the leading parts in the world politics and economics. But, at present, there are a lot of problems in the national economy of the Russian Federation. The industrial production is decreasing. The prices are constantly rising, the rate of inflation is very high. People are losing their jobs because many factories and plants are going bankrupt.
The Russian Federation, or the Russian Federative Republic, is set up by the Constitution of 1993.
Under the Constitution Russia is a presidential republic. The federal government consists of three branches: legislative, executive and judicial. Each of them is checked and balanced by the President.
The legislative power is vested in the Federal Assembly. It consists of two chambers. The Upper Chamber is the Council of Federation: the Lower Chamber is the State Duma.
Each chamber is headed by the Speaker. Legislature may be initiated in either of the two Chambers. But to become a law a bill must be approved by both Chambers and signed by the President. The President may veto the bill.
The President is commander-in chief of the armed forces, he makes treaties, enforces laws, appoints ministers to be approved by the Federal Assembly.
The executive power belongs to the Government headed by the Prime Minister. The first action of the Prime Minister on appointment is to form the Cabinet.
The judicial branch is represented by the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and the regional courts.
The members of the Federal Assembly are elected by popular vote for a four-year period.
Today the state symbol of Russia is a three-colored banner. It has three horizontal stripes: white, blue and red. The white stripe symbolizes the earth, the blue one stands for the sky, and the red one symbolizes liberty. It was the first state symbol that replaced the former symbols in 1991. The hymn of Russia was written by Alexandrov. A new national emblem is a two-headed eagle. It is the most ancient symbol of Russia. It originates from the heraldic emblem of the Ruricovitches. All these symbols are official. They have been approved by the Federal Assembly.
I love my motherland and I am very proud of it as it has great history. Russia is famous for great scientists such as Lomonosov, Mendeleev, Tzyolkovskii, Popov, Sacharov, Korolev, writers – Pushkin, Tolstoy, Dostoevskii, Lermontov, Chekhov, painters, actors. And also is famous for the great discoveries suck as the first man in the space, the discovery of the vodorodnya bomba which contributed to the development of society and world.
But in spite of the problems Russia is facing at present, I think, that there are a lot of opportunities for this country to become one of the leading countries in the world again.
Moscow is the capital of Russia, its political, economic, commercial and cultural centre.
It was founded 8 centuries ago by Prince Yuri Dolgorukiy in 1147. Gradually the city became more and more powerful. In the 13th century Moscow was the centre of the struggle of Russian lands for the liberation from the tartar yoke. In the 16th century under Ivan the Terrible Moscow became the capital of the new united state. Though Peter the Great moved the capital to St. Petersburg Moscow remained the heart of Russia. That's why it became the main target of Napoleon's attack. After the October revolution Moscow became the capital again.
Now Moscow is one of the largest cities in the Europe. It stands on the bank of the Moskva-River. More than 10 million people live in the city. Moscow is famous for its historical and architectural monuments that were built by outstanding architects and sculptors.
Moscow is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. The historical centre of Moscow is Red Square. The best starting point of the tour around the city is Red Square, the central and the most beautiful square in Moscow. It is the place of parades, meeting and demonstrations. Here one can see the Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed, or St. Basil’s cathedral, erected to commemorate Russia’s conquest of the Kazan Kingdom in 1552. It is a masterpiece of Russian architecture. Tourists can see the monument to Minin and Pozharsky in memory of the Russian victory over the Polish invaders. The heart of Moscow is the Kremlin, a wonderful architectural ensemble with 3 magnificent cathedrals, the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great palaces, fortress walls and 20 towers. The most famous of the towers is the Spasskaya Tower with a big clock. On the territory of the Kremlin you can see the Tzar-Cannon and the Tzar-Bell, the biggest cannon and bell in the world.The Kremlin with golden domes and tower makes a strong impression on tourists. The Alexander Garden with the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is the place of memory. One of the well-known Kremlin museums is the Armoury Chamber. The famous golden cap of Monomach, the first Russian imperial crown of Catherine the Second and many other historical items are exhibited there.
Some skyscrapers decorate Moscow including Moscow University, a palace of knowledge and students. Moscow is a scientific and cultural centre where there are a lot of institutes, universities, libraries, museums. The city leads a varied cultural life. It has a lot of cinemas, clubs, concert halls, more than 40 drama and musical theatres, including the Bolshoi Theatre, the Art Theatre, the Maly Theatre, the Vakhtangov Theatre. The magestic building of the Bolshoy Theatre stands in Theatre Square in Moscow's central quater, not far from Kremlin. This is the leading Russian opera house with the best vocalists and choreographers in it's company.
People of Moscow are proud of their museums: the Tretyakov Gallery, Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, literary museums. The State Tretyakov gallery is one of the best-known picture galleries in Russia. It takes its name from it's founder Pavel Tretyakov, a Moscow merchant. In the 19'th century Tretyakov began to collect Russian paintings, and before his death he donated the collection to the city of Moscow. Since then the gallery has received hundred paintings from other museums and private collections. The Tretyakov gallery reflects the whole history of Russian paintings from 11'th century to the present day. Crowds of people visit the Tretiakov Gallery admiring beautiful pictures of Russian painters.
The citizens of Moscow enjoy spending their weekends in parks and gardens — the Park of Culture and Rest, Izmailovo, Sokolniki.
Moscow is the seat of the Russian Parliament and the centre of political life of the country.
Moscow is a place where thins are happening in all spheres of life.
Choosing a career.
When you leave school you understand that the time to choose your future profession has come. It’s not an easy task to make the right choice of a job. I have known for a long time that leaving school is the beginning of a far more serious examination of my abilities and character.
As the years passed I have changed my mind a lot of times about which science or field of industry to specialize in. It was difficult to make up my mind and choose one of hundred of jobs to which I might be better suited.
Everyone needs at least one profession in his life. So when you begin spending sleepless nights thinking about a job and money, when you think longingly of the plans for the future it’s no doubt about it you’re ready to choose most suitable career for you.
So in the world there are very and very many different professions: you can work with people as a doctor, a lawyer, a receptionist, a teacher, etc.; on the enterprise, bank, school, state institution. And what kind of a profession you choose is mainly depend on yourself. And I think it’s very difficult task for everybody.
And now there is such situation in the life that it is very difficult to find some worthy job especially suitable for you. So if you want some-how to get a gob, you can make plans for the future when you study still at school. It’s a good idea to take different factors into account: job satisfaction – your future job must satisfy you; money – it’s important that your future profession must be well-paid or you must have a high salary to support the family, etc; good conditions; training; travelling and so on; the place of work -in the office, from home, in the open area, abroad, etc.
In the past, when I was at age of 10, I dream of becoming a lawyer.Because a lawyer should be very energetic, talkative, inventive, enterprise, creative, adventurous and enthusiastic. I wanted to work with people and help them. But now I can say that I made up my mind what to do in the future. I think I have an aptitude for working with figures and solving financial problems and I am interested in knowing how money is made. So I think I can work as an economist in the financial field. I think that it is more in demand now especially in banks where a really good specialist can have a lot of money. The success of this profession depends on mainly my education. So I want to enter to the Vyatka State Technical University on the social-economics faculty in spite of the very high competition. I think I’ll be able to enter there because I have a good knowledge of English and mathematics to pass the exams. So when I’ll finish the University I’m going to work in the father’s office as a financial consultant and specialist in this field. I think I will not disappoint my father about this job because I’m energetic, communicative, enterprise and quick by nature.
Our society is made up of all kinds of organizations, such as companies, government departments, unions, hospitals, schools, libraries and the like. They are essential to our existence, helping to create our standard of living and our quality of life. In all the organizations there are people carrying out the work of the manager although they do not have that tittle. The vice- chancellors of a university, the president of a students union or a chief librarian are all managers. They have the responsibility to use the resources of their organization effectively and economically to achieve its objectives.
Managers are to forecast, plan, organize, coordinate, control and motivate other workers. In most companies the activities of managers depend on the level at which he (she) is working. Top managers such as the chairmen and directors, will be more involved in long range planning, policy making and the relations of the company with the outside world. They will be making decisions on the future of the company, the sort of product lines it should develop, the way it should face up to the competition, the means of diversifying, etc.
On the other hand, middle management and supervisions are generally making the day- to-day decisions, which help an organization to run efficiently and smoothly. They must response to the pressure of the job, which may mean dealing with unhappy customers, chasing up supplies, meeting an urgent order or sorting out technical problems. Managers at this level spend a great deal of time communicating, coordinating and making decisions affecting the daily operation of their organization.
In carrying out management functions, such as planning, organizing, motivating and controlling, a manager will be continually making decisions. Decision-making is a key management responsibility. Some decisions are often the routine kind. They are decisions, which are made fairly quickly and are based on judgement. Other decisions are often intuitive ones. Before making a decision the manager will carefully assess" the options, considering the advantages and disadvantages of each one. Thus any manager is to be a bit challenging person.
Sport and healthy living guide
They say, «Health is above wealth.» One of the first duties we owe to ourselves is to keep our bodies in perfect health. If your body suffers from any disorder, our mind suffers with it, and we are unable to make much progress in knowledge, and we are unfit to perform those duties, which are required of us in social life.
There are certain laws of health which deserve particular attention and they are so simple that even a child can learn them. A certain amount of exercise is necessary to keep the body in perfect condition. All the powers (mental and bodily) we possess are strengthened by use and weakened by disuse. Moderation in eating and drinking, reasonable hours of labour and study, enough sleeping time (not less than 7-8 hours a day), regularity in exercise, recreation and rest, cleanliness lay the foundations for health and long healthy happy life.
Thousands of people consider sports to be very helpful in gaining good health. That's why every country pays much attention to developing sports. It is sport that helps to bring up physically strong, strong-willed, courageous and energetic people.
In the last ten years recreational sport has become extremely popular, and, according to doctors is absolutely essential for a long and healthy life.
The reasons of this enormous interest in sport of all kinds are varied. When you ask people why they spend so much time, effort, and sometimes money, they will talk about the physical benefits (feeling fit, increasing stamina, sleeping better, the chance of living a more active life), psychological benefits (self-discipline and respect, a sense of personal achievement, relaxation, getting rid of aggression), and the social advantages (meeting people with similar interests, the team spirit). However, the social aspect seems to be more important for men than for women. Very often, enjoying a drink with friends after the match is as important for the former as a physical activity itself. The latter generally see sport as a way of keeping fit rather than anything else.
Of course, some people don’t consider sport to be a hobby, it is an everyday work for them. Much is spoken now about problems in professional sport. There is a lot drug taking in sport. There is too much pressure on young sports people. Mountaineering and air sports such as hang-gliding, each kill at least 16 people every year. In one Sports Council study of 28,000 people, football was found responsible for more than a quarter of 2,000 injuries seen every year. But still many people are involved in professional sport and millions of people can not live without it. They prefer watching sporting events rather than taking part in them. They are so-called sport-fans. They pack stadiums during sport matches and competitions, they sit glued to the TV, they are ready to give every moral support to their favourite sportsmen or teams.
In the meantime thousands of ordinary people devote their spare time to going in for sports. They play indoor and outdoor games: volleyball, basketball, table tennis, hockey, lawn tennis. The number of participants and spectators show that the most popular games are basketball, hockey and, of course, football. A lot of people go in for track-and-field athletics, cycling, boxing, wrestling, gymnastics and so on.
Hockey, figure skating, skiing and skating are among the most popular winter sports. In summer swimming is enjoyed by millions of people. There are also many indoor swimming pools, which makes swimming possible all the year round. Cycling is a useful exercise, too, because it takes you out into the fresh air and gives much work to all the muscles. So if you arrange your day correctly you can find an opportunity for sports.
Physical training is an essential part of young people's development. All pupils and students have regular training at PT lessons. These classes are enjoyed by everybody as they give a lot of energy, develop muscles, make pupils strong, quick and healthy. From time to time different kinds of competitions are organized at school or between schools. The most popular sports at school are basketball, football and volleyball. Besides, pupils and students attend a lot of sports clubs and sports sections after classes, where they take up their favourite kind of sport.
Indeed, sport is a part of everyday life of many generations all other the world. So if you think that physical fitness and health are important you are to go in for sports.
Those who live in the country like to find themselves in large cities with their shops, cinemas, crowds of people. City-dwellers usually like a quiet holiday by the sea or in the mountains with nothing to do but walking and bathing, lazying in the sun. Most travelers and holiday makers take a camera with them and take pictures of everything that interests them — beautiful views of waterfalls, forests, unusual plants and animals. These photos will remind them of the happy time of holiday.
Modern life is impossible without travelling. Of course the fastest way of travelling is by plane. But many people make their choice on travelling by train as with a train you have speed, comfort and pleasure combined. Travelling by train is of course slower than by air but it also has its advantages.
If you are going to travel by train you’d better book seats beforehand because many people are fond of travelling by train. There are some reasons why people choose railroad. Train is the cheap means of travelling. If it is summer outside it will be better to think of your trip before the vocation starts. To understand how true this is, you only have to go to a railway station. There you will see hundreds of people hurrying to catch a train. You’ll waste a lot of time standing near the booking-office trying to buy a ticket.
Modern trains have very comfortable seats in all passenger cars, and there are sleeping-cars and dining-cars which make even the longest journey enjoyable. You can buy first-class, second-class and third-class sleepers in a separate compartment. If you are early before the train starts you can leave your suit-cases in the compartment and walk up and down the platform. Some people forget when and from which platform and track their train will be off. They can always ask for the track, platform and train numbers at the railroad station information bureau and also get information about next trains and their schedules. There are express, slow and long-distance trains. If you want to go somewhere and get there as quickly as possible you’d better know that express trains only stop at the largest stations while slow trains stop at all stations. You can get to far countries only by a long-distance train.
Once you are in your compartment you have to ask the guide to bring in the bedding. There are usually two lower and two upper berths in a third-class sleeper compartment. Some people like to occupy upper berths because it is more convenient and exciting to travel. During your way on the train you can read newspapers, books, look out of the window, drink the tea, communicate with your neighbors or sleep. I prefer to look out of the window, because you can see the country you are passing through, and not only the clouds as when you are flying. You can have something to eat at the stations when the train makes stops.
These are many ways of traveling — by train, by plain, by ship, on foot. Everyone chooses his favourite one. My favourite way is traveling by plain. And not because it is very comfortable. It is exciting. I also like traveling by train. I’ve traveled this way a lot. When you are in the train you can see the beauty of nature.
I envy the tourists because I think that they study geography traveling and visiting different parts of the world. They can tell you many things which you didn’t know before.
They are interesting people from whom you can learn much new for yourself. Any kind of travel helps you to understand many things that you can never see or learn at home. Though you may read about them in books and newspapers.
As for me I’d like to have a coach tour to some foreign country. Coach tours are planned and I’ll have a chance to do a lot of sightseeings and have a good rest at the same time.
SAVE ©UR PLANET BEFORE IT'S TOO LATE!
Since ancient times nature ha& served Man, being the source of his life. Humans have been living on this planet fer two million years and in the last tw® hundred years humans have made a mess ©f the planet; chopped trees^ killed animals, polluted air^ land, water, etc. Because efthat we new have a let of problems I'll name just a few of them: 1. the greenhouse; 2. killing forests and animals; 3-. water, air, land pollution; 4. rubbish problems; S. nuclear power.
The earth has been getting hotter because we are producing too many greenhouse gases. These gases hold heat. Trees and plants help to take gases, such as carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, but we have now destroyed too many trees. There aren't enough trees and plants to do this job. We make carbon dioxide when we burn wood or drive cars. Other dangerous gases are in refrigerators and spray cans. Polluting gases fall as acid rains Acid rain is a kind of air pollution. It is caused-by factories that bum-coal or oil or gas. These-factories send smoke high into the air. The wind often carries the smoke far from the factories.
The ram in many places isn't natural and clean any more. It's full of acid chemicals. When it falls in lakes, it changes them too. The lakes become more acidie. Acid water is like vinegar or lemon Juice. It hurts when-it gets in-your eyes. It also kills the plants and animals that usually live in lake water As a result of air pollution only 2-3 per cent of healthy babies are born in Yaroslavl and people cannot bathe-in the Volga river.
The pollution of air and the world's ocean, destruction of ozone layer is the result of man's careless interaction with nature^ a-sign of ecological crises.
As a result of man's careless interaction with nature some rare species of animals, birds, fish and plants disappear forever. For example, the-Blue Whale, the Panda, the California-Big^ Tree are on the verge of extinction now. Many animals have gone forever, as their habitats have been destroyed at-an alarming rate, 340i miles a day!
The truth is that we use animals or parts of animals for jewellery, clothes, soaps, etc. All the moment weare using lOOdof animals-every year for tests of things, like shampoos to find-out if they cause any irritation. Some of the animals go blind or ever die from these tests. We kill whales for their oil, which weuse for cosmetics and soaps. A lot of expensive jewellery are made from ivory, from the horns of elephants and rhinos. African elephants are disappearing fast. People continue to kill animals to wear fur coats. Some of these animals like fox are in danger or extinction.
Believe it or noty but every ten- minuter one kind- of animal or plant dies out forever. If nothing is done about it one million species that are alive today will have become extinct twenty years from-now.
One of the most important problems now is the rubbish problem. Many people find it easy to drop anything on the ground. They think that it is very little, but very big garbage heaps appear from small wrappers. Littering isn't very dangerous, but trash in the streets looks ugly, on the nature it spoils the view. Littering is very awful when wind carries scraps of paper and cans go under one's feet, rotting food attracts birds and rats, which carry disease. There are many countries, which have a law against littering. But in Russia there isn’t such a law. That is why many cities in our country are as garbage heaps.
One of the most horrible ecological problems is nuclear power, because nuclear weapons could destroy the world. Nuclear weapon tests increase the amount of radiation in the atmosphere. Nuclear power produces high-level radioactive waste, which can be dangerous for thousands of years. Nuclear explosions on the ground caused irreversible changes in the chemical composition C^y of the upper atmosphere. 'S»
As a result of the Chemobyl tragedy in April 1986^ about 18 per cent of the territory of Belarus were polluted with radioactive substances. A great damage has been done to the republic's agriculture^ forests and people's health. The consequences of this explosion at the atomic power station are tragic for the Belarussian nation.
Some scientists^are pessimistic about our problems. They suppose that we-havealrear reached the point of no return. Others are more optimistic and believe rh;-n n
Arthur Conan Doyle
Arthur Conan Doyle was born in the capital of Scotland, Edinburgh. His father, Charles E. Doyle, was an artist and architect by profession, but he worked as a clerk in an office. The father died young and the Doyles were very poor.
Arthur’s mother was a very good story-teller and he remembered her fantastic stories all his life. The talent of story-telling was inherited by Arthur from his mother and it helped him as a writer.During his school years he read much, and he often told his school friends long and interesting stories, getting cakes and sweets for that.
After leaving school Conan Doyle became a student of the medical faculty at the university of Edinburgh. In this third year of studies he went as a ship doctor to the Arctic and upon graduating from the university, he again went in a ship to western Africa.
He began his medical practice in a small English town Southsea, where he spent eight years. In 1887, he published his first detective story “A study in Scarlet”. Its main characters were Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson, and they became the most popular characters of a great many of Conan Doyle’s stories.
“A scandal in Bohemia” opened a collection of detective stories under the title “The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes”. The story was published in 1891 and soon after that Baker Street became the well-known address of Sherlock Holmes.
The readers asked for more and more stories about Sherlock Holmes and for two years Conan Doyle wrote them. When he had written about twenty stories with Sherlock Holmes as the main detective, he was so tired of these stories that he decided “ to kill Sherlock Holmes”. He wrote a story, which he named “Holmes’s last case” (1893). In this story Holmes was killd during his struggle with Professor Moriarty. The writer hoped that after that he could begin writing other books.
But the readers did not wish to lose their favourite character and ten years later the famous detective appeared again. In 1901 –1902 one of Conan Doyle’s best stories “The hound of the Baskervilles” was published.
In 1891 Conan Doyle gave up his medical work and devoted all his time to his literaty activity. He also travelled much. He visited Europe, the USA and Egypt. In Norway he met Jerome K. Jerome, who wrote about that fact in one of his books.
Beside detective stories, Conan Doyle also wrote historic novels, war books and an anticolonial book about the Belgian Congo. His two fantastic stories “The lost world” (1912) and “The Poisoned Belt” (1913) were quite successful.
All his life Conan Doyle liked sports, he skied played golf and went in for boxing.
He died in 1930, After his death, the famous detective Sherlock Holmes, together with his friend Dr. Watson, continued to live on the pages of Conan Doyle’s books. They are amound the favourite characters of English literature.
Tourists coming to London always go to visit Bakers street to see the house where Sherlock Holmes lived.
Anton Pavlovich Chekhov
The world is rich in remarkable authors, but I think that Anton Pavlovich Chekhov was one of the greatest authorities. He is my favourite writer. In my opinion, he is the greatest Russian dramatist and short-story writer. I’m never tired of reading and rereading his plays and humorous stories.
Chekhov was born in 1860 in Taganrog. In 1879 he went to Moscow, where he studies medicine. Though he practised little as a doctor in his lifetime, he was prouder of his medical knowledge than of his writing talent.
While in college, Chekhov wrote humorous sketches for comic papers to support his family. He collected the best ones into a volume, Motley Stories, in 1886. The book attracted the attention of the publisher of the Novoje Vremja, Russia’s largest paper, and Chekhov was asked to contribute stories regularly.
Chekhov, as an established writer, was able to develop a style of his own. Though he never gave up writing comic stories, he began working in a more serious vein. In 1887 Ivanov, his first play, established Chekhov as a dramatist. From then on, he concentrated on writing plays, as well as short stories.
Chekhov was seriously ill. He had tuberculosis and knew what it meant. By 1892 his health was so bad that he was afraid to spend another winter in Moscow. He bought a small estate near a village Melikhovo, 50 miles from Moscow. He spent 5 years there, and those were happy years in spite of the illness. He wrote some of his best stories there, including Ward No.6, several well-known one-act comedies and two of his serious dramatic masterpieces, The Seagull and Uncle Vanya.
The Seagull was first staged in the Alexandrinsky Theatre in Petersburg. It was a complete failure because of the dull and clumsy production. It was a cruel blow to Chekhov. However, the play was successfully performed as the first production of the Moscow Art Theatre in 1898. From then on, Chekhov was closely connected with this theatre and with its founder, K.S. Stanislavsky. In 1901 he married an Art Theatre actress, Olga Knipper, who acted in his play The Three Sisters the same year.
Chekhov’s health went from bad to worse and he had to spent the remaining years in the Crimea and other health spas.
The Cherry Orchard, his last play, was produced in 1904. Soon after the first night Chekhov died. He was 44.
Chekhov had an immense influence on the 20th century drama. Besides, several generations of writers both in Russia and abroad studied and imitated Chekhov to perfect their own literary style.
Mass media are one of the most characteristic features of modern civilizations. People are united into one global community with the help of mass media/ People can learn about what is happening in the world very fast using mass media.
The mass media include newspapers, magazines, radio, TV.
The earliest kind of mass media was newspaper. The first newspaper was Roman called «Acta Diurna» started in 59 B.C.
Magazines appeared in 18 century.
The most exciting and entertaining kind of mass media is television. It brings moving pictures and sounds directly to people’s homes. So one can see events in faraway places.
Radio is widespread for its portability. It can be easily carried around. People like to listen to the Radio in the park, on the beach, at the seaside, in the car, while driving a car, on the picnic. The main kind of radio entertainment is music, news, musical quiz.
Newspapers can present all comment on the news in much detail in compares on to radio and TV.
Magazines are designed to be kept for a long time. So it have cover and binding. They are printed on better paper then newspapers.
The youngest kind of mass media is global computer net called Internet. I think that Internet is kind of mass media of the future. People can find on word wide web whole information about all things from sport to travel, from music to shopping. Internet is the most advanced and fast-growing kind of digital media. It gives people the freedom of speech and self-expression unavailable before, at the same time allowing many new and unforeseen combinations of different media types. Internet is also the foundation of new technologies that will impact the society in numerous ways, such as e-commerce and virtual multi-user communities.
The name «Television» comes from Greek word meaning «far» and Latin word meaning «to see» so it means «to see far».
There are commercial stations, they sell advertising time to pay for their operating costs and to make profit/ The public stations are nonprofit organizations.
Commercial TV stations broadcast mostly entertainment programs to attract lager number of viewers.
These programs include light dramas called situation comedies, action-packed dramas about life of detectives, police officers, lawyers and doctors, show dancers and singers, movies, quiz shows, soap operas, cartoons, talk shows. On talk shows a host interviews politicians, TV, movie stars athletes. There are also sport programs, brief summaries of local, national and international news.
Advertising is an important part of commercial TV. Commercials appear between and during most programs. They urge viewers to buy different kinds of products – from dog food to hair spray, from cars to insurance polices.
Public TV focuses mainly on education and culture. Public TV also broadcasts plays, ballets, symphonies as well as programs about art and history. It attract less viewers then commercial TV.
TV. Past and Future.
In just half a century, television has covered the planet. TV affects our daily life is a way that no other media can. It was simply an idea of a machine able to broadcast both sound and vision.
First TV-sets were in black and white.
Since 1980 there have been four major developments of TV. The first is video, which has given viewers the power to control what they watch and when they watch it. These days, fifty percent of homes have a video-cassette-recorder (VCR) and millions more are being sold every year.
The second is satellite TV. Thanks to direct broadcast satellites (DBS) dozens of new channels are now available to everyone who buys a receiving «dish». Many of these new channels specialize in one kind of program – only news, sport, cartoons, music and movies.
The third development is cable – a system of hi-tech wires, which provides even more channels.
So, TV has come a very long way in a very short time.
People live a very busy life nowadays, so they have little time to spare. Still they try their best to make use of those rare hours of leisure. A hobby is a favorite pastime of a person.
Hobbies differ like tastes. Peoples choose their hobbies according to their taste and character. Someone likes simply to watch TV, lying on a sofa, when someone climbs to the mountains.
If you have chosen a hobby to your liking, lucky you are: you have made your life more interesting. But many people have nothing to do during their spare time, though there are many different hobbies: reading, collecting, going in for sports, traveling and others.
If a person collects something, he does it according to his financial abilities: someone collects cars or pictures of world-known painters, while another one collects beer cans or stamps. But no matter what they collect, it gives them pleasure. Many collections started in a small way with one or two items. Some private collections are really valuable.
No matter what kind of hobby a person has, he always has an opportunity of learning from it.
Some young people find it a pleasure to go to the theatre. The theatre is one of the most ancient kinds of art. For centuries people have come to the theatre for the different aims: to relax, to be amazed or entertained, to have a good laugh, to enjoy the acting of their favorite actors and actresses.
Modern life is impossible without traveling. Many people travel by rail, by air, by sea or by road for pleasure.
I don’t like to read very much, but I think, that it’s the most useful pastime.
If a person likes to read, he can take many useful information and life experience from the books. By reading about the things, a hobbyist is interested in, he is adding to what he knows.
A relatively new hobby is watching TV. But I don’t think that television is a hobby at all. As for me, it’s the way of getting information. There are two viewpoints on television. Some people think that TV is going a lot of harm. People begin to forget how to occupy their free time. It prevents them from communicating with each other, from visiting friends or relatives. And indeed, people are used to have hobbies, to go outside for amusements, to the theatres, cinemas, sporting events. They are used to read books and listen to music. But TV gives wonderful possibilities for getting information, for education. TV brings world in our rooms.
Computers are a new hobby too. Many young people all over the world like to sit glued to the monitor all day long, playing their favorite computer games.
As for me, the first hobby, I had in childhood, when I was 5 or 6 years old, was collecting pictures from the bubble gums. Later on, when I was 8, I collected beer cans. Afterwards, my grandma had thrown them away, ‘cause they occupied a lot of space.
And now I’m interested in cars. I always read all available magazines about the cars, ‘cause I want to know everything about their construction and production.
Also I like to listen to music, especially heavy metal. Some people think that it is impossible to listen such music and they call metal fans “headbangers” or “metalheads”, but I don’t care.
And, of course, like all teenagers, I like to work with computer, watch video and to go in for sports.
So as you can see there are a lot of things to do during your free time.
The United kingdom of Gr. Britain is a capitalist country. England, Wales, Scotland are made in Gr. Britain. Peoples in countries outside the British Isles often call the inhabitants of United kingdom English. There are four main nationalities: English, Wales and Irish.
The population of the United kingdom of Gr. Britain is almost fifty six million Gr. Britain is highly industrialized. The United kingdom is a parliamentary monarchy. But it is well known that the monarchy today has no power.
The USA is situated in the central part of North American continent. The USA is an English speaking country. Many people of this country speak English. But here we can hear French, German and other languages too.
Washington is the capital of the USA. The population of the USA is about 256 million people. There are 50 states in this country.
Canada is to the north of the USA. It is very large country? Larger then the United States. The people who live in these parts came to Canada from France. Canada has to official languages – English and Fresh. In Canada many people speak English, because they also came from England many years age. But in some part of Canada they speak Fresh.
Australia is also an English – speaking country Australia the hottest summer month is January, and the coldest winter month is June. But June is not very cold. Snow falls only on the mountain there. And there are not many mountains in Australia.
New Zealand is not far from Australia, but it is great distant from Britain. The seasons in New Zealand are also different from what they are in Britain from January to February. It is summer, from march to may it is autumn; From June to August it is winter, from September to November it is spring. The national language is New Zealand is also English. Many people from England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland came to live in Australia and New Zealand many years ago.
London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and commercial centre. It is one of the largest cities in the world (together with Tokyo and New York) and the largest city in Europe.
The city is very old. It has more then 20 centuries old history. Once, London was a small Roman town on the north bank of the Thames, but slowly it grew into one of the world’s major cities with population of about 8 million. Fewer people live in the centre now, but the suburbs are still growing.
Traditionally London is divided into several parts: the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End. They are very different from each other.
The city is the oldest part of London, it's financial and business centre. Numerous banks, offices and firms are concentrated here including the Bank of England, the Stock Exchange and the Old Bailey. Few people live in the City but over a million come to work here. Two masterpieces are situated within the City: St. Paul's Cathedral and the Tower of London. St. Paul's Cathedral was built in the 17th century by Christopher Wren. The Tower of London was built in the 11th century. It was used as a fortress, a palace and a prison. Now it's a museum.
Westminster is the aristocratic official part of London. It includes Buckingham Palace where the Queen lives and the Houses of Parliament stretching for nearly 1000 feet along the north bank of the Thames. The Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament is famous for its big hour bell, known as «Big Ben».
Westminster Abbey is the place where coronation of nearly all kings and queens has taken place. Many of them are buried here as well as some other famous people of the country (G. Chaucer, Tennyson, Newton, Ch. Dickens, T. Hardy, R. Kipling, etc.).
The West End is the richest and most beautiful part of London. It is a symbol of wealth and luxury. The best hotels, restaurants, shops, clubs, parkland houses are situated there. English aristocracy lives in this region. One of the busiest streets in the West End is Oxford street. There are many various shops in it which attract — customers from different countries of the world.
By the day the whole of London is busy. At night, the offices are quiet and empty, but the West End stays alive, because this is where Londoners come to enjoy themselves. There are two opera houses here, several concert halls and many theatres, as well as cinemas, and in nearby Soho the pubs, restaurants and night-clubs are busy half the night.
Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of London. It was named in the memory of Admiral Nelson's victory at the battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The tall Nelson's Column stands in the middle of the square.
Opposite the Nelson’s monument is the National Gallery and the National Portrait Gallery. They contain the finest art collections in the world. Not far from the National Gallery is the British Museum famous for its rich library (about 7,000,000 books).
One of the most popular museums in London is Madame Tussaud’s. Almost every visitor has seen Madame Tussaud, an old lady of 81 standing at the entrance of her own exhibition. She is made of wax, like all the models of people in the museum. Madame Tussaud’s brings together a host contemporary celebrities from many different walks of life during many centuries. Kings and queens, politicians and military leaders, presidents and writers, scientists and musicians, actors and actresses stand, sit and lie in many different rooms of exhibition. The history of Madame Tussaud’s goes back over 200 years during which time the exhibition has formed an integral part of experience of countless million of visitor to London.
The East End is an industrial district of London. There are many factories and the Port of London there. The region is densely populated by working class families, those people who have built the palaces of the West End. Old residents of the East End are proud to be called cockneys, which means true Londoners, hereditary inhabitants of the area. They love the district very much.
London is situated on the river Thames. A hundred years ago, the river was crowded by ships, leaving for Java and Japan, New Zealand and New York, but now people travel by air, and London’s main airport, Heathrow, is one of the busiest in the world.
The London Underground is the oldest one in the world. The first line, opened in second middle of XIX century, was like a tube. That’s why it was called the Tube.
Like all big cities, London has streets and concrete buildings, but it also has many big parks, full of trees, flowers and grass. Sit on the grass (you’re allowed to!) in the middle of Hyde Park or Kensington Gardens, and you will think that you’re in the countryside, miles away.
London is one of the world’s most enjoyable capital of Europe.
Books in our life.
Despite the increase in TV watching and the developing of World Wide Web,
reading is still very important. So I don't think books need to be rescued. Reading both entertains and educates people. Books help us to discover new things and explore new ideas.
A book is one of the greatest wonders in the world. It gives a unique chance to link up with authors who lived hundreds and thousands years ago. Thanks to books we can talk to people who lived in different ages and countries. Through reading books we hear their voices, thoughts and feelings. Books can tell us a lot about arts and fashion. From them we can learn about the rest of the world. The book is the surest way to bring nations together. It gives us an insight not only into the past, but also into the future.
The book is a faithful and undemanding friend: it can be put aside and taken up
again at any moment. Reading is the perfect way to relax and spend your free time. Books portray life in its richness, so they develop reader's imagination and arouse curiosity, admiration. Sometimes they even can help to solve difficult problems of life.
I become very keen on literature early in life. This probably happened because we had a very good and widely read library in home. Books stirred my imagination, expanded the boundaries of the familiar world and filled my life with great expectations of joy and happiness. Since childhood I have been enchanted by A. Volkov and his «Magician of the Emerald City» and its sequels. I also was delighted with Pushkin's fairytales. Later my heart was won by Chehov, Russian writer, and J. Ronie, French author who wrote a lot of adventure novels about ancient times. Luckily this world is rich in remarkable authors.
I'm fond of reading and I've read a lot of books of different genres. And certainly I have my favorite book. It is the story by Agatha Christie – «The murder of Roger Ackroyd». Agatha Christie was born in 1890. She is the famous English detective writer, and almost everyone knows her as creator of Miss Marple and Hercules Poirot.This book was written in 1926. Some critics say that Agatha Christie introduced a novelty in this work, because the murder is a storyteller. In the «The murder of Roger Ackroyd» the main characters and environment are typical for 1920th in England. The action takes place in a country house. The authors shows us it's owner with his habits, relatives and neighbors. All this is presented vividly and brightly. One of the main heroes of the book Hercules Poirot gets over a lot of problems before catching a murder.
Excitement, suspense, horror, revenge, and extraordinary talent, astounding
calmness of Hercules Poirot fill this book. «The murder of Roger Ackroyd» has made a great impression on me. And nowadays it makes really unforgettable impressive reading.
In Russia, the same as in every other country, there are many holidays: interesting and funny, patriotic and dedicated to any historical event. For example in Russia there are such holidays as the Women’s day, the Victory Day, the Independent Day, the April’s Fool’s day, and many other. In 80th years in Russia some holidays were canceled, among them is the May Day, the 7th of October, the birthday of komsomol, and some other. As for me this resolution was right because when the life of the whole country is changing the old holidays must also be changed by new.
I like all holidays. But everyone of them can be made upset, except one. It’s the New Year. New Year is a holiday for everyone. The people all over the world welcome the new year at one moment, that’s why I think it’s the most uniting holiday in the world, because in this moment every person can say that he loves everyone. I think it is an international holiday.
But in different countries the New Year is celebrated in different days, for example it can be celebrated on the 1st of September or … Also I’ve heard that from 2001 year the New Year will be celebrated on the 1st of March by all countries all over the world. As for me, I think that it was a right resolution.
There are lots of New Year traditions in Russia. In every home there is a New Year tree glittering in colored lights and decorations. Children always wait for Father Frost to come and give them a present. Many people consider a New Year to be a family holiday. But most of the young prefer to spend the New Year there own having parties. As for me I prefer to see the New Year with my family, because I meet these New Years last times with my family and after some years I’ll spend it on my own. I must spend as much time as possible with my family because in some years I’ll have to leave them to begin my own life and these holidays may be the last.
Holiday is a day set apart for religious observance or for the commemoration of some extraordinary event or distinguished person, or for some other public occasion.
National holidays are days set aside by official government proclamation to celebrate different occasions.
The U.S. has no national holidays. Legal holidays – days on which banks, schools, or other public institutions and most places of business are closed.
Memorial Day is a legal holiday, observed annually on the last Monday in May in most of the United States, It honours the nation's armed services killed in wartime. The holiday, originally called Decoration Day, is traditionally marked by parades, memorial speeches and ceremonies, and the decoration of graves with flowers and flags. Memorial Day was first observed on May 30, 1868, on the order of General John Alexander Logan for the purpose of decorating the graves of the American Civil War dead. It was observed on May 30 until 1971, when most states changed to a newly established federal schedule of holiday observance.
Independence Day is an annual holiday commemorating the formal adoption by the Continental Congress of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, in Philadelphia. Although the signing of the Declaration was not completed until August, the Fourth of July holiday has been accepted as the official anniversary of United States independence and is celebrated in all states and territories of the U.S.
The Fourth of July is traditionally celebrated publicly with parades and pageants, patriotic speeches, and organised firing of guns and cannons and displays of fireworks. Family picnics and outings are a feature of private Fourth of July celebrations.
Thanksgiving Day, a legal holiday in the U.S., was first celebrated in early colonial times in New England. The actual origin is probably the harvest festivals that are traditional in many parts of the world. After the first harvest was completed by the Plymouth colonists in 1621, Governor William Bradford proclaimed a day of thanksgiving.
In 1863 President Abraham Lincoln appointed a day of thanksgiving, and since then each president has issued a Thanksgiving Day proclamation, generally designating the fourth Thursday of November as a holiday.
New Year's Day is the first day of the year, January 1 in the Gregorian calendar. In the Middle Ages most European countries used the Julian calendar and observed New Year's Day on March 25, called Annunciation Day and celebrated as the birth to the Son of God. With the introduction of the Gregorian calendar in 1582, Roman Catholic countries began to celebrate New Year's Day on January 1.
The custom of visiting friends, relatives and neighbours on New Year’s Day is one of the Old World traditions that has taken on a new form in the United States. A favourite place to see the old year out is New York City’s Time Square.
Christmas is an annual festival, held on December 25, to celebrate the Nativity, or birth of Christ. The Christmas tree, an evergreen trimmed with lights and other decorations, is derived from the so-called paradise tree, symbolising Eden.
Saint Valentine's Day, a holiday honouring lovers, is celebrated on February 14. There is a custom of sending greeting cards or gifts to express affection. The cards, known as valentines, are often designed with hearts to symbolise love. The holiday probably derives from the ancient Roman feast of Lupercalis (February 15). The festival gradually became associated with the feast day (February 14) of two Roman martyrs, both named St. Valentine, who lived in the 3rd century. St. Valentine has traditionally been regarded as the patron saint of lovers.
Art and culture.
The Oxford Advancer Learner`s Dictionary of Current English by Hornby gives us the following definition of the notion «art». “«Art» is the creation or expression of what is beautiful, especially in visual form. Drawing, painting, sculpture, architecture, literature, music, ballet belong to the fine art”.
Really when something is extremely beautiful or has great cultural value, we say: “It`s art”. Art has always been occupation for the few, but has been admired by many. Art reflects feelings and emotions, brings delight and admiration, makes life pure as it wakens our best hidden qualities. Speaking about arts, we connect this notion with culture. According to the dictionary culture of a community or nation includes all the arts, beliefs and social institutions characteristic of a community or nation. We can speak about either material, or spiritual culture. Art is both.
Russia is a country that can rightfully boast its artistic and cultural traditions, its art galleries attract huge crowds of tourists from all over the world. St`Petersburg is a precious stone in the crown of Russian cities. The Hermitage is famous all over the world for its valuable rare collections of canvases and other art objects covering a span of about seven hundreds years and comprising masterpieces of by Leonardo da Vinci, Titian, Raphael, Rembrandt, Rubens. The collections illustrates the art of Italy, Spain, Holland, Germany, France, Britain, Sweden. The West – European Department also includes a fine collection of European Sculpture. People come to admire the collections of tapestry, precious textiles, weapons, ivory, pottery, porcelain and furniture as well.
The Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow, the Russian Museum should be mentioned by all means. This picture gallery was founded by a Russian merchant and a connoisseur of art Pavel Tretyakov in the 19th century. He was especially fond of the works of Peredvizhniki or Wanders- the artists who belonged to the Society of Travelling Art Exhibitions such as Kramskoy, Perov, Ghe and other great Russian painters. The Tretyakov Gallery reflects the whole history of Russian Art. It has a rich collection of early Russian painting including famous icon. The world famous «The Trinity» by Andrey Rublev is exhibited in the gallery.
Speaking about art one should not forget about music, especially classic music. Outstanding Russian composers make all the world admire their music. One can find a man, who does not know Pyotr Ilyich Tchaicovsky, Michail Glinka, Nicholai Rimsky-Korsakov – the prominent composers of 19th century, and Sergei Rachmaninov, Sergei Prokofiev and Dmitriy Shostakovich.
It was Glinka (1804-1857) who laid the foundation for modern Russian music, his music expressed the temperament of Russian people. His two best known operas «Ivan Susanin» and «Ruslan and Ludmila» were based on Russian folklore and historical legends.
The most famous ballets «Swan Lake», «The Sleeping Beauty», «The Nutcracker» and not less famous operas «The Queen of Spades», «Eugine Onegin» are still excellently staged and performed not only in Russian but in many greatest theatres in the world.
Russia is world famous for its literature. The «golden age» of Russian literature began in the 19th century when such outstanding masters of letters such as Alexander Pushkin, Lermontov, Gogol, Turgenev, Dostoeyevsky created their immortal masterpieces.
Alexander Pushkin, the father of Russian Literature was the authors of more than 700 lyrical poems. He wrote also the volumes of dramatic works, short stories, made adaptations of Russian fairy-tales.
Russia is famous for its architecture. The real jewel of architecture is the Moscow Kremlin with its cathedrals, towers and red brick walls. Just outside the Kremlin walls stands St.Basil`s Cathedral, one of the world most astonishing buildings with 8 domes of different designs and colors.
St.Petersburg has great number of real masterpieces of architecture of different styles and is definitely worth visiting and being admired.
Russia is rich also in young talents, new Russian culture is forming. It will appear on the basis of the old one, but its essence will be new. We can hear new voices in music and poetry, new canvases of modern artists, great actors and film directors.
All of them will make their contribution into Russian Culture and Art.
Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country. This was the country in which the earliest developments of modern industry took place. It exports machinery, vessels, motors and other goods. There are a lot of factories and mines there.
The textile industry is also highly developed. Manchester is the center of the cotton, textile industry, one of the Britain’s most important producers of computers and electronic equipment. A lot of British textiles are exported.
Ship-building is an important industry. The main ship building centers are London, Glasgow.
At the same time Great Britain imports some food products and raw materials from many countries of the world. Because of the weather only half of the food the country needs is produced by British agriculture. Vegetables and fruits are grown especially in the south of England where the temperature is higher and there are more hours of sunshine than in the northern regions.
Wheat is grown in the east of England. English wool is famous in the whole world. Sheep can be seen in many parts of England, Scotland and there are a lot of cattle farms and farms where milk, butter and cheese are produced.