Реферат: Жизнь и творчество Шекспира
Created three since superfluous century back tragedies, historical chronicles and the Shakespeare's comedies live till now, excite and shake imagination of the spectators. The best theatres of the world and the outstanding actors until now consider for themselves as examination and happiness to put and to play his performance.
Having seen such performance or simply having read the play of Shakespeare, you want, probably, to learn more about that, who has created these products. But it not so is simple.
About life of the great playwright few items of information were kept. Shakespeare did not write memoirs and did not conduct a diary. There is no at us his correspondence with the contemporaries. The manuscripts of the plays of Shakespeare were not kept also. We were reached some by the documents, in which the different circumstances of his life are mentioned. Each of these documents, even if in it some words about Shakespeare, are investigated and is interpreted. As rare historical values those are considered few клочки of a paper, on which the dramatist’s hand writes some lines or simply there is his signature.
It was necessary to put a lot of work, which we could read now about Shakespeare that each educated man should know about it.
William Shakespeare was born on April 23, 1564 in small English town Stratford, located on to the river Avon. His father was the handicraftsman and merchant. The story about childhood and Shakespeare’s youth is complete of colorful details. However science cannot recognize as their quite authentic. When Shakespeare there was by little more than 20 years, he had suddenly to leave in Stratford. Young Shakespeare has set off to London.
Having appeared in unfamiliar city without means, without of the friends and familiar, he, as assert widespread of the legend, earned the first time for life by that watched at theatre of the horses, on which came famous sirs. Later Shakespeare began to serve at theatre. He watched, that the actors in time should leave on a stage, copied roles, happened, and replaced the prompter. By a word, long before, how the great playwright has deduced on a stage of the heroes, he has learned hard life of theatre.
Some years have passed. Shakespeare has begun to charge small roles at the theatre later, which have received the name «Globe», which performances were a success in London. The actor Shakespeare and did not become, but his statements about actor's art, and main, magnificent skill in construction of the play, testify to amazing knowledge of the laws of a stage.
However, Shakespeare wrote not only play. His poems impressed of the contemporaries also continue impress descendants by force of feelings, by depth think, grace of the form. The readers can especially well estimate Shakespeare’s sonnets, due to excellent translations.
But the main business for Shakespeare, passion by all him of life was work of the playwright, creation of the plays. Shakespeare’s hugely skill as playwright. Language of his tragedies differs by unusual riches and beauty. Him the dramatic art borrows an honorable place in repertoire theatres of all worlds.
Exulting pleasure of life, glorification sensible, strong, brave, brightly feeling, safely thinking of the man — basic in the first Shakespeare’s plays — comedies: " Taming obstinate ", " a Comedy of mistakes ", " Dream in summer night ", «There is a lot of noise from anything »," Twelfth night ", written in 1593-1600. In them the idea is expressed important for epoch of Revival: the man needs to be judged not on a dress, not on knowledge, not on estate and riches, and on his behavior and personal qualities.
It is difficult to find in global dramatic art the play same fantastically — cheerful, clear, magic, as " Dream in summer night ". Their participation in to destiny fond results in a happy outcome.
But noble humanistic the ideas of Revival could not win in that severe epoch. In his following plays ideas of Revival too are expressed, but the paints of the plays become gloomier. He represents collision of perfect ideals a Cart of birth with severe activity. In Shakespeare’s creativity begins to sound a theme of destruction of the heroes especially expensive to him, incarnated light humanistic of idea.
Young Romeo and Juliet- the heroes of the first great tragedy Shakespeare (1594)- ardently love each other. The love them encounters an insuperable barrier- ancient enmity of families. In an unequal duel with century by prejudices, with the bloody and senseless laws, Romeo and Juliet perish. But in their love, which has been not measured with biases of olden time, the high moral victory is made.
Shakespeare’s plays went on a stage of the London theatre «Globe». The theatre «Globe» was similar on round detachment visited in by 1599 the first Shakespeare’s representation " Julius Caesar ", has named theatre «Globe» as the house under open by the sky. The visitant the foreigner who has with a straw roof- he meant a roof above a stage. The name the theatre has received from a statue of Oat-flakes
After statement " Julius Caesar " with 1601 on 1608. Shakespeare has created the greatest tragedies supporting by shoulders terrestrial a sphere: «Hamlet», " The King Liar ", «Macbet», and «Othello".
Danish prince Hamlet bitterly grieves over the died father. But suddenly he with horror finds out: he has not died, he was kill. The murderer- the native brother killed, Hamlet’s uncle- not only has inherited throne of the deceased of the king, but also married his widow- Hamlet’s mother. In tragedy is represented, as Hamlet in the beginning convicts hypocrisy of a criminal, and then and revenges him for death of the father. But it only coronationed external events of the play.
The tragedy draws complex and difficult meditations the boon of the native man about a nature of evil, about vicious royal a courtyard, about lie, concealed in palace walls, about illnesses, with which the century, as if " dislocated in joints " is struck. Great Russian critic V.G.Belinsky wrote about Hamlet: " It is soul, birthed for goods and in first of time seen evil in all of his foulness ".
Hamlet’s loneliness is a loneliness of the man, which has outstripped the time, is with him in tragically dissonance and consequently perishes.
Last years of creativity Shakespeare (1608-1612) of his play get other character. They leave from of real life. In them sound fantastic, fantastic motives. But also in these plays- " The Winter fairy tale ", «Storm”- Shakespeare condemns despotism and, self-will rises on protection of ideals, expensive to him, glorifies force by love, belief and best promptings of the man, asserts natural equality of all people. Exclamation of the hero by one of these plays: » As the mankind is perfect! " — can serves a sign of epoch of the Revival which has presented Shakespeare’s world.
Shakespeare — author 37 plays, 2 poems, and also 154 sonnets, distinguished by hot feeling sated by idea. Shakespeare’s creativity is one of tops of art culture of epoch of Revival.
In 1612 Shakespeare has written last play «Storm». Soon he has left theatre. Can be Shakespeare has gone through disappointment at the English theatre leaving from of that great way, on which he conducted him.А there can be within silence he wear out plans of new ingenious creations, with which and were not fated to appear.
Shakespeare has died in 1616, per day, when to him 52 years were executed. He was buried in Stratford’s church native, where till now come fans him of talent from all ends of the world to bow to a tomb of the great playwright, to visit the house, where he lived, to look his plays in Stratford's memorial theatre, where put only Shakespeare’s plays.