Реферат: The Algorithm of a Start and the Development of International Conflicts and Possible Ways of Their Solution
The Algorithm of a Start and the Development of International Conflicts and Possible Ways of Their Solution.
Composed by Michael Korolyov
Teacher Altynova G.A.
The humanity has come into the Third Millennium having lots of non — solved problems and one of the most difficult of them is the national one. It appeared not only in developing countries ( African, Asian, South — American countries) but in the civilized regions such as Western Europe, North America and in the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe, that can hardly be referred to any of these groups. Every day in world news reports we can see many examples of international conflicts. Ulster, Kosovo, Chechnya, Palestine, Macedonian — these geographical names are known by every person who watches TV or reeds newspapers and the wars there are becoming a true menace to international security. Thousands of people have already perished, millions of them have lost their homes — these are non — final results of this tragedy called separatism. What is it? What are the reasons for it? How we can stop it (if we can)? The aim of my work is to answer these questions.
I have put forward the following statement as hypothesis: the development of international conflicts is closely connected to the social and economic situation in the regions where these conflicts take place. In my work I’ll use some facts proving this connection and explain the factors that influence the increasing level of ethical contradictions.
The methods of getting the material used in my work are:
· case study
· making conclusions
· making comparisons
The main source of information for me was Mass Media. I used the articles from the magazine «Novoye Vremya» (1992 -2000). The articles contain facts related to different countries that have ethnical problems. I also used the book by A. B. Krylov «Separatism» ( Moscow 1990). And, of course, TV reports gave me a lot of information about present-day centers of separatism in the world.
Separatism is a political movement the aim of which is separation of a part of the territory from the whole state and creating an independent state there or annexation it to another state. It is based on the principle of national self — determination which is wrongly explained in the following way: «Each ethnical community should have its own territory recognized by other states». But the explanation fixed in the world law consists in the right of ethnosisis to participation in the wider social and political process.
The main reasons for aggravating ethnical extremism are the periods of social and economic difficulties together with enforcing of social and ethnical contradictions and low efficacy of the work of the authorities and police. We can see such situation in Yugoslavia and in the countries of the former USSR in the 1990-s, in the republics of Africa after becoming independent and so on. Such factors lead to increasing attempts to solve the conflicts with the help of power both or the side of the existing authorities and opposite communities.
Among the additional reasons are:
· mutual territorial pretensions of the ethnosises (in the majority of conflicts);
· struggle for power between ethnical groups at the local, regional and national level (Ulster, Kosovo, Chechnya and other national republics of Russian Federation, Afghanistan);
· economic backwardness of multiethnic countries (Africa, Asia);
· differences in language, traditions, customs, religion, cultural and political discrimination ( Ulster till 1972, Kosovo, Bask’s Land (Spain), Kathalony (Spain and France), Kurdistan (Iraq, Iran, Turkey)
The greatest centers of separatism have their own local specifics which is similar in the countries of one area. So it’s possible to mark out 6 types of separatism.
1. West — European. High social mobilization here doesn’t usually get out of the limits of «civilized» political struggle ( except Ulster and Bask’s land)
2. East- European. This type is characterized by a great number of victims and interference of other countries and organizations (NATO, UNO, EC).
3. Near -Eastern (Islamic). The opposite sides here belong to one religious and cultural basis (Islam). The typical example is the war in Kurdistan, the territory of which is now devided between 4 countries.
4. Asian. The centers of separatism here are noted for many people. For example in Indian states Jamey and Cashmere the number of victims is 37000 people, in Ceylon — more then 32000 in Philippines — 25000.
5. African. The ethnical conflicts there appeared after colonial countries had left this region. The wars in Rwanda, democratic republic Congo and in other countries became the examples of unfounded cruelty and caused the death of millions of people.
6. American. Ethnical conflicts here are not so wide spread. The most famous example is Quebec, but the struggle for independence there is only political.
Thus we can see that the start and the development of ethnical conflicts are influenced by geographical, social and economic factors. Understanding this influence can lead to making up of recommendations to prevent such problems. I’ll mention some of them.
Firstly, we should distinctly define the limits of the using of military power. This power shouldn’t be used to protect political or economic interests of some ethnical structures.
Secondly, the UNO should declare the struggle against separatism as one of the most important tasks in its activities. This struggle may include working out of international laws, economic help to multyethnical countries.
Thirdly, developed countries should assign money to stable social and economic situation in the developing states because the problem of ethnical separatism is a threat to security in the whole world.
And the last, global and especially local cooperation between different countries should be extended not only because the whole world community is able to find away out of ethnical conflicts but also because the process of world integration can make the appearance of separatism senseless.