Реферат: English - topics
The history of Moscow began in 1147, and since then Moscow has always had a leading position in the life of the whole country. It is the political, cultural, scientific centre of Russia.
Coming to Moscow for the first time, many tourists start sightseeing with Red Square. In Red Square they visit St.Basil's (-) Cathedral, a masterpiece of (-) ancient Russian (-) architecture. It was built in memory of the victory over Kazan in 1552 The monument standing in front of St.Basil's Cathedral tells us of the people's victory over Polish invaders in 1612. On the monument you can read the following words: «To citizen Minin and Prince Pozharsky from grateful Russia».
On the territory of the Kremlin we can see the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great built in the 15th century. At its foot there is another ancient monument — the Tsar Bell weighing 200 tons.
Opposite the Cathedral is the Museum of History.
If you are interested in arts you'd better visit the Tretyakov Art Gallery which contains fantastic Russian icons, monumental paintings and historical themesperformed by Peredvizhniki, Repin, Surikov, Levitan and other great artists. If you visit the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts you'll (-) admire the (-)magnificent display of West-European paintings of the 13th-20th centuries.
Moscow has over 60 historical, art, natural science and literary museums, memorial houses and flats, exhibition halls.
Moscow is a city of world-famous theatres. The Bolshoi Theatre was opened in 1825. Its (-) repertoire includes more then 50 operas and ballets. The Maly Drama theatre, the Moscow Art Theatre, the Obraztsov Central Puppet Theatre enjoy great (-) popularity .
Moscow has excellent sports (-) facilities. The Lenin stadium and the Moscow Sports Complex «Olympijski» are the largest sports complexes in my country. Moscow is a city of science. It has hundreds of scientific institutions and higher education establishments, among which is Moscow Power Engineering Institute.
admire — любоваться
Moscow power engineering institute (technical university)
-in brief — mpei
Moscow Power Engineering Institute is state higher education institute and has the status of technical university.
MPEI is well-known as one of the largest Technical Universities of Russia in the fields of power engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, informatics, computer science. It has modern educational and scientific laboratories, large experimental facilities, educational-scientific heat station, educational-scientific TV centre. It has the Special Design Bureau which deals with deep space communication systems, several centres of deep space communication in different regions of Russia. More than 1500 computers (large, medium and personal) and modern technological equipment are distributed through the MPEI Departments. MPEI is training the specialist for the foreign countries during 50 years and now the students of 68 countries are trained in MPEI. For large successes in training of high-qualified engineers and scientific researchers MPEI was (-) officially awarded by two Russian orders and six orders of different foreign countries.
Many famous foreign persons have got the education in MPEI:
· Ion Iliesku, the President of Romania,
· Li Peng, the Prime-Minister of the State Council of China,
· Vladimir Dvorjecek, the Director of TESLA (Czekia).
Moscow Power Engineering Institute was founded at 1930 on the base of (-)Faculty of Electrical Engineering of Moscow Technical University named after Bauman and of Faculty of Electrical Industrial Engineering of the Institute of National Economy named after Plekhanov.
Now MPEI has the main residence in Moscow and three branches: in Kazan, in Smolensk, in Volzgskij. Total quantity of students in Moscow is about 20’000
The educational and research activity of MPEI is directed to training the Bachelors of Science, Engineers and Masters ofScience in the very wide fields of modern Power Engineering,Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Computer Science;
There are several faculties:
· Power Engineering Industry Faculty
· Thermal Power Engineering Faculty
· Industrial Heat Engineering Faculty
· Electromechanical Faculty
· Faculty of Electrical Equipment and Automatization of industry and transport
· Electrical Power Engineering Faculty (???)
· Faculty of Automatics and Computers faculty of Electronics technologies
· Radio Engineering Faculty
· Power Physics Faculty
In accordance with MPEI`s Charter MPEI has the right to award to its` graduates the following academic degrees:
· ( - ) Bachelor of Science in Engineering (Bch. Sc.);
· Diplomized Engineer (Dipl. Eng.);
· Master of Science in Engineering (Ms. Sc.);
· Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering and Doctor of Philosophy in Mathematics and Physics (Ph.D.);
Duration of studding in MPEI is from 4 years (for Bachelors) to 9 years (for Doctors)
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British (-) Isles. It consists of four parts: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. England, Wales and Scotland( - ) occupy the territory of Great Britain. Northern Ireland is situated in the northern part of Ireland. The territory of the United Kingdom is about 244 square kilometres. His the 75th place among other countries in the world. The population is over 55 million. About 80% of the population is (-) urban. The capital of the country is London.
2. Geographical position and physical features:
The surface of Great Britain (-)varies (-)greatly. The northern and western part of the country is mountains and is called the Highlands. All the rest (south, east and centre) is a (-) vast plain which is called the Lowlands. The mountains are not very high. The rivers are not long. The most important of them are the Severn and the Thames. There are many beautiful lakes in the (-)mountainous parts of the country.
The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of the Gulf Stream influence the climate of Great Britain.
The weather in GB is very changeable. A fine morning can change into a wet afternoon and evening and the wrong side out. The English people say: «Other countries have a climate; in England we have weather.» The English also say that they have three variants of weather: when it rains in the morning, when it rains in the afternoon or when it rains all day long.
The best time of the year in GB is spring(of course, it rains in spring too). The two worst months in Britain are January and February. They are cold, (-)damp and unpleasant. Summer months are rather cold and there can be a lot of rainy days. So most people who look forward to summer holidays, plan to go (-)abroad for the summer.
4. National economy
Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country. It is known as one of the world's largest producers and exporters of iron and steel products, machinery and electronics, chemicals and textile, aircraft and navigation equipment. One of the chief industries of the country is shipbuilding.
Great Britain is a country with old cultural traditions and customs. The most famous educational centres are Oxford and Cambridge universities. They are considered to be the intellectual centres of Europe. The education is not free, it is very expensive.
5. Politic system
The United Kingdom is a (-) monarchy and the Queen is the head of state. But in practice it is ruled by the elected government with a Prime Minister at the head. The British Parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. There are three main political parties in Great Britain: the London, the (-)Conservative and the Liberal parties, The Conservative party is the ruling party nowadays.
vary — меняться
vast — громадный, обширный
damp - сырость
abroad - за границей
The United States of America was formed by emigrants in 1382. The USA makes up of 62 states. Washington, the capital of the United States is situated on the Rotomac River in the District of Columbia. The district is a piece of land which doesn't belong to any state but to all the states. All these states are (-)sovereignty .
2. Geographical position and physical features:
The USA occupy a large territory and are situated in the central and southern part of North America. The USA is washed by the Atlantic ocean in the east and by the Pacific ocean in the west. In the north, the USA has borders on Canada and in the south on Mexico. The USA is divided into three areas: Eastern area is a highland, central area is a plain and Western area is mountains including the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada. There are five great lakes in the northern part of the USA. There are: Huron, Michigan, Supireo, Ontario and Erie. They are connected by fast rivers. There is the most famous to the whole world fall called Niagara Fall. Mississippi together with its (-)tributary Missouri is the longest river in the world.
Mountain ranges cross the country from north to south and don't protect it against cold air from the north and warm one from the south. The USA has a continental climate.
4. National Economy.
The USA is ahighly developed industrial country. Large reserves of oil, (-)coal, iron and other minerals are solid base of development of Americans industry. Heavy industry (-) prevails in USA, including such branches as the mining, metallurgical, engineering, chemical and high-tech industries. USA has also well-developed light industry which includestextile, (-)tanning and (-)footwear industries. The food industry is well developed too. Both animal (-)husbandry and farming takes big place in the economy of the USA.
5. Political system
Under the Constitution, the federal government is divided into three branches. The Congress is (-) vested with the (-)legislative power and made up of two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives. There are 435 members in the House of Representatives and 100 senators. Each state elects two members of the Senate.
The executive branch is headed by the President, who (-) proposes bills to Congress,serves as commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces. The President is chosen in nation-wide elections every 4 years. The second person in executive branch is vice President. The vice President, elected from the same political party as the President
The (-) judicial branch consists of Federal District Courts, 11 Federal Courts and the Supreme Court. Federal judges are appointed by the President. Federal courts decide cases involving federal law, conflicts between citizens of different states.
Constitution is the most important document in the USA. Constitution has been amended 26 times. The Bill of Rights guarantees individual liberties: freedom of speech, religion and so on.
tributary — приток
prevail — торжествовать
tanning - кожевенный
footwear — обувной
animal husbandry — животноводство
vest — облекать (властью)
legislative — законодательной
propose — предлагать
amend — улучшать, исправлять