Реферат: Английский /11 класс/
The official name of this country is the United Kingdomof Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is divided intofour parts: England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland.The British Isles are group of islands lying off the north-west coast of the continent of Europe. England, Wales andScotland are in Great Britain, Northern Ireland is situatedin the north-easten part of Ireland. There are no highmountains, no very long rivers,no great forest in U.K. Theclimate of the British Isles is not very cold in winter andnever hot in summer. The population of the U.K. is almostfifty six million. Britain is an industrial country.A lot of things such as clothes, food, planes, cars and manyothers are made in U.K. In the U.K. there are a lot ofcattle-farms. The U.K. is a parlamentary manarchy. Great Britain is a capitalist country.
YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS OF BRITAIN.
There were numerous different youth organizations in Britain. Somewere large, and some small, some nation-wide and some local. Probablythe largest were the Boy Scouts and Girls Guides Associations and theYMCA (Young Men's Christian Association), and the YWCA (Young Women'sChristian Association) or simply «y» for short. The Boy Scouts and theGirls Guides were for scool-age teen-agers and the YMCA and the YWCAwere for scool-leavers, college students and young people who hadalready started working Boy Scouts and Girls Guides had to do one gooddeed every day, to develop themselves mentally and physically. Insummer they went camping in tents with everything done by young peoplethemselves. At the YMCA and the YWCA more attention was paid for sportand different social events, such as outing in the country, dances,debates, amateur activities, etc.
These organizations were founded in the nineteenth century.Officialy they were non-political, but in reality they aimed not tolet young people think about social and political problems in theircountry, to bring them up in the spirit of nationalizm. Boy Scouts andGirs Guides, for example, promised to be true to the king (queen) andhad to salute the British flag at their meetings.
London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and cultural centre. It is situated on the both banks of the Thames. London is one of the largest cities in the world. It's population is more than 9 millionpeople. London was founded more then twenty centuries ago.
The East End includes the poorer districts, the industrial center, the port, the London docks. Thestreets here are narrow and dirty, the houses are poor.Working class families live here. London is famous forits wonderful places of interest such as the BritishMuseum, the Tower of London, Buckingham Palace, and manyothers.
Sightseenings of London.
The Tower of London is the most famous of allthe historical buildings in London. It stands todayalmost unchanged since first it was built in the 11thcenture. In the past the Tower of London served bothas a palace and as a state prison, but it is only amuseum today.
St Paul's Cathedral is the greatest work ofEngland's greatest architector Christopher Wren. Thecathedral was begun in 1675. It was opened in 1697but was finished only in 1710, when Wren was almosteighy years old. There are memorials to many famousmen of England in the Cathedral.
Trafalgar Square is in the centre of the West Endof London. On the north side is the National Gallery;in the north-east corner is the National PortraitGallery, and in the centre is Nelson's Column withthe figure of the great seamen.
Trafalgar Square is the place where mass meetingsand demonstrations for peace and for working people'srights take place.
«Big Ben» is the name of the great bell whichstrikes the hour. It is in the clock Tower of theHouses of Parlament.
Westminster Abbey is the historic building inLondon to which every visitor sooner or later goes.The Abbey was founded in the 11th centure. Many ofGreat Britain's famous men are buried in WestminsterAbbey.
Piccadilli Circus is a square in the central partof London. London's best-known theatres and cinemas andmost famous restaurants are on Piccadilly Circus. Inthe square you can see people of many nationalitiesand hear a lot of different languages.
Hyde Park is the largest park in the West End ofLondon. In the 19th century it became a popular placefor public meetings.
The British Museum is one of the largest museumsin the world. It consists of the National Library andMuseum of History, Archaelogy, Art and Ethnography.
Protection of Environment.
With the development of civilization man'sinterference in nature grows up. It leads to differentnegative factors are: the pollution of water, air,soil and the destruction of the ozone layer.
This problem must be solved if we want topreserve life on our planet. This problem is globalproblem that's why all countries of the world, allpeople, young and old, must take an active part inthe protection of natural resources rationly.Factoriyes and plants must have purification systemsto preserve the purity of water, air and soil.
We must take care of plants, trees, animals,birds and fishes, especially of those that are dyingout.
We also have a Red Book where rare and dyingout plants, birds, animals are registered. Though the role of people in the solution ofecological problems has greatly increased, wecan't say that we are doing all in our power, tostop harmful processes in preserving theenvironment.
The folowing radical measures must be taken:
1. The replanting of trees that have been cutdown;
2. Nuclear tests should be stopped;
3. Purificution systems must be installed atplants and factories;
4. Natural resources should be used morerationally;
5.Rare and dying out birds, animals and plant'sshould be protected;
6.Precaution measures should be taken againstthe destruction of the ozone layer.
Sport holds an important place in our life. When we listen tothe radio in the morning, we can always hear sport news. When weopen a newspaper, we can always find information about some gameor other or an article about our favourite kind of sports.
Television programmes about sport are also very popular, and wecan watch something interesting every day.
Sport helps people to keep in good health. Sport also makes usmore organized in our daily activities.
National game and sports competitions are popular in ourcountry. People go in for many kinds of sports. There are sportsgrounds near every school, every institute, every factory andplant. Besides there are sports clubs and sport school in everytown. Many people go there for training.
As to me I go in for table-tennis. I like this kind of sport. Myfriend likes table-tennis too. We often play it both. There aremany sport teams at school. They are a football team, avoley-ball team, a basket-ball team, a table-tennis team.
1. Does sport hold an inportant place in our life?
2. What can we always hear, when we listen to the radio?
3. What can we alway find, when we open a newspaper?
4. Are television programmes about sports also very popular?
5. Does sport help people to keep in good health?
6. Does sport also make us more organized in our daily activities?
7. Are National game and sports competitions popular in our
8. Who go in for many kinds of sports?
9. Are there sports grounds near every school, every institute,
every factory and plants?10. Are there sports clubs and sports school in every town?11. Do many people go there the training?12. What kind of sports do i go in for?13. I like this kind of sport, don't I?14. Does my friend like table-tennis too?15. How do we often play it?16. Are there many sport teams at school?17. What teams are at school?
Modern life is impossible without travelling.Thousands of people travel every day either on bussines or for pleasure. They can travel by air,by rail, by see or by road.
Travelling by air is the fastest and the mostconvinient way, but it is the most expensive too. Tomy mind travelling by train is more interesting. Youcan see interesting places of the country you aretravellin throught. Modern trains have very comfortableseats. There are also sleeping carriages and a diningcarrige which make even the longest journey enjoyable.
Travelling by sea is very popular. On board of ship you can enjoy your trip. There are tennis and badmintongrounds, a swimming-pool, a sinema and a dancing hallthere. Some people prefer travelling by car. If youheve your own car you may go to the Black Sea, where there are a lot of rest-houses, sanatoriums and touristcamps. In the daytime you can have a nice opportunityto play voleyball, swim in the warm water of the seaand sunbathe. In the evening you like to sit on thebeach watching the sea and enjoying the sunset.
As for me I'm a hiker. I like to go on a hiketo the mountins or to the forest. You go agree with me that it is pleasant to gather mushrooms and berriesin the forest, swim in the river, make a fire and prepare meals on it. On my week-end I take a tent, arucksack and go to railway station take the train.In an hour I find myself out of noisy city. The airis fresh, birds sing their merry songs. To make mylong story short I'd like to say that travelling is one of my hobbies. Travelling helps me to seeto coutry-side better, to know about customs andtraditions of the Republic, to meet people and make friends with them.
My favorit season.
There are four seasons in the year. There are winter, spring,summer and autumn. My favorit season is summer, because I wasborn in summer. It is warm and sometimes hot. There are manyfruits, berries and vegatables. In summer I can spend my time onthe beach of lakes and rivers. I swim in lakes and rivers. I candrive my bicycle and our car. We go to the forest for looking forberries and mushrooms. We go to Slonim for a month. Mygrandmother and grandfather live there. My sister and I help themin the garden. And of course I like Summer very much becausethere is the longest holiday in summer.
My Working Day.
I am Andrew Kiporuk. I am a puple of the 10th form. I get ut ap7 o'clock. I wash myself and dress.I make a bed. My friend cometo me at half past 7 and we go to the school. At school I have 7lessons. I come back home at 3 o'clock. I have dinner. Then Iwalk with my dog. Then Help my mother at home. Sometime go forshopping, pour the flowers. I begin to do my homework at 5o'clock. I watch TV very seldom, because I have many home task.Sometime I sit at my computer. Sometime Andrey Saynov comes tome. We talk about our school business. He studied in colledge. Ilisten to the music very often. I have supper at 7 o'clock. After8 o'clock my brothers come to me. And we play on the computer. At10 o'clock I go to bed.