Реферат: Mass media
Is a comprehensiveterm embracing television, radio, motion pictures, and large-circulationnewspapers and magazines. It refers to much more than the journalistic aspectsof the instruments of popular communication. The mass media often function asthe locus of social control and the source of popular culture. They help createhistorical events, teach values, and by virtue of the huge commercialenterprises they represent, affect the viability of free societies.
There are fivemajor fields of journalism: newspapers, news services, periodicals, radio andtelevision. Radio and television perform information only briefly, but quickly.Newspapers include full reports on different topics. News agencies provide themwith the latest information.
News agencies arelocal, national, international, or technical organizations that gathers anddistributes news, selling theyr services to newspapers, periodicals, andbroadcasters; reports are also available as part of some on-line computerservices. The major news organizations in the U.S. are: the Associated Press(AP), founded in 1892 as the Associated Press of Illinois, which adopted itspresent name in 1900; the United Press Association, called the United Press(UP), founded in 1892, which became an affiliate of the Scripps-Howardnewspaper chain; and the International News Service (INS), founded by W.R.Hearst in 1906; in 1958 INS was merged with UP, forming United PressInternational (UPI). Two major European news agencies are the Reuter Telegram Companyof London, founded in 1851 and known simply as Reuters; and AgenceFrance-Presse, founded in 1835 as Agence Havas of Paris. Some countries havegovernment-owned and -controlled agencies. News agencies transmit copy throughthe use of the telegraph, telephone wires, underwater cables, andcommunications satellites. Many offer their clients photographs, news analyses,and special features.
Newspaper is apublication issued periodically, usually daily or weekly, to present informationabout current events. The Roman Acta diurna (c.59 B.C.), posted daily in publicplaces, was the first recorded newspaper. The invention and spread of printingin the 15th cent. was the major factor in the early development of thenewspaper. The first daily paper in England was the Daily Courant (1702).English newspapers began to reach the masses in the 19th cent. ImportantEnglish newspapers of today are The Times of London (founded in 1785) and theManchester Guardian. One of the oldest continental newspapers, Avisa Relationoder Zeitung, appeared in Germany in 1609; the Nieuwe Tijdingen was publishedin Antwerp in 1616; and the first French newspaper, the Gazette, was founded in1631. Important newspapers of the world today include Frankfurter AllgemeineZeitung (Germany), Figaro (France), Osservatore romano (Vatican), Asahi Shimbun(Japan), and the Times of India (Delhi). The first newspaper to appear in theAmerican colonies was a newssheet, Publick Occurrences, which was issued inBoston in 1690. During the 19th cent. many famous U.S. newspapers appeared: theNew York Evening Post (1801); the New York Sun, founded (1833) by B.H. Day; theNew York Herald (1835); and the New York Times (1851. Other important Americannewspapers are the Washington Post; Los Angeles Times; Christian ScienceMonitor (Boston); Atlanta Constitution; Chicago Tribune; USA Today, a nationalpaper; and Wall Street Journal (N.Y.C.), which in 1980 became the best-sellingdaily newspaper in the U.S. In the 20th cent. great newspaper empires werebuilt in England and in the U.S. By 1980 the Australian magnate Rupert Murdochwas publishing newspapers in Australia, Britain, and the U.S. Since theinvention of the telegraph, which facilitated the rapid gathering of news, thegreat news agencies have sold their services to many newspapers. Improvementsin typesetting and printing (especially the web press) have made possible thepublication of huge editions at great speed. During the 1970s suchtechnological developments as photocomposition and the use of communicationssatellites to deliver news and photographs revolutionized the newspaperindustry. The advent of computer technology has allowed many newspapers tooffer information through commercial on-line computer services. but they areable to spare more attention and space to each problem. The newspaper articlesgive much more information about events. That is is the main advantage ofnewspapers.
Newspapers covermore stories than any ather news media does. They also cover stories in greatdetail. However, the newspapers present information later then radio or TV. Thegreat advantage of newspapers over radio and TV is that they can report storiesin depth. Readers can skip items that doesn’t interest them. Newspapers alsocan print certain material that appeals to only a small percentage of readers.
Periodicals arepublications issued regularly, distinguished from the newspaper in format, inthat its pages are smaller and usually bound, and in that it is publishedweekly, monthly, or quarterly, rather than daily. Periodicals range fromtechnical and scholarly journals to illustrated magazines for mass circulation.The French Journal des scavans (1665-1791) is considered the first periodical,whereas the English monthly Gentleman's Magazine (1731-1868) was the first touse the word magazine in the sense of a periodical for entertainment. FamousAmerican periodicals include Godey's Lady's Book (1830-98), edited by Sarah J.Hale and famous for its colored fashion prints; the Atlantic Monthly (1857-)and Harper's Magazine (1850-), both noted for serious essays and fiction; theextremely popular Saturday Evening Post (1821-1971) and Ladies' Home Journal(1883-); McClure's Magazine (1893-1928), which published many articles by theMuckrakers; and The New Yorker (1925-) known for its urbane humor and highliterary standards. Specialized magazines include the news magazines Time(1923-) and Newsweek (1933-); the National Geographic Magazine (1888-), devotedto natural history and anthropology; Ebony (1946-), a picture weekly directedtoward African Americans; Playboy (1953-) and other periodicals devoted to sexand sexuality; Ms. (1972-), a forum for the women's liberation movement; andthe zany, satirical National Lampoon (1970-). Computer advances have madepossible the delivery of magazine articles through on-line services and havebegun to spawn entirely electronic periodicals, such as The Online Journal ofCurrent Critical Trials (1992-), a professional medical journal.
The firstregularly scheduled radio broadcasts in the U.S. began in 1920. The sale ofadvertising began in 1922, establishing commercial broadcasting as an industry.A coast-to-coast hookup began early in 1924, and expansion of both audience andtransmission facilities continued rapidly. Radio is generally the first of newsmedia to report a local story or a news service bulletin. A radio announcer caninterrupt a programme with a news flash as soon as the report comes in. Most stationspresent regular news bulletins every half-hour or hour.The national radiobroadcast major news events. However, most radio news bulletins do not reportthe news in detail. In a five minute broadcast the stories average less then 30seconds each. Radio also provide weather forecasts and traffic information.
Experiments inbroadcasting television began in the 1920s but were interrupted by World WarII. By 1992 the U.S. had 1,505 television stations, and cable televisionsystems in the U.S. served over 56 million households. Television signals arealso now transmitted from satellites direct to household satellite dishes.
Television is themain source of news for many households around the world. TV does what none ofthe other media can: it brings the sight and sounds of some important newsevents by means of filmed, taped or live reports. Like regular radio newsbulletins, daily TV news programmes provide only brief accounts of relativelynew stories. But the visual aspect of TV news story can often help viewersunderstand the story. In addition to daily news reports, television coversspecial news events. Coverage of such an event may replace many hours ofregular TV shows. Television also broadcasts in-depth programmes that helpexplain a story or subject. Such programmes, which run from half an hour tothree hours, include docummentaries and interview programmes. Mostdocummentaries are filmed or taped. They may perform such subjects as crime,foreign policy, or race relations. Interview programmes, which are usuallybroadcast live, may consist of a panel of journalists who ask questions of amajor figure in the news.
The importance ofmass media and journalism has greatly increased in recent years. In democraticcountries, people depend on the news media for the fair and truthful reportingof current events. Freedom of the press encourages the exchange of ideas amongcitizens. In governmet-controlled countries, however, the news media serve asan instrument of the state. The struggle against censorship began in England inthe 16th-17th cent. In the American colonies it began in 1734. Only 20% of theworld’s people live in countries that have a free press. But ingovernment-controlled countries journalists can still broadcast or write onlywhat national leaders allow. Media forms public opinion now. A lot of politiciansstrive to possess mass media. Media carries great possibilities for society,but they are not only good ones. Nobody should forget, that media- is thefourth power.