Реферат: 9 сочинений для 9 класса /english/
My first journey
For some people there is nothing so exciting as traveling, and I’mnot an exception. And I’m happy that I have traveled a lot and I hope that myfirst journey wasn’t the last one.
First I bought a ticket for plane. Many people think, that nothingcan be compared with traveling by air, because it is the most comfortable, and,of course, the quickest way of moving. There is none of the dust and dirt of arailway or car journey, none of the trouble of changing from train of anotherto streamer and then to another train. But booking tickets in summer is aproblem. The air-fare is quite expensive and not all people can afford it.
Then I continued my way by the train. This kind of transport hasalso many advantages. With a train you have a comfort and speed combined. Froma comfortable corner seat of a railway carriage you have a splendid view of acountryside. If you are hungry you can have a meal in the dinning-car and ifthe journey is long one can have a bed in a sleeper.
But I believe that there is no travel so fine as by ship. It’swonderful to feel the deck of the ship under the feet, to see the rise and fallof the waves, to feel the fresh sea wind blowing in the face, hear the cry ofthe sea-gulls. Of course, the voyage isn’t exciting for those who are sea-sickwhen the sea is a little bit rough.
Many people say: “Give me a walking tour any time”. And it is notsurprising. The walker leaves the dull, broad highway and goes along littlewinding lanes where cars can’t go. He takes mountain paths through the heather,he wonders by the side of quiet lakes and through the shades of woods.
He sees the real country, the wild flowers, the young birds in theirnests, the deer in the forest, he feels the quietness and calm of nature. Andbesides, you are saving a lot of money by traveling on foot. No one can denythat walking is the cheapest method of traveling.
My work at the foreign trade company
Hello, my name is Maxim Sviridov. I work as a manager at the “Startour” company. It is Russian company which works on the business travel market.Two weeks ago I was sent by the administration of our company to London where Istudied the English travel companies, their traditions, their marketing andmanagement. Now my business trip is coming to the end and I want to share withyou my impressions of English business world. First of all English businessmenare well known all over the world for their honesty and decency. If anEnglishman gives you his word he will keep it in any case. Besides that,nothing can prevent him from refusing the once taken decision. Of course, thereare some exclusions, but they are so rare that nobody should put attention onthem.
During the last two weeks my working day was approximately the same.Early in the morning I took a taxi to my hosts’ headquarters, which is situatedin the City – the business heart of London. First of all I usually asked Ms.Lapital – my secretary if there were any letters or cables for me. Then shegave me my correspondence and fresh newspapers and I followed to myoffice-room. There I studied all documents that had come for my name and wrotea short report about previous business day and then faxed it to my nativecompany in Vladivostok. After that I went to Mr. Forsberg’s office-room to gettasks for the new day and ask some questions about their company, its history,traditions, clients, and so on. After that I usually did what Mr. Forsbergasked. My usual job was meeting with potential clients, discussing their restplans and offering the services of Mr. Forsberg’s company. I usually met with10 or 12 people a day. They were representatives of different social groups andcommunicating with them increased my knowledge of England and Englishmen, theirpsychology greatly. This business trip was a great chance for me and I hope Iused this chance fully. Now I know a lot about Western business world, abouttravel business and this knowledge will, of course, help my in my futurecareer.
It is not a secret that our meals influence much on our health andour mood. That’s why I consider breakfast to be the most important meal in theday as it is the first our meal and it can put us in good spirits or it can’t.Now I shall tell you about my breakfast.
In the morning I usually have porridge. I often start my breakfastwith a cereal which is not cooked, it is something dry, ready to be eaten ormuesly – some grain or porridge which is not cooked with dried fruit, nuts andso on.
I also like eggs (cooked in different ways). I don’t practically eatbutter, I prefer soft margarine – made of vegetable fat, which is not heavy andcreamy. I don’t eat jam at breakfast, I eat marmalade which is not sweet, thereis slight bitterness; it’s rather pleasant.
I usually don’t have substantial breakfast on weekdays, I do it onweekends when I get up late. Very often I have just tea or coffee withsandwiches. Tea is usually taken by me with milk. I like very strong teawithout sugar.
Sometimes when I am in hurry I don’t have time to have properbreakfast and I go to the university being hungry. In such case I usually buysomething like “Snickers” or “Mars” on my way to the Alma Mater.
My district and my flat
As you know, Vladivostok, the capital of the Primorsky region,occupies the peninsula of Murav’ev-Amursky which is washed by Amur and Ussurigulfs. One part of this peninsula, called Egersheld (it was named after one ofthe explores of Russian Far-East), is my native district. Egersheld is knownfrom the foundation of Vladivostok. More then one hundred years ago the firsthouses for the seamen appeared in it. Since that time Egersheld is known as theworking center of the city. Now, for example, the territory of the commercialport is situated in this district. Egersheld is the most environmental friendlydistrict in the city as it is open to strong sea winds which blow out allharmful substances in the air and clouds of dust. Of course, this has anegative side – the average temperature in the district in winter is lower thanin the other parts of Vladivostok. As my native district occupies very specialgeographical position (in fact, Egersheld – is a small peninsula ofMurav’ev-Amursky peninsula) so its citizens may admire beautiful sea scenesevery evening when the sun is hiding for the horizon. These seascapes arereally breathtaking and very often you may see dozens of artists trying tocarry this wonderful sight to paper or canvas.
Now about my flat. I live in Sipyagina, 31. Our flat is not verylarge, its double-roomed. If you know the word “khrushovka”, you may imaginewhat is our flat looks like. Besides these two rooms we also have a kitchen anda bathroom. I think there is no any outstanding thing in our flat that is worthdescribing. We have a TV set in one of the rooms, two wardrobes, two workingtables, and small bookcase where our home library is kept.
Culture in Great Britain
It you're staying in London for a few days, you'll have nodifficulty whatever in finding somewhere to spend an enjoyable evening. You'llfind opera, ballet, comedy, drama, review, musical comedy and variety. Mosttheatres and music-halls have good orchestras with popular conductors. At theWest-End theatres you can see most of the famous English actors and actresses.As a rule, the plays are magnificently staged — costumes, dresses, scenery,everything being done on the most lavish scale.
The last half of the XVI and the beginning of the XVII centuries areknown as the golden age of English literature, It was the time of the EnglishRenaissance, and sometimes it is even called «the age ofShakespeare».
Shakespeare, the greatest and most famous of English writers, andprobably the greatest playwright who has ever lived, was born inStratford-on-Avon. In spite of his fame we know very little about his life. Hewrote 37 plays. Among them there are deep tragedies, such as Hamlet, King Lear,Othello, Macbeth, light comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor, All'sWell That Ends Well, Twelfth Night, Much Ado About Nothing.
Customs and traditions
I am going to tell you about English customs and traditions. Firstof all, it concerns United Kingdom political system. In Great Britain there isno written constitution, only customs, traditions and precedents. After theEnglish Revolution of Great Britain is a constitutional monarchy headed by King(now Queen, Elizabeth the second). Traditionally the Queen acts only on theadvice of her Ministers. She reigns but she does not rule.
Englishmen have traditions not only in political, but in sociallife. For example, London, the capital of England, is traditionally dividedinto three parts: the West End, the East end, and the City. The City is ahistorical, financial and business center of London. The East End is thedistrict inhabited by the workers, and the West End is a fashionable shoppingand entertaining center. English people like to spend their free time innumerous pubs where they can have a glass of beer and talk about differentthings with their friends.
The English are traditional about their meals. They eat eggs andbacon with toasts for breakfast, pudding or apple pie for dessert. EveryEnglish family has five o'clock tea. A typical feature of an English house is afireplace, even when there is central heating in the house.
English people like domestic animals. Every family has a pet: a dog,a cat or a bird.
Politeness is a characteristic feature of Englishmen. They often say«Thank you», «Sorry», «Beg your pardon». Russianpeople, I think, have to learn this good custom.
Englishmen have many traditional holidays, such as Christmas,St.Valentine's Day, Mother's day, Easter and others.
Education in GB
I know English boys and girls begin to go to school (it is called«infant») at five; at seven they go to junior schools or departments;at eleven they go to secondary schools. (After selection procedures at the ageof eleven they can study at different types of secondary school: grammarschools which provide an academic education oriented towards university entry;secondary modern schools which were originally designed to give a generaleducation with a practical bias (ХЛМПО); a few secondary techniques schoolsoffering a general education related to industry, commerce and agriculture; andschools providing all three or any two types of education, in separatelyorganized streams known as multilateral or bilateral schools).
These schools consist of denominational and non-denominationalschools. I'd like to yell you about non-denominational school. One must studythere for 6 years. It's open to all boys and girls. There are the six years inthis school. During the first year all classes receive the same basic core ofsubjects namely English, maths, history, geography, science, French, art,music, P.E., technical subjects & home economics. Toward the end of thesecond year pupils are asked to make their subject choices for third and forthyears. Decisions on this stage are only taken after interviews involvingparents, staff and the pupils themselves. The curriculum in 3rd and 4th years consistsof compulsory section (ПВСЪБФЕМШОПЕ ТБЪДЕМЕОЙЕ) which includes English, mathand an options section made up of those subjects chosen by the pupil at the endof the second year. Optional courses are designed to give a sound basiceducation.
The system of higher education in Britain includes universities,colleges of education and advanced courses at various colleges.
There are more than 44 universities in Britain. But not alluniversities are equal. They differ from one another in history and tradition.The oldest and world-known universities are Oxford and Cambridge.
A university usually consists of colleges. The departments of thecolleges are organized into faculties. In the university students have a seriesof lectures, seminars, tutorials and laboratory classes. Lectures are given tolarge groups of students while seminars are much smaller than lectures.Lectures and seminars are all one hour in length, laboratory classes last 2 or3 hours. The academic year divides into 3 terms. First two terms last for 24weeks; the 3rd term is reserved for classes and examinations and lasts for sixweeks.
After three years of study a university graduate will leave with theDegree of Bachelor of Arts or Science. Student can continue to take hisMaster's Degree and then the Doctor's.
Education in Russia
Citizens of Russia have the right to education which is guaranteedby the Constitution. The public educational system in our country incorporatespre-school, general school, specialized secondary and higher education.
Pre-school consists of kindergartens and crèches. Childrenthere learn reading, writing and arithmetic. But pre-school education isn'tcompulsory — children can get it at home.
Compulsory education is for children from 6(7) to 17 years of age.
The main link in the system of education is the general school whichprepares the younger generation for life and work in modern production. Thereare various types of schools: general secondary schools, schools specializingin a certain subject, high schools, lyceums and so on. Tuition in most of themis free of charge, but some new types of schools are fee-paying. The term ofstudy in a general secondary school is 11 years and consists of primary, middleand upper stages. At the middle stage of a secondary school the children learnthe basic laws of nature and society at the lessons of history, algebra,literature, physics and many others.
After 9th form pupils have to sit for examinations. Also they have achoice between entering the 10th grade of a general secondary school andenrolling in a specialized secondary or vocational school.
Persons who finish the general secondary school, receive a secondaryeducation certificate, giving them the right to enter any higher educationalestablishment. Entrance examinations are held in July and August. Institutionsare headed by rectors; the faculties are headed by the deans. One has to studyin the institute for 5 years. Higher educational institutions train students inone or several specializations.
Sports in our life
Sport is very important in our life. It is popular among young andold people. Many people do morning exercises, jog in the morning, train themself’s in clubs and different sections. Other people like sport too; they onlywatch sports game on TV and listen the sports news. Whey prefers readinginteresting stores about sports men but they do not go in for sports.
Physical training is an important subject in school. Pupils havephysical training twice a week. Boys and girls play volleyball and basketballat the lessons. There is a sport ground near our school and school children goin for sports in the open air. A lot of different competitions are held atschool. A great number of pupils take part in them. All participants try to getgood results and become winner.
Sport helps people to keep in good health. If you go in for sportsyou don’t catch cold. Children and grown-ups must take care of they health anddo morning exercises regularly. There are some popular kinds of sport in ourcountry: football, volleyball, hockey, gymnastics, skiing and other. Athleticis one of the most popular kinds of sport. It includes running, jamming andothers.
My favorite sport is swimming. I go to the swimming pool twice aweek. I prefer to rest by the lake or river and swim there. My friend goes infor boxing. He is a good boxer. His hobby helps him in his every day life.