Реферат: Mass media
— What is the role of mass media in the life of contemporary society?
— The role of mass media in the life of the present society is difficult to overestimate. They have become a daily and essential necessity with contemporary men. Mass media report about various aspects of life, form and affect public opinion.
— What is implied under the term «mass media»?
— Mass media comprise press, radio, TV and the Internet. In this or that form mass media come into every home. To understand the meaning of mass media for the people it is necessary to consider their every aspect separately.
— What do you know about the Internet?
— The Internet was created in 1983. Since that time it has grown beyond its largely academic origin into an increasingly commercial and popular medium. The Internet connects many computer net works. It is based on a common addressing system and communications protocol called TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). By the mid-1990s the Internet connected millions of computers throughout the world. Many commercial computer network and data services also provided at least indirect connection to the Internet. The World Wide Web, which enables simple and intuitive navigation of Internet sites through a graphical interface, expanded during the 1990s to become the most important component of the Internet.
— What can you say about the press?
— Newspaper are usually issued daily, weekly, or at other regular times. They provide news, views, features, and other information of public interest and often carry advertising
— When did the first newspapers appear in England?
— Newspapers appeared in many European countries in the 17th century. The first English printed news book averaging twenty-two pages was the «Weekly News». It appeared in Lon don in 1621. By the 1640s the news book had taken the form of a newspaper. The first periodical was the «London Gazelle», a bi weekly court paper. It started as the «Oxford Gazette» in 1665 when the King and the court moved to Oxford because of London plague.
— What was the first English daily?
— The first English daily was «The Daily Courant» (1702-35). It was in 1771 that Parliament allowed journalists the right to report its proceedings. The «Times» was founded by John Walter in 1785, and «The Observer» was founded in 1791.
— What role do newspapers play today?
— Newspapers come out to provide their readers with fresh news. Today people have a chance to have full information about political, economic and cultural events in their own country and abroad.
— Are British newspapers homogeneous?
— No, they are not. In Great Britain there are no official government newspapers. British newspapers are proud of their individual styles. They can be classified into quality and popular editions.
— In what way do quality newspapers differ from the popular ones?
— Quality newspapers are serious daily issues. They appeal mainly to the upper and middle classes. Popular, tabloid newspapers are smaller in size and contain many photographs. Unlike quality newspapers popular newspapers are not so serious and their stories tend to be sensational.
— What quality newspapers can you name?
— Quality newspapers are: «Financial Times», «The Times», «The Guardian», «The Daily Telegraph».
— What information do quality newspapers contain?
— «Financial Times» contains a comprehensive coverage of industry, commerce and public affairs. «The Times» is the most famous newspaper. It represents the views of the establishment and is well-known for its correspondence column. «The Guardian» gives a wide coverage of news events and reports on social issues, the arts, education. «The Daily Telegraph» contains reports on national and international news, gives a full covering of sports and other topics.
— What are popular newspapers?
— Popular newspapers are: «The Daily Express», «The Daily Mirror», «The Daily Mail», «The Daily Star», «The Sun». They have a national daily circulation and appeal mainly to the working and middle classes.
— When did the first newspapers appear in America?
— In the 17th century newspapers, magazines, almanacs were published in America. The oldest printing press in America was set up as early as 1639 at Cambridge, and its activity was never interrupted. The first newspaper in the United States came out in Boston in 1690. But it was suppressed by the colonial governor after one issue. The weekly «Boston News-letter» began publication in 1704. Independent newspaper publishing started with the «New- England Courant» in 1721. In 1776 on the eve of the Revolution Boston had five newspapers, and Philadelphia three. Freedom of the press was achieved the United States in 1791 by the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
— How can American newspapers be classified?
— In the USA daily newspapers are of two kinds: quality and popular. «The Wall Street Journal» is a quality newspaper. It covers national and international news. «The Washington Post» contains full coverage of Congress.
— Does a national press exist in the USA?
— It is a very difficult question. On one hand it is possible to say that there is no national press in the US. because most daily papers are distributed locally. On the other hand one can say that there is a national US press. It is a very specific press as it comes from the sharing of news. I mean that some newspapers not only print, but collect and sell news, news features and photographs to other newspapers. For example, «The New York Times», «The Washington Post», the «Los Angeles Times» are the best news services of this kind.
— What can you say about Russian newspapers?
— Today Russia can be proud of the variety of newspapers circulating throughout the country. On the news stalls one can find newspapers of all kinds: national and local, official and private, quality and popular, newspapers issued for children, teenagers, people of different trends, for fans: sport-fans, car-fans, etc. Today there are a lot of local and professional newspapers in Russia.
— Is it possible to classify Russian newspapers into quality and popular?
— Now it is almost impossible to classify all the Russian news papers into two big groups: quality and popular. It is possible to name the newspapers and the bodies responsible for the issue of this or that newspaper to illustrate the variety of the modern Russian press. «Moscovsky Komsomolets» is a social and political newspaper of the Russian youth; «Arguments and Facts» is an in dependent newspaper; «Evening Moscow» is an independent people's newspaper; «The Red Star» is the newspaper of the Defence Ministry.
— Are there a lot of magazines in Russia today?
— As for the magazines, today they are numerous. They cover all topics and interests, from painting and architecture to tennis, from aviation and gardening to computers and literary criticism.
— When did radio appear?
— Radio appeared earlier then TV.
— Did it take radio long to be a reality?
— Radio first became a possibility when the English physicist Michael Faraday demonstrated that an electrical current could produce a magnetic field. In 1864 James Clerk Maxwell, a professor of experimental physics at Cambridge, proved mathematically that these electrical disturbances could be detected at considerable distances. Maxwell predicted that this electromagnetic energy could move outward in waves travelling at the speed of light. In 1888 Heinrich Hertz demonstrated that Maxwell's prediction was true for transmissions over short distances. In 1901 an Italian physicist named Guglielrno Marconi received wireless telegraphic messages sent from Cornwall to Newfoundland. It was hailed as a triumph, but few discerned its full meaning: the birth of a communications revolution. Rather, it was another welcome convenience. Radio underwent rapid improvement in the period before World War II.
— Has radio lost its importance with the appearance of TV and the Internet?
— Radio has not lost its importance with the appearances of TV and the Internet. Today there are a lot of radio stations of many different types and so much variety. Talk shows and music programmes with disc jockeys are very popular.
— When was TV invented?
— TV experiments to create a workable television system began in the late 19th century by Paul Nipkow, a German scientist. Today almost every family in the civilized world has a TV set. Television plays an important role in our society, not only as an entertainer and informant, but also because of the grip it has on many people. Television channels easily go into people's home taking in their time and life.
— What British and American radio and TV networks do you know?
— In the USA the National Public Radio network (NPR) is known for its quality news and discussion programmes. Another public radio network, American Public Radio (APR), with its commentary and entertainment programmes is very popular too. In the USA PBS (Public Broadcasting Service) with its 280 stations is the largest network. The cable networks such as CNN carries news and news stories, SPN covers all sports events, and MTV is famous for its music videos.
— What do you know about the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)?
— The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) was established in 1936 by the government. It provides five radio stations. The BBC also runs thirty seven local radio stations, providing material of local importance. There are seventy independent local radio stations in Britain. They provide news, information, music, coverage of local events, sports commentaries and the like. External service of the BBC is a very important part of the BBC's work. The BBC World Service broadcasts in thirty five vernacular languages. The British have four main channels to choose, from: BBC-1 and BBC-2, ITV (Independent Television) and Channel Four. It is a well established fact that the high quality of British television is upheld by the BBC.