Реферат: New York

In 1605 the first Europeans came to Manhattan island from Holland.In 1626, Peter Minuit, governor of the Dutch settlements in North America knownas New Amsterdam bought the island from the Native Americans for a few glassnecklaces, valued about twenty-four dollars today. In 1609 Henry Hudson enteredthe River of the Mountains. In 1613 the Dutch built only four small houses onManhattan as a fur trading station. It was not until 1623, ten years more, thatthey started a real settlement, town of New Amsterdam in honour of the capitalof their country in Europe. In 1644, when the English acquired the island, thevillage New Amsterdam was renamed New York. Today Manhattan is the heart ofAmerica's business and culture. It is the most important banking centre in theworld. Fewer than two million of the city's eight million people live on theisland.

In 1789 on the steps of Federal Hall George Washington took theoath of office when he became the first president of the United States ofAmerica. During the years 1785 to 1790 New York was the capital of the UnitedStates. Due to its natural advantages as a harbour, and the rising tide ofimmigration from all parts of the world the role of New York as the leadingcity accelerated. Villages grew throughout the entire area.

For the visitor New York means skyscrapers, tremendous traffic,dazzling neon advertisements. Manhattan is full of parallel rows of buildings,those running from north to south are called avenues while those running fromeast to west are called streets. The avenues and streets have only numbersinstead of names. Wall Street from its very beginning became the market placeof money. It was here that a walled stockade was erected to repulse theIndians, hence its name. As the city expanded the stockade was dismantled as ofno further use, but the market place for the purchase of bonds and securitiesremained.

Like every big city, New York has its own traffic system. Trafficjams can be terrible, and it is usually quicker to go by subway. It goes toalmost every corner of Manhattan. New York is an international city, the placeto try something new. It may be an experience you will never forget.


settlement — колония

necklace — ожерелье

value- стоимость

governor- губернатор

skyscrapers- небоскребы

dazzlingneon advertisements — сверкающие неоновые рекламы

marketplace — рынок

stockade-укрепление, форт

dismantle- разобрать

purchase- покупка

bonds- облигации

securities- ценные бумаги

trafficjams — дорожные пробки

subway — метро


1. How did the Europeans acquire Manhattan?

2 Were the Dutch interested in the development of New Amsterdam?

3. Why was New Amsterdam renamed?

4. What is Manhattan today?

5. What happened in New York in 1789?

6. When was New York the capital of the United States?

7. What accelerated the role of New York as the leading city?

8. What does New York mean for visitors?

9. What can you say about New York traffic system?

Список литературы

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