Реферат: Bread in our life
Bread is more than just a food. Just think of how the word is used: A person’s “bread and butter” is his or her main source of sustenance, while bread or dough can be cash, plain and simple. When people “break bread” they share more than just a meal: They come together in body as well as spirit.
It’s not surprising that bread is imbued with special meaning. Since the first raised breads were baked in Egypt around 4,000 B.C., bread has been a vital food source for peoples around the globe. Over the centuries it has traveled and evolved, reflecting both the unity and diversity of human culture, and the ability of people to adapt to their environment.
What kind of bread people make depends on what kind of grain is available, and that often depends on local climate and geography. In Ethiopia, for example, the nutritious, high-protein grain teff, which grows well in the country’s central highlands, is used to make injera, the sour, spongy bread eaten with most meals. Barley, on the other hand, well-suited for cold climates, is used in Finland to make ohrarieska, a traditional staple and after-sauna snack.
The Bible tells of the matzoh the Israelites ate as they fled Egypt. Because the former slaves’ dough had no time to rise, it baked on their backs as they escaped into the desert. Whether or not the story is historically accurate, we do know that lifestyle plays a major role in the kinds of breads people eat. In central Asia, where both grain and fuel are scarce, nomads make small, thin rounds that cook quickly over a fire. To survive long, cold winters, the people of central Anatolia hang rings of bread from the rafters. When fresh bread is needed, a ring is brought down, moistened with water, and soon is ready to eat.
Whatever kind of bread you’re used to, a little bit of science can make you a better baker, and also make your time in the kitchen more fun.
Types of Bread
Baguette Classic — long, French loaf, but leavened with our natural sourdough starter, which creates a crackly crust, a hearty crumb and mellow sour flavor. Also available in demi size, sprinkled with parmesan cheese, covered with sesame seeds, or rolled in our seed mixture of poppy, sesame, caraway, anise and thyme. Unbleached flour, water, sourdough starter, kosher salt, malt syrup.
Traditional Baguette — Parisian baguette with the requisite thin, crisp crust and delicate interior. Perfect for any sandwich. Try making garlic bread with this one! Unbleached flour, water, kosher salt, yeast.
Country Sourdough — Our most popular bread. Leavened only with our sourdough starter, this dark, burnished boule has a very moist and open structure and a robust sour flavor. Substantial enough to turn a simple salad and bread into a meal. Unbleached flour, water, sourdough starter, kosher salt.
Farm — A medium dark sourdough with a firm crust. The addition of whole wheat flour gives this bread a nutty tang and rustic appearance, complete with flour marks from our proofing baskets. Unbleached flour, water, sourdough starter, whole wheat flour, wheat germ, bran flakes, malt syrup, kosher salt, yeast.
Olive — Provencal-inspired rustic bread packed with dry cured and Kalamata olives. Delicious with a soft, mild cheese, or try this bread as croutons for soup or salad. Unbleached flour, water, sourdough starter, olives, wheat germ, kosher salt.
Ciabatta — The funky shape of our rustic Italian bread belies its exquisite flavor. The thin crisp crust and moist, porous interior creates a perfect «trencher» for olive oil and tomatoes. This bread only lasts one day, but that shouldn't be a problem — this is a bread you can't stop eating. Unbleached flour, water, durum flour, salt, yeast.
Rustic — Not a sourdough, but has all of a sour's characteristics: crunchy, caramelized crust, moist and open interior structure. The difference is in the sweet, wheaty flavor. Unbleached flour, water, wheat germ, salt, yeast.
Rosemary — A fragrant, fresh rosemary boule has a hint of rich, olive oil. Wonderful with meat stews. Unbleached flour, water, sourdough starter, olive oil, wheat germ, rosemary, kosher salt, yeast.
Cinnamon Raisin — A rich, white sandwich bread with gooey cinnamon swirls throughout. Makes fine French toast. Unbleached flour, milk, water, butter, whole eggs, brown sugar, golden raisins, kosher salt, yeast, cinnamon.
Brioche — Available plain or with golden raisins. Unbleached flour, milk, eggs, butter, (raisins), sugar, kosher salt, yeast.
Potato Dill — Baked potatoes keep this bread extremely moist with a long shelf life. The delicate interior structure will surprise you, the flavor enlivened by fresh dill. Great with tuna salad. Also available without dill. Unbleached flour, water, sourdough starter, potatoes, wheat germ, dry milk, dill, kosher salt.
Harvest — Another of our biggest sellers. If it's possible to make a sweet sourdough bread, we have done it. This is a healthful, dark loaf replete with six whole grains. Unbleached flour, water, sourdough starter, whole wheat flour, oats, cracked wheat, wheat berries, sunflower seeds, flax, sesame, millet, bran flakes, honey, kosher salt, yeast.
Ricotta Polenta — A cracked corn bread made silky with fresh ricotta. This one also has a very moist interior and is perfumed with oregano. Unbleached flour, water, sourdough starter, skim ricotta, polenta, cracked corn, wheat germ, dry milk, kosher salt, sugar, yeast.
Sesame Semolina — A golden brown Sicilian bread is enrobed in sesame. Rich and buttery inside, you won't believe this is a low-fat bread. Unbleached flour, water, semolina & durum flours, sourdough starter, cornmeal, malt syrup, kosher salt, yeast.
Italian — This wheel shaped Roman bread has a thin, crisp crust and delicate crumb. Unbleached flour, water, sourdough starter, olive oil, malt syrup, kosher salt, yeast.
Onion Bread — You cannot eat just one piece of this. The combination of caramelized onions and cheese is addictive. Unbleached flour, water, sourdough starter, olive oil, malt syrup, onions, asiago cheese, kosher salt, yeast.
Fougasse — A decorative bread from Provence; brushed with olive oil and sprinkled with fresh rosemary, this Tree of Life shape creates a latticework that pulls apart for a great snack. Unbleached flour, water, durum flour, olive oil, salt, yeast, rosemary.
Raisin Pecan — This bread is dense with fruit and pecan halves. Try it with nothing more than a little butter. Unbleached flour, water, sourdough starter, raisins, pecans, sugar, wheat germ, malt syrup, kosher salt, yeast.
Sourdough Pretzel — Ever buy a soft pretzel from a street vendor? That's what this is — only much, much better. Makes a delicious ham with mustard sandwich. Unbleached flour, water, sourdough starter, malt syrup, pretzel salt, kosher salt, yeast.
Honey Wheat — This dense and healthful dark bread contains nine grains and is a natural for morning toast. Even for those not on a high fiber diet. Unbleached flour, water, sourdough starter, whole wheat flour, cracked wheat, sesame, sunflower seeds, wheat berries, flax, cracked rye, cracked oats, cornmeal, millet, triticale, malt syrup, honey, kosher salt, yeast.
Rustic Rye — Similar to a corn rye, this medium rye has an unusually mild flavor. When was the last time you made a great Rueben? Available plain or rolled in caraway. Unbleached white and dark rye flours, water, white and rye sourdough starters, rye chops, molasses, kosher salt, yeast.
Garlic Thyme — Studded with roasted garlic and fresh thyme, this rich bread is rounded out with a mild sour flavor. But watch out, it will fill you up. Unbleached flour, water, sourdough starter, olive oil, garlic, wheat germ, thyme, kosher salt.
Walnut — A very special bread; walnut halves stain this dough almost purple in its long fermentation. Our most sour bread-have it as an appetizer with fresh goat cheese and cracked pepper. Unbleached flour, water, sourdough starter, whole wheat flour, walnuts, sugar, milk, malt syrup, kosher salt, yeast.
Chocolate Cherry — Dried sour cherries and Valhrona chocolate combine to make this singularly unique bread. Have breakfast all day with this one. Unbleached flour, water, sourdough starter, semisweet chocolate, butter, sugar, sour cherries, cocoa powder, kosher salt, yeast.
Fig Anise — The origin of this unusual combination dates back to the Roman Empire. Black Mission figs complement whole anise seeds in this delicious bread. Unbleached flour, water, sourdough starter, cornmeal, figs, sugar, kosher salt, yeast, anise.
Poblano Cheese — Colorful and zesty, this bread is not for the faint-hearted. Great as hors d'oeuvres. Unbleached flour, water, sourdough starter, cornmeal, jack cheese, red bell and poblano peppers, wheat germ, dry milk, kosher salt, yeast.
White Sandwich — More than a respectable sandwich bread, our version is rich and buttery. Unbleached flour, water, butter, sugar, dry milk, kosher salt, yeast.
White Rye — Dense and studded with caraway, this is a perfect deli sandwich loaf. Also available: onion rye. Unbleached flour, water, sourdough starter, white rye flour, caraway, kosher salt, yeast.
Challah — Our shiny, braided egg bread is not only a great accompaniment at any meal, but beautifully decorates the table. Unbleached flour, water, eggs, semolina and durum flours, canola oil, butter, sugar, kosher salt, yeast.
Pumpernickel — A great all-around black sandwich bread made crunchy with the addition of rye chops. Unbleached flour, water, medium rye flour, white and rye sourdough starter, rye chops, molasses, kosher salt, yeast.
Apple Walnut Dark — crusted and wearing the flour markings of dough risen in a basket, this hearth-baked specialty bread celebrates the fall harvest of these two fruits. Walnuts, unbleached flour, water, whole wheat flour, apples, sugar, barley malt, salt, yeast.
Chocolate Babka — An extremely decadent version of the classic Polish sweet bread. Unbleached flour, water, sugar, butter, dry milk, salt, yeast, semi-sweet chocolate, brown sugar, cocoa, sour cream, raisins, candied orange zest.
Cranberry Orange — A delicious breakfast bread, stuffed with pecans and dried fruits. Unbleached flour, water, whole wheat flour, dried cranberries, golden raisins, orange zest, pecans, olive oil, salt, yeast, Belgian sugar.
Lemon Rye — Only 7% rye, the big rye flavor is the result of a 24-hour fermentation. The combination of the two sours — lemon and rye — makes perfect bread for a ham sandwich. Water, unbleached flour, dark rye flour, wheat germ, natural lemon emulsion, lemon zest, salt, yeast.
Panettone — This buttery, Italian bread was invented in 1927 for Christmas time and is baked in the shape of a cathedral dome. Ours is made with wine-soaked apricots and raisins. Unbleached flour, whole eggs, butter, water, sugar, dried apricot, raisins, wine, dry milk, corn syrup, salt, vanilla, lemon juice, orange juice, ascorbic acid, yeast.
Wheat loaf — Made from about 50% whole wheat flour, we have added cracked wheat, whole wheat berries and bran flakes to make this one the stuff of good diets. Water, unbleached flour, whole wheat flour, whole milk, honey, barley malt, unprocessed bran flakes, cracked wheat, wheat berries, butter, poppy seeds, salt, yeast.
Roasted Tomato Ciabatta — Tomatoes are marbled throughout this light and airy loaf and although it tastes fattening, you will be surprised that the only fats are less than one ounce of Asiago and olive oil per loaf. Water, unbleached flour, durum flour, roasted tomatoes, barley malt, Asiago cheese, olive oil, salt, yeast.
Flatbreads — Thin hand finished rounds baked to form a crisp crust.
Tomato Flatbread — brushed with olive oil and garnished with fresh basil.