Реферат: Топики по английскому языку за 11 класс


<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">T

<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">he poisoning of the world's land, air, and water is the fastest — spreading disease of civilization.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Overpopulation, pollution and energy consumption havecreated such planet wide problems as massive deforestation, ozone depletion,acid rains and the global warming that is believed to be caused by thegreenhouse effect.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">The seas are in danger. They are filled with poison:industrial and nuclear waste, chemical fertilizers and pesticides. TheMediterranean is already nearly dead; the North Sea is following. The Aral Seais on the brink of extinction. If nothing is done about it, one day nothingwill be able to live in the seas.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Every ten minutes one kind of animal, plant or insectdies out for ever. If nothing is done about it, one million species that arealive today will have become extinct twenty years from now.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Air pollution is

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> very serious problem. In Cairo just breathing the airis life threatening — equivalent to smoking two packs of cigarettes <span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> day. The same holds true for Mexico City and 600cities of the former Soviet Union.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Industrial enterprises emit tons of harmful substances.These emissions have disastrous consequences for our planet. They are the mainreason for the greenhouse effect and acid rains.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">An even greater environmental threat are nuclear powerstations. We all know how tragic the consequences of the Chernobyl disasterare.

People arebeginning to realize that environmental problems are not somebody else's. Theyjoin and support various international organizations and green parties. Ifgovernments wake up to what is happening — perhaps we'll be able to avoid thedisaster that threatens the natural world and all of us with it.

Famous people.

Every country has it’s own great people:scientists, poets and writers, politicians, musicians, composers and actors.But I would like to tell you about the great British politician Sir WinstonChurchill.

Winston Leonard Churchill was without doubt theruling figure in British politics during the 1st half of the 20thcentury. He was born in 1874. His mother was American, the daughter of a <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>New York</st1:place></st1:State> businessman;his father belonged to an English aristocratic family. He was given the typicaleducation of that period for the person of his background. From 1895 until 1899he combined the jobs of soldier and journalist in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Cuba</st1:country-region>,<st1:country-region w:st=«on»>India</st1:country-region> and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Sudan</st1:place></st1:country-region>. In 1899he resigned from the army and began his political career. He was an active andpopular member of the Conservative Party, but later he changed his politicalviews and joined the Liberal Party. He won many political victories and had asmany failures.

In 1910 he became Home Secretary, but he lostsome of his popularity when he used the army to help the police put down theminers’ strike.  For some years he wasout of office and spent his time writing and painting. In the twentieth hereturned to Conservative Party.

In 1924 he was elected to Parliament. In 1940Churchill was appointed Prime Minister. He formed a coalition government withthe war cabinet of five; he was Prime Minister until 1945.

He returned once more as Prime Minister in1951. Highly regarded as a painter, Churchill also received the Nobel Prize forLiterature in 1953 for his account of the Second World War. He predicted thatan “Iron Curtain” would divide <st1:place w:st=«on»>Europe</st1:place> fromnorth to south and this left his mark on the period of the Cold War. He died in<st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>London</st1:City></st1:place> in 1965.

Generation Gap.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Most people saythat

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> family is very important for them. They like torepeat that families give them <span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> sense oftradition, strength and purpose in their lives. ’’Our families show what weare", they say. Most parents teach their children to respect elder peopleand observe holidays. But the most important thing for <span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> family is to give an emotional support and security.The right family values help boys and girls to gain confidence and resist theinfluence of bad friends.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Teenagers oftenconsider their parents old-fashioned, unaware of the latest style. As for theirparents they do their best to give their children

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> better chance than they had themselves. After finishingschool children often try to get complete independence, they leave their homesand sometimes even their native towns. Staying with parents has its negativeand positive aspects but children must understand that parents don' t want todo them any harm. That's why sometimes young people have to listen tocriticism from their parents.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Some peopleoften speak about the so-called «generation gap» that is

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> gap in views between parents and teenagers, but themajority of people think that this generation gap is sometimes exaggerated.Very often children feel neglected in their families. When they find cruelty,indifference and misunderstanding in their families they become divide andheartless themselves. As <span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> result children feel hurt and some of them try toescape from the reality by tuning to alcohol and drugs. So all of us should paymore attention to family problems, we must avoid quarrels and look for consent.We must remember about spiritual values and all people should live in peaceand harmony.


<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black"> 

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Music plays a veryimportant role in our daily life. We are accompanied by it everywhere: on TVand radio, at home, and even at school. Wherever we go in the evening to cafeor bar, to club or to a disco — everywhere we will be met by music. In suchplaces music is their integral part, because it raise the spirit of thevisitors, makes the atmosphere more comfortable and more cheerfully.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">  Asfor me, I listen to music with pleasure. Music always helps me. When I am boredor have a bad mood, I always listen to music, it always raises my spirit andmakes entourage more cheerful, when I have an excellent mood, I turn on music,something cheerful and active and I feel myself on the top of bliss. I have alot of cassettes and CDs with the different music from classics to rock. Frommusic I like everything, that sounds well, but most of all I like modern music,because I am a modern man and I try to go together with the time.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> From the modern performers I like the American group " TheOffspring " most of all. I like their music, because it is energetic anddynamic, but most of all I like the texts of songs of this group, they aresometimes sad, sometimes ironic, but never boring, because it is spoken thereabout problems of youth, about everything, that troubles a modern society. Idream of visiting sometimes a concert of this group.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> From classics I like Mozart most of all. I admire the talent of thisgreat musician and composer. He composed music, played on a violin and clavecin, when he was 5 years, when other children are notable to read yet. During the 34 years of life he wrote 18 operas, 50symphonies, 30 concerts for a piano, a lot of sonatas and songs. Especially Ilike three most famous Mozart’s symphonies. It is the symphony № 39, it showsthere the life of the man with her difficulties and pleasures, it is thesymphony № 40, it shows there the deep, lyric and poetry of human soul, and itis the symphony № 41 (The Jove), it shows there all world, all universe withits contrasts and contradictions.

<st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Reading</st1:City></st1:place>in 0ur Life

<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">I’m fond of reading. In my opinion, books

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">re <span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> source ofemotional inspiration and romantic feelings. <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Reading</st1:City></st1:place> is very useful, because books enrichour experience with that of the other people. Besides, books help me tocontinue my own education.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">I’m sure that

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US"> reader lives <span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> richer life than <span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US"> non-reader. The time spent on <span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US"> good book is never wasted. <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Reading</st1:City></st1:place>is <span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> rewarding pastime. But some people think, that thetempo of modern life is too fast to waste time on reading. They are sure thatbooks have begun to lose their prestige and value. I disagree.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">I enjoy books of different genres: love and detectivestories, thrillers and historical novels, tales, works after classicaland modern writers. I’m

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> great lover of the English and American literature.Among my favorite writers are W. Shakespeare and Ch. Dickens, J. Galsworthy and<span Times New Roman",«serif»">А<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">. Cronin, J. London and <span Times New Roman",«serif»">Е<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">. Hemingway to name only <span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US"> few. I read them in translation and try to read in the original.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">I read books after Russian and Belarusian writers,too. We can say that L. Tolstоу, D. Dostoevsky,

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">А<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">. Chekhov, <span Times New Roman",«serif»">А<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">.Pushkin are as popular as they used t<span Times New Roman",«serif»">о<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> be. Their works have stood the test of time.My favorite modern writers are V.Karatkevich and <span Times New Roman",«serif»">Е<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> Solzhenitsyn.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">I try t

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">о<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US"> get acquainted with popular works and best-sellers. Luckily there is <span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> big choice of various books in book shops and stalls.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">I can' t imagine my life without reading.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">«Except

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US"> living man there is nothing more wonderful than <span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> book», said one clever man. And I share his opinion.Books teach us what is right and what is wrong, to understand the world andpeople in it, they mould our character and at the same time tell us excitingstories. <span Times New Roman",«serif»">THE <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>RUSSIAN FEDERATION</st1:place></st1:country-region>

<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">T

<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">he <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Russian Federation</st1:country-region></st1:place>is the largest country in the world. It occupies about one- seventh of theearth' s surface. It covers the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of<st1:place w:st=«on»>Asia</st1:place>. Its total area is about 17 millionsquare kilometers. 12 seas of 3 oceans wash the country: the Pacific, theArctic and the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Atlantic</st1:place>. In the south <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:country-region> borders on <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>China</st1:country-region>,<st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Mongolia</st1:country-region>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Korea</st1:country-region>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Kazakhstan</st1:country-region>,<st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Georgia</st1:country-region> and <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Azerbaijan</st1:country-region></st1:place>.In the west it borders on <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Norway</st1:country-region>,<st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Finland</st1:country-region>, the Baltic States, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Belorussia</st1:country-region>, the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Ukraine</st1:country-region></st1:place>. It also has <span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> sea- border with the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>USA</st1:country-region></st1:place>.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">There is hardly

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> country in the world where such <span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> variety of scenery and vegetation can be found. Wehave steppes in the south, plains and forests in the midland, tundra and taigain the north, highlands and deserts in the east.

There are twogreat plains in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:country-region></st1:place>:the Great Russian Plain and the West Siberian Lowland. There are severalmountain chains on the territory of the country: the Urals, the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Caucasus</st1:place>, the Altai and others. The largest mountainchain, the Urals, separates Europe from <st1:place w:st=«on»>Asia</st1:place>.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">There are over two million rivers in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:country-region></st1:place>. Europe's biggest river, theVolga, flows into the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Caspian Sea</st1:place>. The mainSiberian rivers — the Ob, the Yenisei and the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Lena</st1:place>—flow from the south to the north. The Amur in the Far East flows into the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Pacific Ocean</st1:place>. <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:country-region></st1:place> is rich in beautiful lakes.The world' s deepest lake (<st1:metricconverter ProductID=«1,600 meters» w:st=«on»>1,600 meters</st1:metricconverter>) is <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Lake</st1:PlaceType> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Baikal</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>. It is muchsmaller than the Baltic Sea, but there is much more water in it than inthe <st1:place w:st=«on»>Baltic Sea</st1:place>. The water in the lake is soclear that if you look down you can count the stones on the bottom.

<st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:country-region></st1:place>has one-sixth of the world's forests. They are concentrated in theEuropean north of the country, in Siberia and in the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Far East</st1:place>.

On the vast territory of the countrythere are various types of climate, from arctic in the north to subtropical inthe south. In the middle of the country the climate is temperate andcontinental.

<st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»><span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">Russia

</st1:country-region></st1:place><span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> is very rich in oil, coal, iron ore, natural gas,copper, nickel and other mineral resources.

<st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»><span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">Russia

</st1:country-region></st1:place><span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> is <span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> parliamentary republic. The Head of State is thePresident. The legislative powers are exercised by the Duma.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">The capital of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:country-region>is <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:City></st1:place>. Itis its largest political, scientific, cultural and industrial center. It is oneof the oldest Russian cities.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Atpresent, the political and economic situation in the country is rathercomplicated. There are

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> lot of problems in the national economy of the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Russian Federation</st1:country-region></st1:place>.The industrial production is decreasing. The prices are constantly rising, therate of inflation is very high. People are losing their jobs because manyfactories and plants are going bankrupt.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">But inspite of the problems <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region>is facing at present, there are

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> lot of opportunities for this country to become oneof the leading countries in the world. I’m sure that we, the youngergeneration, can do very much to make <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region> as strong and powerful as itused to be.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Sport

<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">All overthe world people of different ages are fond of sport and games. Sport not onlyhelps people to become strong and to develop physically but also makes themmore organized and better disciplined in their daily activities. In every townthere are amateur clubs and keep-fit centers, where people can do aerobics,body-building or work with different training devices.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">There area lot of different kinds of sport: football, basketball, volleyball, tennis,track-and-field, water polo and many others. The main sport competition is theOlympic Games.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">T

<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">he Olympic Games have <span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> very long history. They began in 777 BC in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Greece</st1:country-region></st1:place>and took place every four years. For the period of the Games all the warsstopped. So the Olympic Games became the symbol of peace and friendship. In 394AD the Games were abolished. In 1894, <span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> Frenchman, Baron Pierre de Coubertin, addressed allthe sports governing bodies and pointed out the educational value of sports.Two years later the first modern Olympic Games took place in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Greece</st1:country-region></st1:place> to symbolize the centuriesold tradition. <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:country-region></st1:place>joined the Olympic movement in <st1:metricconverter ProductID=«1952. In» w:st=«on»>1952. In</st1:metricconverter> 1980 <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:City></st1:place>hosted the Twenty-Second Olympic Games. The latest Olympic Games were held in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Sydney</st1:City></st1:place>. <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»><span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">S<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">ydney</st1:City></st1:place><span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> was the host for the Games of the 27th Olympiad in2000. About 200 countries took part in the competitions. There were 10000athletes and 5000 officials. There were 27 sports on the program for the 2000Olympic Games. Triathlon and Taekwondo were includedin <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Sydney</st1:City></st1:place> forthe first time at any Olympic Games. Our Russian team took part in the OlympicGames too, we were the second in the overall count of won medals, after the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>USA</st1:country-region></st1:place>team.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">As for me,I like sport very much, but I like sport not only as a sport fan, but also as asportsman. I had been training judo for 9 years, until I came to 11 form, I hadto stop training because I had a lot of homework and I had not much time totrain. But I don’t stop to go in for sport: sometimes in the morning or in theevening I run and sometimes I visit keep-fit center (trainer hall).

<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

Study andplans for the future

This school year is very important for us,because we must decide what to do after leaving school. There different waysfor us to choose. Those who like technique can become engineers and work in thefield of industry. Those who like nature can become agronomists and work inagriculture, school-leavers who want to work directly with people may becomedoctors and teachers.

Many young people follow the examples of theirparents and choose their professions. I think it is not bad, as they know theseprofessions better. There are school-leavers who choose only modern professions such as an economists and lowers. Idon’t think that it is bad, but in nowadays there are a lot of economists andlowers and it is not easy for them to find work.

So the main thing for us is to choose ourfuture profession correctly to satisfy our own fasts and needs and to work withthe best results.

As for me, I want to be an expert in foreignrelations (diplomat), but it is very difficult to enter the university, there Ican study foreign relations. What’s why, most likely, I will have to become aneconomists, it is not bad profession and I try to get at once two specialty:marketing and finances and credit.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

The problem of spare time.

No doubtthat the problem of spare time is one of the most important problems. Speakingabout grownups we should say that they have to work much to survive in suchdifficult economic situation.

Teenagershave to study much if they want to get good knowledge and later to enter aprestige educational institution.

But whenpeople have some spare time they prefer to spend it on their hobbies. Hobbiesdiffer like tastes. If you have chosen аhobby according to your character and taste you are lucky because yourlife becomes mоre interesting.

Hobbies are divided into four large classes: doing things, makingthings, collecting things, and learning things.

The mostpopular of all hobby groups is doing things. It includes аwide variety of activities,everything from gardening to traveling and from chess to volleyball.

Both grown-ups and children are fond of playing different computergames. This is аrelativelynew hobby but it is becoming more and more popular.

Making things includes drawing, painting, making sculpture, designingcostumes, handicrafts. Two of the most famous hobby painters were PresidentEisenhower and Sir Winston Churchill. Some hobbyists write music or playmusical instruments. President Bill Clinton, for example, plays the saxophone.

Almost everyone collects something at some period in his life: stamps,coins, match-boxes, books, records, postcards, toys, and watches. Somecollections have nоrealvalue. Others become so large and so valuable that they are housed in museumsand galleries. Many world-famous collections started in аsmall way. People with аgood deal of money often collect paintings,rare books and other art objects. Often such private collections are given tomuseums, libraries and public galleries.

No matter what kind of hobby аperson has, he always has the opportunity of learning from it. Byreading about the things he is interested in. Learning things can be the mostexciting aspect of аhobby.

As for me, I study in the 11 form and what’s why I don’t have much timeto hobbies. But when I have it, I usually read the books or I work on thecomputer. I am fond of computers and reading books.

Theproblems of <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Modern</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Cities</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> and Villages.

We can’t say that the problems of villages and cities arethe same. If we speak about problems of any city first of all we should speakabout the problems traffic is heavy, numerous enterprises emit tons of harmfulsubstances and to breath is often a real threat to people’s health. A problemof transport is also important. There are few cities with underground stations.People of many cities and towns have to spend much time in buses, cars, andtrams getting to their offices, schools, colleges, and plants.

Another serious problem of nowadays existed incities is unemployment. The economical situation in the country is rathercomplicated: many factories are going bankrupt, close and as a result of itmany people loose their work.

One of the problems is lock of fresh water.People can’t use running water all day long. Besides, the quality of water isoften bad.

A new problem is the problem of education. Newtypes of schools are the private schools have appeared lately.

No doubt that the level of education in highschools is higher than in ordinary schools. But only children of well-paidparents can attend classes there.

The problem of using drugs is mostly theproblem of cities.

People living in the countryside have much workto do. They are busy from morning till night working in the fields, lookingafter poultry and cattle.

The work, which they do, is not alwaysmechanized. So countrymen don’t have enough time to rest.

Most of the houses in villages haven’t gotmodern conveniences, what makes the life of people living there more difficult.

Countrymen can’t go to museums or theatres,they can’t go to concerts of pop singers.

Many villages are situated far from cities andit takes much time to get there. As a rule there are no good hospitals invillages and medical services in the countries leave much to be desired.


<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

The role of Mass Media.

Mass Media (that is press, television andradio) play an important role in the life of society. They inform, educate andentertain people. They also influence the way people look at the world, inother words, mass media shape public opinion. No doubt, millions of peoplewatch televisions programs every day, including the daily program “Time”. Theprogram informs us about the latest political, culture, art, sport and otherevents in our country and in the world. Of course, one can learn news and someother information from newspapers. An American humorous writer once said: “ AllI know is what I see in the papers”.

On the radio we can hear music plays, news andvarious commentaries and discussions, called forums. At a form severalauthorities exchange and political problems (as well as on books at commoninterest). A number of side are represented so, that the listeners can hear variousopinions. Such brood-casts are popular with listeners.

As for me, I like to watch TV programs betterthan to read newspapers or to hear radio. Most of all I like TV program “ Oh,lucky beggar!”, because this program is very interesting and cognitive, I learna lot of interesting things from this TV program.


<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">M

<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">illions of people all over the world spend their holidays travelling. They travel to see other countries andcontinents, modern cities and the ruins of ancient towns, they travel to enjoypicturesque places, or just for <span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> change of scene. It is always interesting to discovernew things, different ways of life, to meet different people, to try differentfood, to listen to different musical rhythms.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Those who live in the country like to go to

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> big city and spend their time visiting museums andart galleries, looking at shop windows and dining at exotic restaurants.City-dwellers usually like <span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> quiet holiday by the sea or in the mountains, withnothing to do but walk and bathe and laze in the sun.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Most travellers and holiday-makerstake

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US"> camera with them and take pictures of everything that interests them —the sights of <span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> city, old churches and castles, views of mountains,lakes, valleys, plains, waterfalls, forests; different kinds of trees, flowersand plants, animals and birds.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Later, perhaps years later, they will be reminded bythe photos of the happy time they have had.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">People travel by train, by plane, by boat and by car.All means of travel have their advantages and disadvantages. And people chooseone according to their plans and destinations.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">If we are fond of travelling,we see and learn

<span Times New Roman",«serif»">а<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> lot of things that we can never see or learn at home,though we may read about them in books and newspapers, and see pictures of themon TV. The best way to study geography is to travel, and the best way to get toknow and understand the people is to meet them in their own homes.


The United Nations is an organization ofsovereign nations representing almost all of humanity. It has as its centralgoal the maintenance of international peace and security. Additionally, itspurposes call for the development of friendly relations among nations based onequal rights and self-determination of peoples and, through international соoperation,the solution of problems of an economic, social, cultural and humanitariannature.

The United Nations is the meeting-place whererepresentatives of all member states — great and small, rich and poor, withvarying political views and social systems — have аvoice and an equal vote in shaping аcommon course of action.

The United Nations has played and continues toplay, an active role in reducing tension in the world, preventing conflicts andputting an end to fighting already under way.

There are six main organs of the UnitedNations — the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and SocialCouncil, the Trusteeship Council, the Secretariat and the International Courtof Justice. The Court has its seat at <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>the Hague</st1:City>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Netherlands</st1:country-region></st1:place>.All other organs are based at the United Nations Headquarters in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:State w:st=«on»>New York</st1:State></st1:place>.

Members of the General Assembly talk to eachother in many languages, but officially there are only six — Arabic, Chinese,English, French, Russian and Spanish.

The Secretariat services the other organsof the Unite Nations and administers the programmesand policies laid down by them. Over 20,000 men and women are employed by theUnited Nations with about one-third of them at the Head quarters and the othertwo-thirds stationed around the globe. Staff members are recruited primarilyfrom member states and are drawn from more than 140 nations. As internationalcivil servants, each takes an oath not to seek or receive instructions from'any government or outside authority.

Working for the United Nations, mostly «behind the scenes» atthe Headquarters, are linguists, economists, editors, social scientists, legalexperts, librarians, journalists, statisticians, broadcasters, personnelofficers, administrators and experts in all the varied fields of activitycovered by the United Nations. They prepare the reports and studies requestedby various bodies of the United Nations; they issue press releases and producepublications, broadcasts and films giving information about the United Nations;and they perform the administrative duties needed to implement resolutionsadopted by the various organs. In addition, there are stenographers, clerks,engineers and technicians, tour guides and also аbody of security officers in blue-grey uniforms who are responsible forthe security of the United Nations Headquarters. At the headof the Secretariat is the Secretary-General.

The main Headquarters of the United Nations arebased in <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>New York</st1:place></st1:State>.The United Nations Organization Secretariat occupies the higher building. TheGeneral Assembly is held in the lower building.

Youth Subculture

Everygeneration has its own culture in music, fashion, and hair-do.

Olderpeople can’t understand it: they think that girl’s skirts are too short or toolong. They consider our clothes to be too colorful. They don’t like ourhair-do, they think it is a bad idea to have hair of different colors. Besidesthey don’t like when boys have long hair.

Whatmakes grownups angry and nervous – is our music. Older people considerhard-rock, rap and rave not to be music, but combinations of terrible sounds.Surely it is difficult to compare music of their times with ours. We think thattheir music is dull, not energetic enough.

Theway we dance gets on our parents nerves as well. But we like our dances as theyhelp us to relax and give optimism. They say that young people have their ownlanguage. It is not so, as we have just a number of word-combinations havingunusual meaning. Our fathers and mothers say that it is impossible tounderstand us when we speak that way.

Ourparents want us to read books and to go to picture galleries. But we prefer towatch video-films, to raise our cultural level getting information aboutcultural treasures with the help of computers.

еще рефераты
Еще работы по иностранным языкам