Реферат: American Cinema (Кино и театры Америки)

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 TOC o «1-1» h z Introduction.PAGEREF_Toc8529474 h 2

American Cinema. PAGEREF _Toc8529475 h 3

The earliest history of film.PAGEREF _Toc8529476 h 4

The earliest movie theatres.PAGEREF _Toc8529477 h 4

The growth of the film industry.PAGEREF _Toc8529478 h 5

Popcorn. PAGEREF _Toc8529479 h 7

The Oscar.PAGEREF _Toc8529480 h 7

Hollywood.PAGEREF _Toc8529481 h 7

Beverly Hills.PAGEREF _Toc8529482 h 9

The major film genres.PAGEREF _Toc8529483 h 9

Film Companies. PAGEREF _Toc8529484 h 10

Film Directors and Producers. PAGEREF _Toc8529485 h 10

Films.PAGEREF _Toc8529486 h 12

Actors and Actresses.PAGEREF _Toc8529487 h 12

Marilyn Monroe.PAGEREF _Toc8529488 h 16

Walt Disney. PAGEREF _Toc8529489 h 18

Titanic.PAGEREF _Toc8529490 h 19

Literature.PAGEREF _Toc8529491 h 20

Vocabularly.PAGEREF _Toc8529492 h 21

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<span Copperplate Gothic Bold",«sans-serif»">Introduction.<span Copperplate Gothic Bold",«sans-serif»">

<span Copperplate Gothic Bold",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">        I’m a cinema goer. Andalso I like watching films on TV or video. But I think, that watching a goodfilm is the best relaxation. It is thought-provoking and entertaining. Now agrowing number of people prefer watching films on TV to attending cinemas.There are wonderful comedies, love stories, science fiction, horror films,detective stories, and historical films on. There’s a variety of films availabletoday. It is difficult to live without cinema. One fact is clear for everyone:cinema makes our life better. Cinema helps us to forget different problems.When people watch films, they have a rest. Some films take people into anotherworld. I think it is a pure world, where usual problems do not even exist.Cinema is a great power, it helps us to understand our complex well. Cinema canleave nobody indifferent. It is so powerful that it provokes complex feelings.We meet a lot of people. Everyone has his own opinion about something and likemost of us I have my own opinion too, for example, about cinema. Cinema is anecessary and important part of my life. It is my essence, my mode of life andmy happiness. Cinema helps me to cope with difficulties and with incorrigibleproblems. So that’s why I have chosen the topic

<span Copperplate Gothic Bold",«sans-serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">‘Cinema’<span Copperplate Gothic Bold",«sans-serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">.<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">
American Cinema

The world of American cinema is so far-reaching a topic that itdeserves, and often receives, volumes of its own. Hollywood (in Los Angeles,California), of course, imme­diately comes to mind, as do the many greatdirectors, actors and actresses it continues to attract and produce. But then,one also thinks of the many independent studios throughout the country, theeducational and documentary series and films, the socially-relevant traditionin cinema, and the film departments of universities, such as the University ofSouthern California (USC), the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA)or New York University.

For over 50 years, American films havecontinued to grow in popularity through­out the world. Television has onlyincreased this popularity.

The great blockbusters of filmentertain­ment that stretch from «Gone with the Wind» to «StarWars» receive the most at­tention. A look at the prizes awarded at theleading international film festivals will also demonstrate that as an art form,the Amer­ican film continues to enjoy-considerable prestige. Even when thetheme is serious or, as they say, «meaningful», American films remain«popular». In the past dec­ade, films which treated the danger of nu­clearpower and weapons, alcoholism, di­vorce, inner-city blight, .the effects ofslav­ery, the plight of Native Americans, pover­ty and immigration have allreceived awards and international recognition. And, at the same time, they havedone well at the box-office.

Movies (films), including those onvideo-cassettes, remain the most popular art form in the USA. A book with20,000 readers is considered to be a best-seller. A hit play may be seen by afew thousand theatergo­ers. By contrast, about a billion movie tickets are soldat movie houses across the USA every year.

There are three main varieties ofmovie theaters in the USA: 1) the «first-run» movie houses, whichshow new films; 2) «art thea­ters», which specialize in showingforeign films and revivals; 3) «neighborhood thea­ters», which runfilms — sometimes two at a time — after the «first-run» houses.

New York is a movie theater capital ofthe country. Many of the city's famous large movie theaters, once giving TimesSquare so much of its glitter, have been torn down or converted (in some casesinto smaller theaters), and a new generation of modem theaters has appeared tothe north and east of the area. Most of them offer continuous performances fromaround noon till mid­night. Less crowded and less expensive are the so-called«neighborhood theaters», which show films several weeks or monthsafter the «first-run» theaters. There are sev­eral theaters thatspecialize in revivals of famous old films and others that show only modernist,avant-garde films. Still others, especially those along 42nd Street, betweenthe Avenue of Americas and Eighth Ave­nue, run movies about sex and violence.Foreign films, especially those of British, French, Italian and Swedish origin,are of­ten seen in New York, and several movie theaters specialize in theshowing of for­eign-language films for the various ethnic groups in the city.

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The earliest history of film.

Theillusion of movement was first noted in the early 19th century. In 1824 the Englishphysician Peter Mark Roget published an article ‘the persistence of vision withregard to moving objects’. Many inventors put his theory to the test withpictures posted on coins that were flipped by the thumb, and with rotating disksof drawings. A particular favorite was the zoetrope, slotted revolving drumthrough which could be seen clowns and animals that seemed to leap. They werehand drawn on strips of paper fitted inside the drum. Other similar deviceswere the hemitrope, the phasmatrope, the phenakistoscope, and the praxinoscope.It is not possible to give any one person credit for having invented the motionpicture. In the 1880s the Frenchman Etienne Jules Marey developed the rotatingshutter with a slot to admit light, and George Eastman, of New York, developedflexible film. In 1888 Thomas Edison, of New Jersey, his phonograph forrecording and playing sound on wax cylinders. He tried to combine sound withmotion pictures. Edison’s assistant, William Dickson, worked on the idea, andin 1889, he both appeared and spoke in a film. Edison did not turn hisattention to the projected motion picture at first. The results were still notgood enough, and Edison did not think that films would not have large appeal.Instead he produced and patented the kinetoscope, which ran a continuous loopof film about 15 meters (50 feet) long. Only one person could view it at atime. By 1894, hand-cranked kinetoscope appeared all over the United States andEurope. Edison demonstrated a projecting kinetoscope. The cinematograph basedon Edison’s kinetoscope was invented by two Frenchmen, Louis and AugusteLumiere. This machine consisted of a portable camera and a projector. InDecember 1895, The Lumiere brothers organized a program of short motion picturesat a Parisian cafe.

The earliest movie theatres.

Filmswere first thought of as experiment or toys. They were shown in scientific laboratoriesand in the drawing rooms of private home. When their commercial potential wasrealized they began to be screened in public to a paying audience. The firstfilms to be shown publicly were short, filmed news items and travelogues. Thesewere screened alongside live variety acts form theatre shows, called vaudevillein United States. Within a few years fairground tents that slowed nothing butprograms of films were common sights. In United States stores were convertedonto movie theatre, which were known as ‘storefront theatre’. People would paya nickel to see about an hour’s worth of film, so the theatre came to be knownas ‘nickelodeons’. Early film audiences needed patience. There were manytechnical problems. Projectors were likely to breath down and everyprojectionist kept slides to reassure the audience: ‘The performance willresume shortly.’   Many projectors causedflickering on the screen, earning films the nickname of ‘the flicks’.

The growth of the filmindustry.

Fromthe start the film industry was eager to make and show films that people wouldwant to see. Themost popular films were those that told stories- narrative fiction films. Filmmaking began to realize that by using different camera angels, locations,lighting and special effects, film could tell a story in the way that livetheatre couldn’t.

Thegreat Train Robbery, made in 1903 by Edwin S. Porter, was the first Americannarrative fiction film. It included the basic ingredients of the Western: a hold-up, a chase,and a gunfight. It used a great variety of shots by showing the action atdifferent distances from the camera- long shots of action in the distance, butalso medium shots of the actors shown full-length, and chase-ups of the faceand shoulders of a gunman shooting directly at the audience. 

 Before World War I American film industry hadlogged behind the film industries of Europe particularly those of France andItaly. Butduring the war, film making almost stopped in Europe, partly because a chemicalused in celluloid was needed for making gunpowder. The American film industrythrived during the war because there was money for making films; and alsobecause of popular the genius of D. W. Griffith. In 1915 Griffith made TheBirth Of Nation, a film about the American Civil War and in 1916 he madeIntolerance. These three hour’s films were American’s answer to the spectacularItalian films such as Quo Vadis that had earlier astonished the world. ForIntolerance Griffith had built a set of an ancient Babylonian city, which wasover a mile long, and he photograph it from a balloon. Griffith was a genius,not just because he could show huge and thrilling scenes on the screen, butbecause he was aware of the artistic possibilities of film.

Theactors in the old-sealers had mostly been unknown and their performances verypoor. Becausethe films were silent, actors made up for lack of speech by frantic andunnatural gestures and movements. A new and better style of acting was adoptedby a young American actress called Marry Pickford who showed that a simplenatural style was more effective on the screen than dramatic arm-waving and chest-thumping.Her fame spread across the Atlantic. In 1918, she signed a contract for morethan a million dollars. The stars system was born.

Aboutthe same time, some of the slapstick comedians developed unique comedy styles,and also became world-famous stars. Charlie Chaplin, the little man with the derby hat,cane, and boggy pants, became the most famous (he, too, sealed a million-dollarcontract). But others such as Buster Heaton, Harold Lloyd, and Harry Langdonwere also widely acclaimed. They were great artists whose work is still populartoday. By 1920 the cinema had became the most popular form of leisure activityoutside the home.

 Film studios such as Metro-Goldwin Meyer,Paramount, Warner’s, 20th Century Fox, and United Artists developed a system forproducing films on the same principle that Henry Ford used for his cars- theassembly like Hollywood, on the west coast of the United States, became thecenter of the film industry. Its climate, light and physical surroundings were suited to the film industry,which shot much material out of doors. Film making thrived. In succeedingyears, many great films were made in Hollywood, beginning with the silentfilms, followed, in the mid-twenties, by the first sound pictures.

Thefirst animated cartoon drawn in the United States especially for film was donein 1906 by J. Stuart Blackton. The first full-length animated feature film was Snow White and theSeven Dwarfs made in 1937.

Thestars of the films being produced in Hollywood became known throughout theworld. Amongthem were famous Cagney, Clark Gable, Marlene Dietrich, who had first appearedin films in Germany, the Swedish Greta Garbo and the young Shirley Temple. Someof the most famous stars were Mickey Mouse and characters from Walt Disney’scartoon. Leading film makers included John Ford, Howard Hawks, Frank Capra andGeorge Cukor.

 During World War II some of the best Americansdirectors in the US were recruited by the War Department, because films wereneeded to help raise the morale of servicemen. Among the best films of this warperiod were Frank Capra’s ''Why We Fight'' series (1942-45). Walt Disney’s animatedfilms; and documentaries about important battlers directed by Garson Kanin,John Huston, Billy Wilder. Orson Welles’s masterpiece''Citizen Kane'' (1940) was the story of a newspaper tycoon. After the war high-qualityfilms continued to pour out of the United States. Theyincluded Charlie Chaplin’s ''Limelight'' (1952), the fine Western Shane (1956),a drama of the New York docks called On The Waterfront (1954) and manyhigh-spirited musicals of which An American In Paris (1951) was outstanding. Alfred Hitchcock made hisbest films during this period. ''Psycho'' with its famousmurder-in-the-shower scene was probably the most successful. Despite these successes thegreat studios began to get into financial difficulties because of decliningaudiences.

However,the late 1960s saw a turning point in the American film industry with therelease of a number of films appealing to the youth market, which drew enormousaudiences. The most famous of these were Arthur Penn’s ''Bonnie and Clyde''(1967) and Dennis Hopper’s ''Easy Rider'' (1969). Realising that they could nolonger rely on their traditional family audiences, film makers increasingly concentratedon films for the so-called ‘teenage market’, science fiction and fantasy‘blockbusters’ with computer enhanced special effects Dolby sound such asGeorge Lucas’s ''Star Wars'' (1977) and Steven Spielberg’s ''Raiders Of TheLost Ark'' (1981) became very popular. 


       Today Americans still continue the custom of eating popcorn at themovies. Americans use 500,000 pounds of popcorn every year. All corn does notpop. A seed or kernel of corn must have 14 percent water in it to pop. Other kindsof pop have less water and do not pop. When you put a kernel of corn on a fire,the water inside makes the corn explode. This makes a ‘pop’ noise. That is whywe called it popcorn. The American Indians popped corn a long time ago. TheIndians knew there were three kinds of corn. There was sweet corn for eating, corn for animals, and corn for popping.The Indians introduced corn to the first settlers, or Pilgrims, when they cometo America in 1620. One year after they came, the Pilgrims had a Thanksgivingdinner. They invited the Indians. The Indians brought food with them. OneIndian brought popcorn. Since that time Americans continued to pop corn athome. But in 1945 there was a new machine that changed the history of popcorn.This electric machine popped corn outside the home. Soon movie theatres startedto sell popcorn to make more money. Popcorn at the movies became more and morepopular. Many people like to put salt and melted butter on their popcorn. Somepeople eat it without salt or butter. Either way — Americans love theirpopcorn!

The Oscar.

        The Oscars are awarded every year bythe American Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Science. These statuettes areawarded to actors, film directors, screenwriters and so on for outstanding contributionsto the film industry. The Oscars were first awarded in 1927. The first winnerswere chosen by five judges. Nowadays all of the members of the Academy vote.The ceremony is attended by most Hollywood stars, although some famous stars,such as Woody Allen, refuse to go, even if they win an award. The oldest winnerof an Oscar was 80-year- old Jessica Tandy for her performance in the film“Driving Miss Daisy” in 1990. The youngest was Shirley Temple when she was onlyfive years old. The statuette is of soldier standing on a reel of film. Nobodyis really sure why it is called an Oscar, although some people say that it isbecause when the first statuette was made, a secretary said, “It reminds me ofUncle Oscar!”




Whenpeople think about of Hollywood, they probably think of film stars like MarilynMonroe, Gary Grant and James Dean. Hollywood is the center of the international movieindustry and American movies are distributed all over the world. They are madein English but often dubbed into other languages. In some countries 90 percentof the movies that people see are US production. Sometimes, a film is not verypopular with Americans, but people in other countries like it. The first filmswere made in Hollywood in 1911. Between 1930-1945, the five largest Hollywood’sstudios produced most of the movies and owned most of the movie theatres in theUnited States. Making films is expensive. On the average, it costs 36 milliondollars to produce a movie. Some of this goes to pay the salary of well-knownmovie stars and large sums can be spent on special effects likecomputer-generated imagery (CGI). Marketing the movie to the public may costanother 17 million dollars or more. To cover these costs film companies receivemoney for movie theatre tickets and the sale or rental of videos. They alsosell CDs of the soundtrack and toys, books, or clothes associated with themovie. Indeed, there was a time when Hollywood was the most famous place in theUSA, if not the world.

The Hollywood story begins at the end of thelast century.

1887.A man called Harvey Wilcox bought a large ranch in a district north-west of LosAngeles in California. His wife called the land ‘Hollywood’.

1902-04. The first cinemas (‘nickelodeons’)opened in the USA.

1911. Two brothers from New Jersey builtHollywood’s first film studio.

1912. Film-makers from the east coast of theUSA came to California, first in small number and then in thousands.

1912. The Hollywood industry was born.

There were several reasons why film makerswent to Hollywood. Firstly, there was a lot of space, secondly, California’swarm sunny weather was ideal for making films outside. Thirdly, there was avariety of locations for filming: ocean, mountains, deserts, villages, woodlandand rivers.

By 1939 the great dream factory studios madenearly 500 movies a year, drew American audience of 50 million a week andearned over 700 million dollars at the box office-all with the help of 30,000employees who dealt with everything from processing film to fan mail.

In the 1950s and 60s Hollywood became moreinternational. Famous stars like Maurice Chevalier from France, MarleneDietrich from Germany and Sofia Loren from Italy came to Hollywood. Even todaymany international stars like Gerard Depardier and Arnold Schwarzeneger makefilms in Hollywood.

A big film studio, like MGM or WarnerBrothers, brought to life a lot of film stars. They could make or break a star.

The Hollywood film studio produced differenttypes. There were the silent Charlie Chaplin comedies of the 20s, gangster films, Frankensteinhorror films and Greta Garbo romantic melodramas of the 30s, the musicals ofthe 40s and 50s, the westerns (cowboy films) of the 50s, the historical epicsof the 60s, the science fiction films of the 70s and the Steven Spielbergaction films and violent horror films of the 80s. Who knows what the nextcentury will be famous for?

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Beverly Hills.

Mostvisitors to Los Angeles, California want to go and see Beverly Hills. This iswhere you find the homes of the movie stars. But Beverly Hills isn’t LosAngeles. It’s a small city next to Los Angeles. All kinds of celebrities livein Beverly Hills. These celebrities may be movie stars, television stars, sportstars, or other people in the news. Tourists can buy special maps for the homesof the stars. These homes are very beautiful. They usually have swimming poolsand tennis courts. But sometimes you cannot see very much. The homes have highwalls or trees around them. BeverlyHills is also famous for RodeoDrive. This is one of the most expensive shopping streets in the United States.Rodeo Drive started to be an elegant street in the 1960s. Many famous storesare opened on the street. People liked all the new styles and fashions theycould buy. Today you can find the most expensive and unusual clothing, jewelryand furniture in the world on Rodeo Drive. Rodeo Drive is a very specialstreet. When you want to park your car in public parking, an attendant willcome and park your car for you. Beverly Hills is really a small city. OnlyAbout 35,000 people live there. But during the day more than 200,000 peoplecome to Beverly Hills to work or to shop!

The major film genres.

The major film genres developed in theUnited States are the following:

Comedy. Charles Spencer Chaplin became the most widely recognized comedy figurein the world. He emphasized the develop­ment of character and plot structure,in contrast to the simple reliance on gags and gimmicks that characterized thework of other comedy producers of the day.

Westerns. The Western (a film aboutlife in the American West in the past) was the first American genre to bedeveloped and has remained a staple of the American motion-picture art andindustry. It has been estimated that one quarter of US films have beenWesterns. However, today most Amer­ican Westerns are made in Italy and arecalled '«spaghetti Westerns».

Musicals.The musicals of the late 1920s and the early1930s consisted of a series of «numbers» by established stars ofBroad-way, vaudeville and radio. Later manifesta­tions of the form were thebiographical musicals, often highly fictionalized, about great composers,musicians, singers, pro­viding an opportunity to string together some of theirmost popular hits. The trans­ferring of musicals intact from the Broad-waystage became almost automatic begin­ning in the 1950s.

Gangster films. While the Western deals witha mythical American past and the musical with a fantasy land, the gangster filmis closely tied to a real facet of Amer­ican life. In earlier films, thegangster had risen to the top to enjoy wealth, power, beautiful women,expensive homes and large cars, but before the end of the film he was bound tobe caught by law-enforcement officers, overthrown by fellow gang mem­bers orkilled. Such punishment was con­sidered obligatory. By 1971, however, «TheGodfather» showed how far the genre has evolved: Marion Brando, in thetitle role, dies of old age. The gangster was another businessman.

War films.They have evolved into a ma­jorAmerican genre, since wars have occu­pied so much of contemporary Americanhistory. The Second World War has been the subject of the greatest number ofAmer­ican films in this genre.

Horror films (thrillers).In the 1920s thecreation of a monster who gets out of con­trol or is coming to life fromnon-human beings who survive by killing the living pro­vided the basic storylines of countless hor­ror films. These films also have dealt with supernaturalforces that manifest themselves as an unseen power rather than in individ­ualform. A third major kind of horror films deals with people who are insane or inthe grip of psychological powers beyond their control.

Horror films as a genre is associatedwith the name of Alfred Hitchcock. Like Walt Disney with animated cartoons,Alfred Hitchcock was thought not just to have in­vented a film genre but tohave patented it (hence «Hitch», another name for a horror film).

Detective and spy films. These include firstof all the James Bond series. Hitchcock's films of this genre feature ordinarypeople who accidentally become involved with spies or other evil doers.

Sciencefiction.After the Second World War science-fictionfilms increasingly sug­gested that the dangers of the future stem­med from whathuman beings were doing in the present.                           

Film Companies

ColumbiaPictures(also Columbia)-American film company, whichproduces films for cinema and television.

Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer(MGM) — a film companybased in Hollywood, which has made many famous films and animated cartoons.

Paramount — a film company in Hollywood.

20th Century-Fox— an American film company.

United Artists— a film company (studio) in Hollywood.

Universal — n film company (studio) in Hollywood.

Warner Bros(Brothers) — an American film company.

 Film Directors and Producers

Alien, Woody(1935—) — a comic actor andmaker of humorous films. Since the late 1960s, he has been directing films andacting in them, usually playing a neurotic, bookish New Yorker. Some of hisbest-known films have been «Annie Hall», «Man­hattan» and«Hannah and Her Sisters».

Capra, Frank(1897-1991) — a film director, best known for thefilms «Mr. Smith Goes to Washington» and «It's a WonderfulNight».

Chaplin, Charlie (Charles Spencer)(1889-1977) — an English actor and di­rector who worked mainly in the UnitedStates in silent black-and-white comedy films. He created the belovedcharacter, the Little Tramp, who wore a shabby black suit, derbyhat and floppy shoes, and walked with the backs ofhis feet together and the toes pointing outwards. He always walked with a cane.

By 1918 Chaplin had forsakenshort com­edies for longer, independently made films, including «ShoulderArms» (1918) and «The Kid» (1921). His major films, produced forUnited Artists (a film company which he helped to found in 1923), included«The Gold Rush» (1925), «The Circus» (1928), «CityLights» (1931) and «Modern Times» (1936), the latter two made assilent films with synchronized sound effects. Chaplin spoke on the screen for thefirst time in «The Great Dictator» (1940), which ridi­culed Hitlerand Mussolini. In «Monsieur Verdoux» (1947), which draws an acid anal­ogybetween warfare and business morality, the tramp disappeared entirely; the filmprovided further ammunition for a growing anti-Chaplin group who attacked hisun­conventional personal life and political views.

After 1952 Chaplin residedin Switzerland. He starred in his production «A King in New York»(1957), a sharp satire on con­temporary America, and wrote and direct­ed«A Countess from Hongkong» (1967). Chaplin made a triumphant returnto the United States in 1972. He was given an Academy Award (an Oscar) for hispart in «making motion pictures the art form of the century».

Coppola, Francis Ford(1939)- a film director,best known for the films "'The Godfather" and «ApocalypseNow».

Ford, John(1895-1973) — a film direc­tor, especially known for his Westerns in­cluding«Stagecoach», «How the West Was Won», etc.

Goldwin, Samuel(1882-1947) — a film producer, head of one of thecompanies, which later became MGM. Goldwyn is famous for saying odd things like«include me out».

Griffith, D. W.(1875-1948) — a film maker,known especially for his use of new photographic methods and for his epic si­lentfilms, such as «The Birth of the Na­tion» (1915) that required hugecasts and enormous sets.

Griffith directed the first film, «The Ad­ventures of Dollie»,in 1908 and went on to make hundreds of pictures. With «The Birth of theNation», he created a land­mark in film industry. Also influential on thefuture of the film was «Intolerance» (1916). Griffith continued tomake success­ful films throughout the 1920s. However, the Victorian sentimentthat pervades his films was increasingly alien to the theme. He failed to makethe transition to sound pictures.

Russel, Ken(1926-) — a film director, best known for documentaryfilms and for the film «Women in Love».

Scorsese, Martin(1942—) — a film di­rector whose works include«Taxi Driver», «The Last Temptation of Christ», etc.

Spielberg, Steven(1946—) — a film di­rector who has made many verypopular films, including «Jaws», «LT», «Raiders of theLost Ark», «Star Wars», «Empire of the                               Sun», etc.His films are well known for being very fast moving and full of excitingaction.

Zinneman, Frederick(1907- ) – an American film director, born in Austria, famous for the films such as«High Noon» and «The Day of Jackal».

Wilder Billy(1906-) – a film director whose films include «SunsetBoulevard» and «Some Like It Hot».



«The Birth of the Nation» — adramatic silent film from 1915 about the American Civil War. «The Birth ofthe Nation» was directed by D. W. Griffith. The film, based on ThomasDixon's novel «The Clansman», has been condemned for his­toricaldistortion and racial bias, but it be­came a landmark in the artistic develop­mentof motion pictures through its suc­cessful introduction of many now-standardfilm techniques.

«Planet of the Apes „ — a film set in about imaginary future wheremonkeys rule the world.

''Psycho''—a horror film directed by Alfred Hitchcock. It is especially known fora scene in which the character Mario (Janet Leigh) is stabbed in a shower byNorman Bates (Anthony Perkins).

“Rocky»—the first of a group of films (later ones were called «RockyII», «Rock III», etc.), starring Sylvester Stallone as adetermined boxer called Rocky. In each of the films the main characterovercomes difficulties and win a fight against a strong opponent. The films areespecially popular with young people.

«Star Wars „—a popularscience-fiction film about the battle between the hero, Luke Skywalker, andDarth Vader, an evil person who wears a black mask over his face and comes froman evil empire. The film was directed by Steven Spielberg and is remembered forits many new exciting special effects.

“The Terminator»—a film withArnold Schwarzenegger, set in Los Angeles in the near future in which a lot ofpeople are killed. The film was followed by «Termina­tor II».

                     Actors and Actresses.

Astaire, Fred (1899—1987) — a dancer,singer and actor who made many films, often with his dancing partner, GingerRog­ers, and who was known for his stylishness.

Bassinger, Kim(1954—) — a film ac­tress, known especially for playingattrac­tive, sexy women.

Brando, Marlon(1924—) — an actor whose films include «AStreetcar Named Desire», «On the Waterfront», «The God­father»,etc.

Cooper, Gary(1901—1962) — an actor who often played strong,silent heroes, for example in the film «High Noon».

Costner, Kevin(1955—) — an actor and director whose films include«Dances with Wolves», «Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves»,«JFK», etc.

Cruise, Tom(1962—) — an actor who has played leading film partssince the early 1980s, e.g. in «Top Gun» and «Cock­tail».He is especially popular with women.

De Niro, Robert(1945—) — an actor, knownespecially for his part in the films «Taxi Driver» and «The DeerHunter».

Dietrich, Marlene(1904—1992) — an American actress and nightclubperform­er, born in Germany, who usually played the part of an extremelysexually attractive woman. She is best remembered for her part in the film«Blue Angel».

Douglas, Kirk(1916—) — a film actor, known for playing the hero infilms such as «Spartacus».

Douglas, Michael(1944—) — a film ac­tor, son of Kirk Douglas, knownfor his part in the films «Fatal Attraction» and ''Romancing theStone".

Eastwood, Clint(1930—) — a film actor anddirector, best known for playing parts as a gunfighter in Westerns and a moderncity police officer. His characters almost always have their right on theirside, and no fear.

Fonda, Henry(1905-1982) — an actor who made many films including«The Grapes of Wrath», «Twelve Angry Men», «On Golden Pond»,etc.

Fonda, Jane(1937—) — an actress,daughter of Henry Fonda, known for her left-wing views, especially her supportfor Vietnam and her opposition to the American government during the VietnamWar. Her best-known films are «The China Syndrome» and, with herfather, «On Golden Pond». She is also known for her interest inactive physical exercise.

Fonda, Peter(1939—) — an actor and director, best known for hisfilm «Easy Rider»; son of Henry Fonda.

Fox, Michael(1961-) — an American actor, born in Canada, who hasappeared in such films as «Back to the Future» (parts 1, 2, 3). He isvery popular, especial­ly with young girls.

Gable, Clark(1901-1960) — a film actor,best known for his role as Rhett Butler in «Gone with the Wind». Healso ap­peared in many other Hollywood films, including «Mutiny on theBounty», «The Misfits», etc.

Garbo, Greta(1905—1990) — anAmerican film actress, born in Sweden. She was celebrated for her classicbeauty and her portrayals of moody characters.

Having first attracted notice in the Swedish silent film “The Story ofGosta Berling” (1924), Garbo went to the United States in 1925 and becameperhaps the most celebrated motion-picture actress of the time, a provocative,enigmatic embodiment of feminine beauty and mystery. “Flesh and the Devil” washer best-known silent film; among her notable talking pictures were “AnnaChristie” and the comedy “Ninotchka”.

Greta Garbo became famous for her with drawn, aloof off-screenpersonality. In the movie “Grand Hotel”, she made the famous complaint, “I wantto be alone.” Garbo retired from the movies in the early 1940s and lived as arecluse ever since.

Garland, Judy(1922-1969) — a filmactress and singer who was most famous as the character of Dorothy in the film«The Wizard of Oz».

Gere, Richard(1949—) — an actor, known especially for his part inthe films «American Gigolo», «An Officer and a Gentleman»and «Pretty Woman».

Goldberg, Whoopi(1949-) — a film actress who appeared in «TheColor Pur­ple» and «Ghost».

Grant, Cary(1904-1986) — an Ameri­canactor, born in Britain, who is remem­bered especially for his comic filmsincluding ''The Philadelphia Story'' and ''Bringing Up Baby''.

Hoffman, Dustin(1937-) — a film ac­tor, best known for his roles inthe films «The Graduate», «Kramer vs. Kramer»,«Midnight Cowboy», «The Rain Man», etc.

Kelly, Gene(1912-1996) — a film ac­tor, dancer and director whoappeared in many musicals of the 1940s and 1950s, including «Singing inthe Rain», in which he sang and danced to a song with the same name.

Kelly, Grace(1928-1982) — a film ac­tress, star of «HighNoon» and «High So­ciety» in the 1950s, who became PrincessGrace of Monaco when she married Prince Rainier.

Marvin, Lee(1924—1987) — a film ac­tor, known especially forplaying strong, violent characters in films such as «The Dirty Dozen»and «Point Blank». He is also remembered for singing the song «Iwas born under a wandering star» in a very deep voice.

Mathau, Walter(1922—) — an actor in filmsand theater, known especially for his humorous roles, e.g. in «The Odd Cou­ple».

Monroe, Marilyn(1926—1962) — afilm actress whose real name was Norma Jean Baker, who starred in films duringthe middle of the 20th century and became the leading sex symbol of the 1950s.

Monroe first attracted notice in “The Asphalt Jungle”, thereafter shebecame a reigning screen siren. Her major films include “Gentlemen PreferBlondes”, “The Seven Year Itch”, “Bus Stop” and “Some Like It Hot”.

While still in her thirties, she died of an overdose of sleeping pills.

To many people, Marilyn Monroe is a tragic symbol of the unhappinessthat can accompany fame and glamor.

Murphy, Eddie(1961—) — an actor andcomedian who first became known for his work on the television program“Saturday Night Live” but now is known mostly for his films, such as “TradingPlaces” and “Beverly Hills Cop”.

Newman, Paul(1925—) — an actor anddirector, lending male star of Hollywood films in the 1900s and 1970s andconsidered very attractive. His films include “Butch Cassidy and the SundanceKid”, “The Sting”, “The Color of Money”, etc.

Nicholson, Jack(1937—) — an actor whostarted appearing in films in the l960s, such as “Easy Rider’’ whichrepresented the feelings of young Americans, and has now become a big Hollywoodstar.

Pacino, Al(1940—) — an actor, knownfor the films such as “The Godfather” and “Scarface”.

Poitier, Sidney(1927—) — a black Amer icanfilm star and director, who was one of the first black actors to play seriousparts rather than black stereotypes.

Pryor, Richard (1940-) — a comedianwho has appeared in films and made several records. He is black and often makesjokes about situations involving black and white people together.

Redford, Robert(1937—) — a film actor anddirector who was in films such as ''Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid'',“TheSting” and “Out of Africa”. He is popular for his good looks as well as hisacting.

Schwarzenegger, Arnold(1947—) — an Americanactor, born in Austria, whose bodybuilding appearance won him the titles of Mr.Gcrriiaiiy and Mr. Universe. He is best known for his part in the film “The Terminator”in which he plays the hero.

Scott, George C. (1926—) — an actor, bestknown for his film parts, especially strong-willed characters, such assoldiers. He was the first actor to refuse an Oscar.

Streisand, Barbra(1942—) — a singer andactress who has performed on stage and in many successful film musicals,including “Hello, Dolly”, “The Way We Were”, “A Star is Born”, etc.

Taylor, Elizabeth(1932—) — an American filmactress, born in Britain. She began making films at the age of ten, but is perhapsat least as well known for marriages, of which there have been eight (two ofthem to Richard Burton).

Temple, Shirley(1928—) — a film actresswho was the child star of over 20 films in the 1930s, and in later life, asShirley Temple Black, became a US ambassador. She was very popular when herfilms first appeared because of her style of singing, dancing and acting andher curly golden hair.

Valentino, Rudolph(1895—I926) — an Americanfilm actor, born in Italy. He was famous for playing the part of a lover insilent films, especially in “The Sheikh”. He is sometimes mentioned as atypical example of a good-looking romantic man. Valentino was a ballroom dancerand movie extra before reaching stardom in “Four Horsemen in the Apocalypse”(1921).

Soon he became the American women’s idea of masculinity, and his privatelife and loves were avidly reported in newspapers and magazines. His physique,his good looks and his physical grace were well exhibited in “The Sheikh” and“Monsieur Beaucaire”. Valentino’s most successful film is “Blood and Sand”, forhere he seems able to bring some of his own personality to the portrayal of thematador, an opportunity his other, more stereotyped roles had thwarted. Hisuntimely death created a national furor and reportedly drove some of his fansto suicide.

Wayne, John(1907-1979) — a film ac­torwho often played «tough guys», partic­ularly soldiers and cowboys.

Early in his career Wayne appeared as Hollywood's first singing cowboy.In 1939, in «Stagecoach», he achieved star status. In his 50-yearcareer he appeared in more than 200 motion pictures. Some of his outstandingfilms are «Red River», «The Quiet Man», «The High andMighty», «The Searchers», «True Grit», for which hewon an Academy Award (1969), and «Shootist».

The characters John Wayne played, es­pecially in Westerns(«Stagecoach», «True Grit»), were often honest, strong,independ­ent and patriotic. Because he played these characters, John Wayne wasthought to have those qualities himself and was an example of a good American.His old-fashioned pa­triotism made him something of a folk hero. In 1979 he wasvoted a Congressional gold medal; the inscription read, «John Wayne —American».

Williams, Robin(1952—) — an actor andcomedian whose films include “Good Morning, Vietnam”, “Dead Poets Society”,etc.

Marilyn Monroe.

Ithink that the greatest actress not only of the USA, but of the whole world isMarilyn Monroe. So I ‘d like to tell some facts about her life.

Sixqueens come and go, easily crowned, easily forgotten. Yet Marilyn Monroe’smemory has remained very much alive. Admirers still cut her picture out ofpublic library books, artists still paint her; even the young have becomefamiliar with her name and her face by watching her films on television.

 Death has changed the sexy blonde into a myth,a symbol of soft femininity and loveliness. Nowadays she is sometimes mistakenfor a saintly martyr, which she certainly was not. But then, what was she?Those who knew her disagree so violently that it is difficult to see the realwoman through the conflicting judgments of her friends. A simple little girl toher first husband, producer Mike Todd, she was also been described as the mostunappreciated person in the world, the meanest woman in Hollywood, a tart, anenchanting child, an idiot, a wit, a great natural intelligence, a victim, anda clod ‘user’ of people From the very contradiction, one can guess that she wasnot simple. And obviously she had something special- not talent, perhaps, but acertain spark. It is well known that most of her problems had their roots in anunhappy childhood.

Marilynhad come into the world in a Los Angel’s hospital as Norma Jean Mortensen. Hermother, Gladys Monroe Mortensen, loved her child; but since she had to work,she left her in the hands of Ida and Albert Bolender, a respectable couple whoboarded children on their farm. Norma Jean spent her first seven years withthem. Her physical needs were well looked after, and Gladys visited faithfullyevery weekend. But when she had gone, there was not much warmth around thelittle girl. For Norma Jean, who was extremely sensitive, it was a lonely,distressing childhood. In 1933 Gladys bought a house and took her daughter homewith her. But she was not there much and when she was out, Norma Jean had tostay with the elderly couple who rented part of the house. They were not badpeople, only indifferent and more interested in drinking than in baby-sitting.When Norma Jean didn’t have to go to school, the couple dropped her at a nearlymovie house in time for the first afternoon show. The little girl watchedhappily all day, and after the last matinee she walked home by herself. In herroom, later, she would act out the whole story. In this way she developed apassion for acting that she never outgrew. After nine months of live together,Gladys had a mental collaps and was hospitalized. She appeared from time totime in her daughter’s life, but more as a burden than as a support. Manypeople took Norma Jean under their wings throughout the years. She looked soinsecure, so defenseless, that men and women alike felt compelled to protecther.

 However vague Norma Jean may have been aboutlife in general, she never felt vague about the career she wanted to have. Shewanted to be an actress. But the first three years of Marilyn’s career didn’tbring her more than a few very small parts. She kept herself alive by modeling.In 1950 Marilyn attracted attention in a small part in ‘The Asphalt Jungle’,which had been obtained for her by a powerful protector. Another protector, andthe most influential by far, was the agent Johnny Hyde. Hyde was a powerful manin Hollywood when he met Marilyn. He was too wise to claim thatshehad talent; instead he insisted that such personality didn’t need to betalented. He succeeded in getting her a part in ‘All About Eve’, a film thatwas to prove lucky for all its actors. The font mail started piling up. TheHollywood columnists included the new blonde in their gossip columns. Soon‘Life and Look’ magazines were honoring her with long articles, and one criticventured to declare her ‘a forceful actress’. The studio, after having herco-star in several pictures, finally gave her a starring role in ‘Niagara’ in1953. She had become the Fox’s biggest moneymaker.

 Whenever she appeared she was cornered byexcited admirers and photographers. But there was no private happiness behindthe facade, and even her fame was not of the kind she would have liked. Sheresented her shallow roles; she resented the fact she had no voice in thechoice of her scripts and that her old contract was keeping salary ridiculouslylow for a star. Hurt, she retaliated as best as she could. She arrived late onthe set, unprepared and obviously indifferent to the hardships. She wasimposing on the other actors and the technicians. Scenes had to be redone fortyor fifty times because she could not remember a four-word sentence.  If something displeased her, she lockedherself in her dressing room, or failed to show up at all for days. Herbehavior disgusted the people who worked with her, but her fans loved theradiant child-woman on the screen.

In1961 after divorcing her next husband the famous American playwright ArthurMiller, Marilyn drifted back to the West Coast to open a new page in her life.On August 5, 1962 she was found dead in her house. She had made many attemptsat suicide before. But it does not seem that she intended to hill herself thatSaturday. When she retired for the night, she had plans for the next day. Butearly in the morning her housekeeper found her dead.

Theworld was shocked. In the words of one of her biographers: ‘She broke her hearttrying to achieve something she didn’t have in her to accomplish.’


Walt Disney

Walt Disney was anAmerican artist and film producer, who was famous for his animated cartoons. Hewas born on December 5, 1901 in Chicago, his father being Irish Canadian, hismother of German-American origin. In his early child hood he revealed a talentfor drawing and an interest in photography. His teens he began an art course,but World War I broke out and he drove for the Red Cross in Europe. When he gotback to America he met artist Ub Iwerks, ‘and they went into business together.

In 1923 he left withhis brother for Hollywood Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks made a series of shortcartoons but lost all their money, and for some years struggled againstpoverty. Luckily, Walt’s brother Roy gave him more to start up again. The firsttalking picture came out in 1927 and Disney realized that sound held the key tothe future of films. He developed many techniques in producing cartoons.

His most famouscharacters are Mickey Mouse, Duck and Pluto. The first Mickey Mouse cartoon wasdrawn 1928. It was the first sound cartoon, which brought great success to itscreator. In the early cartoons he was really horrible. He looked quite rat-likewith long pointed nose and small eyes.

Later his facechanged. His head got as big as his body or almost, his eyes got bigger, too.He got younger instead of older. That makes him cuter. Now it is an acceptablesymbol for the USA. Donald Duck was created in 1936. Walt Disney took thebiggest risk of his career and spent a fortune on a full-length cartoon.Finally, the first full-length cartoon feature film “Snow White and the SevenDwarfs” was brought out in 1935, which the public paid millions of dollars tosee The songs to the cartoon were written by Frank Churchill.       After the Second World War Disney turnedhis attention to real — life nature studies and non-cartoon films with livingactors.

In the 1950’s and1960’s, Walt Disney began developing the family-entertainment parks, Disneylandand Disney World. The first Disneyland was opened in southern California in1955. It is situated 27 miles south of Los Angeles, at Anaheim. Of all theshow-places none

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