Реферат: How telecommunication change the defenition of work Telework
how modern telecommunication change the definition of work<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-fareast-font-family: «Times New Roman»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-font-kerning:14.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">
<img src="/cache/referats/9851/image001.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1150"><img src="/cache/referats/9851/image001.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1149">Tomorrow <img src="/cache/referats/9851/image002.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1108 _x0000_s1109 _x0000_s1110">
2<img src="/cache/referats/9851/image003.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1105 _x0000_s1106 _x0000_s1107"><img src="/cache/referats/9851/image004.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1102 _x0000_s1103 _x0000_s1104">Introduction <img src="/cache/referats/9851/image005.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1124 _x0000_s1122 _x0000_s1123">In 1876 Alexander G. Bell createdthe thing that changed our world. Changed again…
And itwasn't the last change in the modern history. Later in the XX century themodulator-demodulator also known as modem was created and really started theTelecommunications Age. First computers were connected together and the Netstarted growing.
The concept of work <img src="/cache/referats/9851/image006.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1128 _x0000_s1126 _x0000_s1127">In the last 20 years the lifestylechanged very much. Cellular phones and electronic mail changed the way wecommunicate, satellite TV and WWW sites changed the way we get the news andon-line shops and junk e-mail changed the way we buy products and do ourbusiness. Work, social life, politics – the telecomms are coming everywhere, bringingfreedom, equality and productivity. Now I will try to go deeper into thesespheres.
Since the end of XIX century, whenMarx wrote his famous book, «Capital», the economic meaning of workhas changed dramatically. For Marx labour was nothing more but another resourcelike capital or land.
In XX century manager shows a bitmore respect to employees. They are now individuals, who need to developthemselves and should be treated and motivated in right way.
XX centurybrought us a new idea: workers are paid for their time. Later, in mid-sixties,it was thought that companies pay their employees for their skills and personalqualities. Among those qualities were creativity, company loyalty. For thosecompanies that eventually switched to new system, it became very difficult toproperly measure worker's contribution to company's results. These companiestry to increase workers morale, motivate them, because it is evident: ifworkers don't want to work, they won't work. Or at least, the results will be extremelypoor. That's why in addition to motivation by money, managers try to create afeeling of mutual trust, belonging to company and common interests.<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-fareast-font-family: «Times New Roman»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-font-kerning:14.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">
<img src="/cache/referats/9851/image001.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1154"><img src="/cache/referats/9851/image001.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1153"><img src="/cache/referats/9851/image007.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1088 _x0000_s1080 _x0000_s1078">Telework –
a new hope <img src="/cache/referats/9851/image008.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1135 _x0000_s1133 _x0000_s1134">
What newbrings telework to this field? First it is ease of control and measurement.Results in electronic form can be easily archived, analysed by computers,forwarded for checking and copied. Next, all information about time and effortsspent is available. Another thing is that fixed time-based salaries are gone.The company will no longer care so about who and how much spent on a task. Thiswill become a question of personal choice. Now everyone will be given a freedomto decide whether to work or to have a rest. This can differentiate workaholicsfrom ordinary lazy people. Right now there are same rules for everybody. Rarelya company wants to have a lot of part-time workers. We cannot imagine a workercoming to factory when he is in the right mood. But with distant jobs you canhave workers switching every now and then. We can even dream about perfect labourmarketplace with contracts signed electronically for several hours. Thepsychological problems of switching jobs will be minimised. The retirement willno longer mean break of social relations, because they aren't based on physicalpresence in the company HQ or at the factory.
Tomorrow <img src="/cache/referats/9851/image009.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1089 _x0000_s1077 _x0000_s1082">
3<img src="/cache/referats/9851/image010.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1086 _x0000_s1079 _x0000_s1083">This system of personal freedom havethe potential to eradicate unemployment by allowing real-time communicationsand negotiation between employers and employees, leading to equilibrium laborprice.
If you can measure the result of anoffice work, you can evaluate if it worth paying the money for result you get.Or the jobs are completely useless and ineffective. This can lead to boost inproductivity. In telework usually people are paid for results, not for time.This motivates them to get better results, thus increasing productivity again!On the other hand, regardless of employee's results, the company always getswhat if pays for! Combined efforts of ten people can cost the same for thecompany if they have the same effect. And now together with perfect labourmarket we come to what Marx was talking about – labour is just the same asmachines or land. The motivation is the problem of the person himself! And witha freedom of work choice motivation is not the problem. With telework one caneasily apply for the job he likes and the company can review all candidatesjust comparing the results of their work.
Thanks tothe efforts of many people all over the world the Net commerce and work is stillnot limited as their off-line counterparts. Zero taxes attract more and more ofthe trade turnover. The Stock Exchange and Currency Exchange systems alreadyinculcated in the telecommunication world. With decreased transaction costs,development of telecommunications and computers the efficiency of these financialspheres is quickly increasing.
Electronicauctions have already came to reality. On AOLtm auctions there are 600000 bids in different categories now. Surplus directtm and tens otherelectronic auctions are now in the Internet. This is a dream of classic economists– perfect market with all relevant information freely available. Withcontinuous decrease in transportation costs this can make every market globaland make competition perfect, stopping the monopolies. One example is Microsofttm.Can we imagine that it will not succeed in stopping alternative OSes andbrowsers several years ago, without Internet? Free communications greatlyincrease the competitiveness of any product. Most on-line shops can offer lowerprices for all products than their off-line colleagues can.
<img src="/cache/referats/9851/image001.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1152"><img src="/cache/referats/9851/image001.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1151"><img src="/cache/referats/9851/image011.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1092 _x0000_s1093 _x0000_s1094">Distant work makes sexual and racediscrimination very difficult and almost impossible. How can you behave badlytoward your colleague if you only read his e-mails? How the program written by Chineseis worse than the one written by French? And all harassment will be logged,documented and backed up on a tape drive to be used in the Court.
Tomorrow <img src="/cache/referats/9851/image012.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1098 _x0000_s1099 _x0000_s1100">
4<span Times New Roman",«serif»; letter-spacing:5.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US"><img src="/cache/referats/9851/image013.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1095 _x0000_s1096 _x0000_s1097">The drawbacks <img src="/cache/referats/9851/image014.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1136 _x0000_s1130 _x0000_s1131">Also it will provide new unique opportunitiesfor unable people. Nobody will knew about his inabilities and nobody will keep himaway from the job.
But theproblem with results measuring still remains. How can we train managers andchange their minds in order to deal with telework? What I think is that allinternal relations need to be built on a completely new basis. The basis ofmutual respect and trust. How can «white collars» remain superiorover a worker if they are communicating over the computer network? Howsuperiority can survive in the environment where both worker and manager havethe same access to information? I am sure this is impossible without personalpressure of managers. So, this will surely lead to a democratisation in thework.
Nextproblem is that telework isn't as universal as we want. It isn't possible forany job: for example, you won't agree with a distant driving of your taxi inrush hour. The control is necessary when human lives depends on the worker. Anduntil we are not sure that communications will be 100% error free, we cannotavoid physical presence of worker. An example is distant control of anaircraft. Modern aircrafts can take off and land without anybody on board, buthuman pilots should be available for emergency case. Several pilots in theairport could work for tens of aircrafts, helping them to take off and landsafely, then giving several hours of direct flight to a machine. But the stormcan terminate the communications and lead to human deaths in non-controllableplane. This shows us how careful we need to be with a new power that computersand communications give us.
In some areaswe can't cope without live human being, but… The situation changes. Right nowthe technologies are available that can change the whole global economy. I meantelesales. This includes all TV presentations, on-line stores, direct mailing.There was a bad idea of paying too much attention to a customer. In the shopthere is always a sales manager, available for questions, but most time doingnothing. And he cannot new everything about all the products he is supposed tosale. The situation is different in a modern on-line store. All the informationabout the product is available in clear form. This can be a multimediapresentation, a chart, table or just a plain text. If additional information isnecessary, then the customer can initiate chat session with a competent person,or ask for an e-mail response. Minimised costs. Maximised convenience.
<img src="/cache/referats/9851/image001.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1144"><img src="/cache/referats/9851/image001.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1143"><img src="/cache/referats/9851/image015.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1112 _x0000_s1113 _x0000_s1114">Other spheres of physical presenceare special services, including police and ambulance, rescuers and fire-fighters.All these jobs require a trained strong and hardy person, physically presentingon the place.
Nextproblem is socialising. As we know, work is one of the most important placestogether with family and school, where socialising goes. In some countries thisis the main place of social interaction and the result work itself plays onlysecondary role. The contact is much more important. In countries with strongtraditions of corporativism this is especially important. The person will benot able to identify himself with appropriate social group.
Tomorrow <img src="/cache/referats/9851/image012.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1118 _x0000_s1119 _x0000_s1120">
5<img src="/cache/referats/9851/image016.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1115 _x0000_s1116 _x0000_s1117">Another problem is quite specific,but isn't less serious. Some American physicians believe that obesity is a kindof epidemic in the US! Imagine what can happen with Americans if telecommunicationwill replace conventional lifestyle.Education <img src="/cache/referats/9851/image017.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1137 _x0000_s1138 _x0000_s1139">
Telecommunicationswill make high-quality education accessible for everybody. The costs for givinga virtual lecture to one student and one thousand of students are equal. Thisunimaginable scale economy (and as a result – marginal costs of zero) will greatlyincrease educational level. The standards will be almost the same in allcountries thus making the workers worldwide more interchangeable. This willback up the globalisation tendency. And strong arising competition from newly educatedpeople of third world will increase the desire to study among American andEuropean students.
Conclusion <img src="/cache/referats/9851/image018.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1140 _x0000_s1141 _x0000_s1142">
To sum it up, I believe that next millenniumwill bring us to new horizons of social, political and economical interactionin the virtual world of modern telecommunicating. This tool offers us not only hopefor economic prosperity but also a possibility to participate more in thecommunity activities and decision-making in the political system. This even makespossible the direct democracy, which was left in the times of ancient Athens.Created by the scientists – the most intelligent and advanced part of oursociety, Internet offers equality, freedom of speech and unique possibilitiesfor self-realisation.