Реферат: Great Britain, Science


            The United Kingdom of Great Britainand Nothern Ireland occupies territory of the BritishIsles which are situated to the north-west of Europe. They consist of two mainislands: Great Britain and Ireland. England is in the south of the island ofGreat Britain, Scotland is in the north and Wales is in the west. Northen Ireland is situated in the noth-easternpart of Ireland. It’s western coast is washed by the Atlantic ocean. In theeast the island of Great Britain is washed by the North Sea. The Irish Sea, theNorth Channel and the St. George’s Channel separate Ireland from Great Britain.Great Britain is separated from France by the English Channel, which is 32 kmwide in it’s narrowest part. In everyday speech “Great Britain” is used to meanthe UK.

            The climatof Britain is usually described as cool, temperate and humid. As the weatherchanges with a wind, and Britain is visited by winds from different parts ofthe world, the most characteristic feature of Britain’s weather is it’s variability.Summers are not hot and winters are not cold in Britain. The snow never liesfor long on the ground. As a rule there is no ice on the waters of rivers andlakes. So we may say that the British climat has 3main features: it is mild, humid and changeble. Thatmeans that it’s never too hot or too warm.         

            English is the official, but not theonly language used in the country.         

            Britain has been many centuries inthe making. The Romans conqered most part ofBritain, but were unable to subdue the fiercely independent tribes in the Westand in the North. Further waves of invaders followed: Angels, Saxons, Jutes,Vikings and Normans. All these contributed to the mixture we call English. Formany centuries this country was known simply as England. It had a strong armyand navy. It waged numerous colonial wars. England, once the “work shop of theworld”, was the first to become a highly industrial country.

            There are no big rivers in GreatBritain. The biggest are Severn and Thames. There are a lot of mountain inGreat Britain, but they are nit high. The highest mountain — Ben Nevis — is inScotland. The flora of the British Isles is much varied and the fauna issimilar to that of the north-west of Europe. The country is not very rich innatural resourses but there were suffice for theIndustrial Revolution to start.

            London is the capital of the UK. Itwas founded by the Romans. The population of London is over 8 million people.

            The largest cities of Great Britainbesides London are: Birmingham, Glasgo, Liverpool,Manchester, Sheffield, Bristol, Leeds, Edinburgh. The most important seaportsare: London, Liverpool, Belfast, Glasgow and Cardiff.



            The word “science” comes from the latin word “scientia”, whichmeans “knowledge”. Scientists make observations and collect facts in field theywork in. Then they arrange facts ordelly and try toexpress the connaction between the facts and try towork out theories. Then they have to prove the facts or theory correct and makesufficient and sound evidence. So sientific knowledgeis always growing and improving.

            Science has great influence on ourlife. It provides with base of modern technology, materials, sources of powerand so on. Modern science and technology have changed our life in many differentways. During the present century our life changed greatly. Thanks to radio andtelevision we can do a great number of jobs; it was radio and TV that made itpossible to photograph the dark side of the moon and to talk with the firstcosmonaut while he was orbiting the Earth. On of the wonders og our age is the “electronic brain”, or giant calculating mashine, which can to some extent duplicstehuman sences. The desk computer is expected tofunction as your personal librarian, to carry out simple optimizationcomputations, to control your budget or diet, play several hundred games, etc.further development of the computer is bellieved tolead to a situation in which most of the knowledge accepted by mankind will bestored in the computers and made accessible to anyone with the home computers.It is natural that the advent of minicomputers with extensive memories andpossibilities will lead to a new higher level in information culture. Amongother things, we shall be able to organiseeducational process in the country’s colleges and universities and also in thesystem of school education on a new basic. Knowledge is the most valuablewealth, and minicomputers will help us to make it accessible for everyone. Agrycultiral sientists developbetter varietives of plants. The development ofantibiotics and other drugs has helped to control many diseases. Studies inanatomy and physiology have let to amazing surgical operations and theinventions of lifesaving mashines, that can do thework of such organs as heart, lungs and so on. Nuclear fission when atremendous amount if energy is setting free is very important discovery.

            Science improved the living standarts, communications, promoted contact between peopleand government, knowledge and culture, made it possible to discover and developnew sources of energy, made it possible to prolong man’s life.

            But science also has somedisadvantages. It produces mass culture: painting, music, literature. Somescientific inventions increase the ecological problems, provide with newdiseases like AIDS, increased the danger of violent death.

            The greatest scientists were verypersistent and were sure in their success. Even without any serious educationthey made great inventions. Even during times of disappointing experiments and unacknowledgement by other scientists, they didn’t give upand went on working out theories. Also they were always  ready to begin everything from the verybeginning. They worked a lot, and this work wasn’t for money.

            The aim, the main object of thegreatest scientists of all times was always to find out the trithand no personal prejudices can be allowed. So the science grows and prospersand is the engine of progress.

            The problem of learning languagesvery important today. Foreign languages are socially demanded especially at thepresent time when the progress in science and technology has led to anexplosion of knowledge and has contributed to an overflow of information. Thetotal knowledge of mankind is known to double every seven years. Foreign languagesare needed as the main and the most efficient means of information exchange ofthe people of our planet.

            Today English is the language of theworld. Over 300 million people speak it as mother tongue. The native speakersof English live in Great Britain, the United States of America, Australia andNew Zealand.  English is one of theofficial languages in the Irish Republic, Canada, the South African Republic.As the second language it is used in the former British and  US colonies.

            It is not only the national or theofficial language of some thirty states which represents different cultures,but it is also the major international language for communication in such areasas science, technology, business and mass entertainment. English is one of theofficial languages of the United Nations Organisationand other political organisations. It is the languageof literature, education, modern music, international tourism.

            Russia is integrating into the worldcommunity and the problem of learning English for the purpose of communicationis especially urgent today.

            So far there is no universal orideal method of learning languages. Everybody has his own way. Sometimes it isboring to study grammar or to learn new words. But it is well known thatreading books in the original, listening to BBC news and English speakingsingers, visiting an English speaking country, communicating with the Englishspeaking people will help a lot.

             When learning a foreign language you learn theculture and history of the native speakers.      

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