Реферат: English topics

                 Topic N1 («Choosing aCareer»)

     Choosing a career is like any otheractivity; it is best  to

work toa plan. Too many people start looking for a specific  job

beforethinking out their occupational aims. It is a good idea to

begin  by attempting  to  define in  clear  terms what    your

requirementsare from a career. This involves taking a realistic

view ofyour strengths and weaknesses. You may think for example,

that youwould like a job which involves organizing people,  but

likingsuch a job is not a sufficient justification if experience

youalready may have suggests that this is not your strong point.

On theother hand, you should remember that training willl  equip

you todo new things. A further point to consider is how far  you

will bewilling to do for a time things which you  do  not like

knowingthat they  are  necessary to  achive  your longer  term

objectives.Having thought carefully about the sort of person you

are, tryto work out a realistic set pf occupational requirment.

Inparticular, you can answer to important questions. First: what

sort oflife do you want to lead? For example, do  you  want to

live inthe country or in the town?  Is  leisure time  of  great

importanceto you? Is the size of your salary important? Do  you

want toput down roots or travel videly? Second:  what  sort of

work doyou want to do? For example, do you like working alone or

withothers? Does teaching people appeal to you? Do you  want to

be anorganizer of other people's  activities?  Do you  want  to

developnew ideas and initiate changes.

     As for me, I have made up my mind to be anengineer.  As  my

parentsare an engineeres they have made a great influence on  my

choiceand I can say that this profession runs  the  family. My

choiceof this occupation didn't come as a sudden flash. I  think

thatnowdays this profession is of great need and importance  to

ourcountry. It is my aim to be a qualified  specialist  and  to

servethe interests of my country. To be a well prepared engineer

I  should have  some  important qualities:   great   capability

persistance,knowledge of  science  and, of course,  knowledge of

foreignlanguages. In  spite of  these arguments we musn't forget

abouteverybody's vacation. I think that my facilities  combined

with theknowledge would be quiet enough to succeed in my work.

                    Topic N2 («At theDoctors»)

     It is winter now. It is often cold. Ican't say that  I  can

standcolds. So, sometime ago I suddenly fell ill. I  mounted  a

hightemperature. I had a running nose and  a sore  throat. Also

I had asplitting headache and a cough. My whole body ached.  My

motherfixed me a hot lemonade but that didn't help me much.  She

wantedto give me some aspirin tablets too, but there weren't any

in ourhouse. My mother told me to stay in bed, then she  called

for adoctor. The doctor came, remove his coat and  put  on  his

whitegown. The doctor  asked  me to  strip  to the  waist.  He

examinedmy lungs, felt my pulse  and  blood pressure,  took  my

temperature.Then he examined my throat and said that it  was  a

littleinflamed. He said that is was a light case of the flu  and

toldme  to stay  in  bed and  to  have a  rest.  He wrote  a

prescriptionfor a gargle and cough medicine. Also  he  gave me

somesulfa pills, a slip for  X-Ray  and blood  examination.  He

prescribedcups and mustard plasters. The prescription, which the

doctorleft, was made up at the chemist's. I  followed  all the

doctor'sinstructions and very soon I felt much  better.  In  10

days Ifully recovered and resumed my studies.

Topic N3(«At the Theatre»)

     I will never forget my first visit tothe  Bolshoy  Theatre.

It wasages ago, but this stands out in my memory quiet  vividly.

Mymother bought beforehand two tickets for a matinee  perfomance

of theballet «Sleeping Beauty» by Chaikovsky.  We came  to  the

theatrelong before the perfomance began. A sign at the entrance

of thetheatre said that «house full». Many people were  standing

at theentrace of the theatre asking if we had an extra  ticket.

We leftour coats in the cloak-room and bought a program from the

usher tosee what the cast was. I remember we were glad  to  see

thatUlanova was dancing the main part. When we  came  into the

hall theorchestra were tuning in their instruments. We found our

seatswhich were in the stalls and went exploring the theatre. My

mothershowed me the boxes, the pitm the dress-circle, the tieres

andbalconies. At 12 sharp th lights went  down.  The conductor

appearedand the overtune began. After the overtune the  curtain

went up.I was in raptures at what I saw on the  stage.  I  have

neverseen anything more wonderful. The scenery and the  dancing

weresuperb. The ballet seemed to me a fairy-tale. When the  last

curtainfell, the house burst out into applause. I applauded  so

much,that my hands ached. The cries of encore sounded  all over

the  theatre. The dancers  got  many curtain  calls  and  were

presentedwith many flowers. The perfomance was a great  success

with thepublic. It was one of my brightest memories.

                     Topic N4(«Entertaiment»)

I amfond of good books and good music, and when I have some time

tospare, I like to go to the theatre or a  concert.  There are

morethan a dozen very good orchestras in  <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>  and some  of

them areworld famous. Orchestras  in  <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>  have no  concert

halls  of their  own,  but play  in  halls rented  from  local

authoritiesor private companies. There are 2 big concert  halls

in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>. The Old RoyalAlbert Hall and the New  Royal  Festival

Hall,which is one of the most modern concert halls in the world.

Theatricalperfomances are given by theatre companies. There  are

about200 professional theatres in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>.Like orchestras,  the

theatrecompanies usually play in rented theatres, but there  are

severaltheatres which have their own homes. The center  of  the

actricallife is <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>.<st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City> is alsothe main center of  opera

andballet. I am not particulaly fond of the cinema. Rather  then

taketrouble of going out to see a film, I would stay at home and

watchtelevision. I seemed to share this attitude with  the most

otherpeople in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>.  In  <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>  the choice  of  films is

limitedto young  people.  Films are  placed  in one  of  three

categoriesin <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>.«U» — suitable for everybody, «A»  -  more

suitablefor adults, «X» — suitable only for  adults.  A person

under 16years of age may see an «A» filem only in company of  an

adult.Only person over 16 years of age may see «X» films. Those,

whoprefer to stay at home may spend their free  time,  watching

TV,listening to the radio. They have many TV and radio  programs

tochoose from.

     As for me, I am a  great cinema-goer.  I  like the  cinema

tremendously.I see all the best films  that  are on.  I  prefer

featuresfilms, though I enjoy documentaries almost as  much  to

saynothing of animated cartoons  films,  news-reels or  popular

sciencefilms. I usually go to the cinema for the morning or  day

shows.If I want  to  go to  an  evening show  I  book tickets

beforehand.I like to come to hte  cinema  a couple  of  minutes

beforethe movie starts. If there is a long time to wait  I  can

alwayslook at the portraits of film stars hanging on the  walls

of thefoyer, or listen to a little concert that is usually given

for thespectators. It is a good idea, that those who  are  late

are notallowed to enter the hall until the news-reel is over.  I

hatebeing disturbed when a film is on. If I like a  movie  very

much Igo to see it a second time and besides I see many  of  the

moviestelevised. I often read the  paper  «Film Week»  to  know

whichfilms have been released and which ones are being  shot. I

know allthe famous script writers, producers and cameramen.

                  Topic N5 («Books and <st1:City w:st=»on"><st1:place w:st=«on»>Reading</st1:place></st1:City>")

     Books can fit almost every need, temper,or interest.  Books

can beread when you are in the mood; they don't have to be taken

inperiodic doses. Books are more personal and  more  impersonal

thanprofessors. Books have an inner confidence which individuals

seldomshow; they rarely have to be on the defensive. Books  can

affordto be bold, and courageou,  and  explanatory; they  don't

have tobe so careful of  boards  of trustees,  colleagues,  and

communityopinion. Books are  infinitly  diverse; they  run  the

gamut ofhuman activity. Books can express every point of  view;

if youwant a different point of view, you can read a  different

book. <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Reading</st1:place></st1:City> is probably themost important skill you will  need

forsuccess in your  studies.  You will  have  to read  lengthy

assignmentsin different subjects with varying degrees of detail

anddifficulty. If you you read inaccuratly, you  will  fail to

understandsome of the information and ideas you  read.  If  you

readslowly, you will have to spent too much time  reading  your

assignmentsso that your other work may suffer.

      Poor reading may be a problem foryou,  but it  is  not  a

hopelessone. Like other  skills  your abilty  to  read English

rapidlyand accuratly will depend upon a careful instruction  and

purposefulpractice. You must continue to practise on your own to

improveyour reading skill.

     Reading speed is determined in part by howmany  words  your

eyes cansee at a single glance. Here is a comparison  of  three

differentreaders and how many stops their eyes make.


     Being іable іto read іby phrases іinstead of іby single і

     words іresults іfrom іpractice.


     Being able іto read іby phrases іinstead of іby single

     words іresults іfrom practice.


     Being able to read by phrases іinstead of by single words і

     results from practice.

Noticethat the slow reader's  eyes  must stop  fourteen  times,

focusingon each word alone before they move on to the next.  The

eyes ofthe average reader stop six or seven times because  they

are ableto see about two words at a single glance. The eyes  of

the fastreader stop only three times. They focus at the  center

of aphrase and see three or four words, then move rapidly to the

nextphrase. This ability to see words on  either  side of  the

point atwhich your eyes focus is called peripheral vision. As  a

foreignstudent of English, you may feel, that it is  impossible

torecognize so many words at a single glance. It  is  difficult

for manynative speakers, but it can be done — and must be  done

if youare to read as rapidly as you should.  You  can increase

yourperipheral vision by eye exercises.

                 Topic N6 («My FavouriteWriter»)

     I'm fond of reading. My favourite writeris William Somerset

Maughamand i would like to tell  about  his biography.

WilliamSomerset Maugham was born in 1874 and spent his childhood

in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Paris</st1:place></st1:City> in the family  of a British diplomat. Having  lost  his

parentsat an early age, he went to  live  in  <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>  with his

uncle,who was a clergyman. He was educated at King's school  in

<st1:City w:st=«on»>Canterbury</st1:City>studied painting in <st1:City w:st=«on»>Paris</st1:City>, went to <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Heidelbury</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>University</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>

in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Germany</st1:country-region> and spent  six years at <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>St.Thomas</st1:PlaceName>  <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Hospital</st1:PlaceType>in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>

studyingto be a doctor. He was an unsatisfactory medical student

for hisheart wasn't in  medicin. He wanted, hehad always wanted

to be awriter and in the evening after his tea, he wrote and read.

     In 1897 he wrote a novel called «Liza of Lambeth», sent  it

to apublisher and  it  was accepted.  It  was something  of  a

success.So William  Somerset  Maugham decided  to  abandon his

medicalprofession and he did it with relif. The next ten  years

werevery hard on him. He learned the terrible  difficulties  of

making aliving by writing. But he survived. He became a  famous

writer.He never regretted the five years he had  spent  at  the

hospital.They taught him pretty well all  he  knew about  human


     The novel «The moon andsixpence» (1919)  is  based on  the

life ofthe artist Paul Gauguin was an immediate success. Maugham

went to <st1:place w:st=«on»>Tahiti</st1:place> and lived in Gauguin's hut while writing the book.

His fameas a short story writer began with «The Trembling  of  a

leaf».Since then he wrote many collections of books, essays  and

criticism.Many  of  his books  and  stories came  out  of  his

extensivetravels in the East. His autobiographical  books  «The

summingup» and «A writer's Notebook» are  remarkable  for both

styleand sincerity. His books have been reprinted many times.

     In 1927 William Somerset Maughamsettled  in  the South  of

<st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>France</st1:country-region></st1:place>and lived there until his death in1965.

               Topic N7 («The Book I'veJust Read»)

WilliamSomerset Maugham's short stories are  most  fascinating.

Not longago I read one of his short stories, it  is  the story

about aman who is very rich, very powerful,  very  intellegent,

verysuccessful in his career and yet he is  most  unhappy. His

name isLord Mountdrago (the story  says:  he was  an  able and

distinguishedman who was appointed Secretary of Foreign Affairs

when hewas still under  forty.  He was  considered  the ablest

politicanin the Conservative Party and for a long time directed

theforeign policy of his country).  One  day he  comes  to  Dr.

Audlinwho  is a  psychotherapist  and whose  reputation  as  a

psychotherapistis very good. Dr. Audlin seems to be able to help

almosteverybody (the story says: he could relif certain pains by

thetouch of his cool, soft hands and by talking to his  patients

often  induce sleep  in  those who    were    suffering   from

sleeplessness.He spoke  slowly.  His voice  had  no particular

color,but it was musical, soft and lulling.  Dr.  Audlin found

that byspeaking to people in that low monotonous voice of  his,

by lookingat them with his pale, quiet eyes, by stroking  their

foreheadswith his long firm hands he could sometimes do  things

thatseemed miraculous). Lord Mountdrago has a  strange  dreams.

They geton his nerves. And he is afraid that he will go mad  or

commitsuicide if it goes on like that every night. He says  that

his  decision can  affect the welfare ofthe  country.  When Dr.

Audlinaskes to describe one of his dreams, he begins: «the first

i hadwas about a month ago. I dreamt that i was at a  party  at

<st1:place w:st=»on">Connemara</st1:place>House. It was an official party. The King and the Queen

were tobe there and many prominent people too. Suddenly i saw  a

littleman there called  Owen  Griffiths, who  is  a member  of

parlamentfrom the Labour Party and to tell you the truth, I  was

surprisedto see him there. The Connemaras were at the top  of  a

marblestaircase receiving their  gusets...  Suddenly I  noticed

that theKing and the Queen had  come,  turned my  back  on  the

Connemarasi understood that i had got my trouses on. You  can't

understandwhat i felt at that monent, an agony of shame. I awoke

in acold sweat and understood what it was only a dream".

     Dr. Audlin can't diagnose  the case and soon he learns that

LordMountrago has ruined his opponent in the House of  Commons.

Whosename is Owen Griffiths. He did cruely and mercilessly.  His

consciencehas protested that injury he caused to <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Griffiths</st1:place></st1:City>.  The

storyhas a tragic end. Lord Mountdrago is unable to get  rid  of

histerrible dreams. He commits suicide. His antagonist  suddenly

diestoo. The newspaper wrote that his death was supposed  to  be

due  to natural  reason  but  we  know that  his   death   was

supernaturallyconditioned by Lord Mountdrago's tragic  end.  In

conclusionwe come to after having read that supernational forces

effectour lives. No matter how sensitive or insensitive we might

be tothem. Thus the moral of the story is that doing good is the

onlycertainly happy action of a man's life.

        Topic N8 («The Weather and ClimateFluctuations»)

'Funnyweather we are having' is a statment of  the  obvious we

haveused for generations as a greeting. When the deep cold lasts

long andheavy snow and blizzards give us the shivers we replace

«funny»with something stronger, such as «terrible», «ghastly».

At timeslike these people ask what is happening to the weather.

So we goto the experts, who tells us, in language appropriate to

thesubject, what happened yesterday, what is  happening  today,

and whatmight happen in the next few years. Weather and climate

specialistsall over the world have ammassed a vast  quanity  of

information.They can describe what is happening around us. With

satellitesthey can forecast more accurately what might happen in

theimmediate future. Their research has produced evidence of why

pastclimatic changes took place.

     There have been many climatefluctuations  ovver  th 10,000

yearssince <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>was last covered with an ice sheet. Advances

andretreats of ice in the northern hemisphere during  the  past

500,000years can be accounted for by changes in the warmth  from

the Sun.

     This was caused by  alterations in  the  Earth's orbit  at

periodsof 96,000, 40,000 and 20,000 years.

     Although that  theory is  widley  accepted as  a  possible

explanationsfor ice ages, it has not been proved. More than  50

theorieshave been put forward, but only  a  few have  not  been


     Not long ago a new  theory was  published  in the  science

journal«Nature». According to Dr.  Garry  Hunt, of  University

College,intense radiations  from  the nuclear  explosion  of  a

nearbysupernova — a star — could cause the destruction  of part

or allof the ozone layer and in this way trigger an ice age.

     As for me, i like  Autumn best  of  all. The  days  become

shorterand the nights longer. It isn't so hot in the  day-time.

Thetrees are covered with yellow and red leaves. At the  end  of

summerapples, pears, plums and other fruit become ripe.  In  the

Souththere are many oranges, peaches and tangerines. Autumn  is

plesantwhen it does not rain. General Autumn is a rainy  season

of theyear. When it rains the  weather  is nasty.  The  sky  is

coveredwith heavy clouds. It drizzles. It is muddy and wet.

     Topic N9 («The Ecological Crisis: AMyth or Reality»)

At thepresent time the Earth accomodates more  then  5 billion

people.Half of which are undernourished. A total of  4  million

deaths  occureach year  fro  starvation. Mankind  has   finally

realisedthe threat of an increasing population and has faced the

factthat something must be done. The food-supply increase  lags

considerablybehind the immense  growth  of population.  Besides

conditionsfor life grow steadily worse due to numerous facets of

environmentalpollution. And worst of all, today's man constently

contributesto his own deadly crisis. We have got too many cars,

too manyfactories, too  much  sewage and  carbon  dioxide, too

littlewater and food deficiency — all that can be easily  taced

to toomany people. That is why many western scientists say  that

ourworld is going through an ecological crisis which  will mean

thegradual destruction of the human race. Our scientists are not

thatpessimistic, although they do  think  that man's  increased

tamperingwith the world around him is posing a growing threat to

thebiosphere. It is not too late  to  forestall what  could  be

drasticand irreversible changes in the environment  and  ensure

that theworld will be a healthy place for the present and future

generationsto live in.

                Topic N10 («Holidays,Travel and Tourism»)

For mostpeople there is no problem  in  deciding how  they  are

going tospend the money they  earn — it  all goes  on  housing,

food,clothess, transport and, if they are  lucky,  leisure and

someholidays. Many of us have  spent  our lives  without  doing

anythingout of the ordinary and now  I  have got  a  marvellous

opportunityof doing something exciting and I will. If I win the

prize of20,000 dollars, I will spend it in the world round trip.

     To travel round the world has long beenmy  dream and  with

this sumof money behind me this dream is likely to be realized.

I amgoing to take a trip round the world. I am going to do a lot

of sightseeing. I am goung to put up  at  expensive hotels  and

spendmuch money on entertaiment and other exciting things.

          My travel experience would begin in <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>New York</st1:place></st1:State>, known  as

one ofthe  world's  most modern  cities  because of  its  high

buildingsand its dynamic spirit. From <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>New York</st1:place></st1:State>I would cross the

AtlanticOcean to <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>.In <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City> Iwould explore the  British

Museumand visit the shops and pubs along King's Road in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Chelsea</st1:place></st1:City>.

My nextstop would be <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Amsterdam</st1:place></st1:City>,an attractive  city  because of

itssteep narrow houses and canals lined with trees. Flying on to

CoppenhagenI would  eat  Danish open-faced  sandwiches  and  be

entertaindeat night clubs in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Tivoli</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Gardens</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>. Having seen  enough

citiesby this time I would head South to the  Italian  Riviera.

<st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Portofino</st1:place></st1:City>, a  handsome  fishing village  resembling  an  opera

setting,is one of the most charming vacations sports in <st1:place w:st=«on»>Europe</st1:place>.

Ofcourse, a serious traveller  could  not leave  <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Italy</st1:place></st1:country-region>  without

visiting<st1:City w:st=«on»>Florence</st1:City>, <st1:City w:st=«on»>Venice</st1:City>,<st1:City w:st=«on»>Naples</st1:City> and <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Rome</st1:place></st1:City>,for all these  cities

areliving museums. Continuing South, I would trace the beginning

ofWestern civilization. I would make stops in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Athens</st1:place></st1:City> and Cario.

Certainlya chance to see the  pyramids  should not  be  missed.

Next, Iwould fly east to visit the shimmering <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>island</st1:PlaceType> of  <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Ceylon</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>.

Here,the traveller finds many precious gems for sale,  but  the

brightestjewel of all is <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Ceylon</st1:place></st1:country-region>itself. Leaving  this  island I

wouldtravel to <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Bangkok</st1:place></st1:City>,an Oriental city of many  charms.  Then,

likemane other travellers, I would be drawn to <st1:place w:st=«on»>Hong  Kong</st1:place>,  the


     Leaving <st1:place w:st=«on»>Asia</st1:place>,I would load my over  stuffed  suitcase on  a

planebound for <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Acapulco</st1:place></st1:City>.In this Mexican resort, I  would  swim,

sunbathesand eat spicy foods.

     At this time it would be necessary  to count  my  remaining


     If a tour of <st1:place w:st=«on»>Latin America</st1:place> were still possible, I would want

to stopin <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Peru</st1:country-region>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Argentina</st1:country-region>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Brazil</st1:place></st1:country-region>. But by  that time  mu  funds

wouldprobably have run low. So, where would my round the  would

tripend? For me there is only one answer:  <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:place></st1:City>,  the city  I

willnever tire of calling home.

                      Topic N11(«Shopping»)

I  would like to tell  you about shoppingin the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United Kingdom</st1:place></st1:country-region>.

Marks& Spencer is <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>'sfavourite store.  Tourists  love it

too. Itattracts a great variaty of customers from house wives to

millionaires.Princess Diana,  Dustin  Hoffman and  the  British

Prime-ministerare just a few of its  famous customers.Last year

it madea profit of 529 million pounds. Which is  more  than 10

milliona week.

     It all started 105 years ago when ayoung  Polish  immigrant

MichaelMarks had a stall in <st1:place w:st=«on»>Leeds</st1:place> market. He  didn't have  many

thingsto sell: some cotton, a little wool, lots of buttons and a

fewshoelaces. Above his stall he  put  the now  famous  notice:

«Don'task how much — it's a penny.» Ten years later he  met Tom

Spencerand together they started Penny stalls in many towns  in

theNorth of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>.Today there are  564  brances of  Marks  &

Spencerall over the world: in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>America</st1:country-region>,  <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Canada</st1:country-region>,  <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Spain</st1:country-region>,  <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>France</st1:place></st1:country-region>,

Belguimand <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Hungary</st1:place></st1:country-region>.

     The store bases its business on 3  principals: good  value,

goodquality and good service. Also, it changes with the  times;

once itwas all jumpers and knickers. Now it is food,  furniture

andflowers as well. Top fashion designers advice on  styles  of

clothes.Perhaps, the most important key to its success  is  its

happywell-trained staff. Conditions of work are excellent. There

arecompany doctos, dentists, hairdressers,  etc.  And all  the

staffcan have lunch for under 40 pence.

     Suprisingly tastes in food and  clothes are  international.

Whatsells well in <st1:City w:st=«on»>Paris</st1:City>, sells just as  well in  <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Newcastle</st1:place></st1:City> and

<st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:place></st1:City>. Their best selling clothes are:for women -  jumpers  and

knickers(M & S is famous for its knickers); for men  -  shirts,

socks,  pyjamas, dressing  gowns  and suits;  for  children  -

underwear  and socks.  Best  sellers in  food  include:  fresh

chickens,  vegetables and  sandwiches,   «Chicken    Kiev»    is

internationallythe most  popular  convience food.  Shopping  in

<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>is also famous for its Freshfood.Freshfood is a chain of

foodstores and very  successful  supermarkets which  has  grown

tremendouslyin the twenty years since it was founded, and now it

hasbranches in the High Streets of all the towns of any size  in

<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>. In the beginning the stores soldonly foodstuffs, but in

recentyears  they  have diversified  enormously  and now  sell

clothes,books, records, electrical and domestic equipment.  The

successof the chain has been due to  an  enterprising managment

and toattractive layout and display in the stores. It has  been

discoveredthat impulse buying accounts for almost 35 per cent of

the totalturn over of  the  stores. The  stores  are organized

completlyfor self-service and customers are encouraged to wander

aroundthe spaciously laid out stands. Special  free  gifts and

reducedprices are used to tempt customers into the  stores  and

theycan't stand the temptation.

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