Реферат: Personnel selection and choice

Personnel selection and choice

Part one

The hiring process is critical to acompany's success — the right employee helps the company

to reach its objectives but thewrong employee will cost the company a great deal in time,

money and energy. Furthermore, Arnold,Cooper and Robertson state ‘personnel selection

and assessment is probably the areawhere the biggest and most consistent contribution has

been made’ in work psychology.

To find the right person for aparticular occupation the employers have to formulate a job

description of such a job. In mostcircumstances, especially in the small companies, where

there is only one leader who managesthe process of personnel selection, this aspect is

apparently linked with the manager’spersonal qualities. In addition, from the job description

that the employer gives, we can makea brief description of the company’s profile, which

consecutively points to the managingbody’s personal qualities and characteristic.

‘An accountant’s, secretary’s orproduction manager’s job will vary considerably from one

organisation to another, perhaps inthe ways that are crucial’ (Arnold, Cooper and Robertson.


When considering how the director’spersonality characteristics influence the organisation’s

behaviour and accordingly the jobanalysis or opportunity offered, it should be stressed that

in the process of recruiting,employers try to attract individuals with the same qualities as

the whole group. However, Arnold,Cooper and Robertson (1998) state: ‘Job analysis

procedures are generally eitherworker-orientated or job-orientated’ According to this, it

is clear that for different jobpositions the managers have to implement different practices.

It emerged our experience ofrole-playing in the group that we all gave different job

descriptions for the same job withinthe same company, from which we can conclude that

different individuals perceive

the same team with slightdifferences and believe the company to be looking for different individuals

to fill their vacancies, accordingto their needs. In addition, from my point of view, these correlations

have a direct and indirect link withthe psychological preferences examined more detailed by Carl

Gustav Jung (1875-1961) and with thedifferent styles of the leadership considered by Michael

Argyle (1964) – Democratic leadershipand Aristocratic leadership.

Nevertheless, we all needindividuals who will fit in with our groups, as ‘effective teamwork is

essential when targets are to beachieved’ (Mullins 1999). Moreover, Mears and Voehl (1997) state

that ‘Teams and groups are anessential component of life, be that an organisational life or a personal

life. An individual cannot possiblyperform all tasks that are required of them. Therefore, groups

are essential in sharing theworkload and in gaining results.’ Accordingly, ‘groups have to work

together to become a cohesive unitthat combines individual’s strengths and weaknesses to achieve

an optimum working level’ (Mears andVoehl 1997). Therefore, if group is not organised well or

there is a missing link in the chainof the organisation, indicating that a person does not fit in, the

leader of the team and the team aswell might not achieve the expected results or even cause the

whole system to collapse. Belbin(1926) rightly states — ‘Teamwork does not of course, guarantee

in itself good results. As in sport,there can be good teams and poor teams. And as in sport, it all

depends on how the players playtogether.’

In conclusion it is necessary toindicate that team leaders, when trying to recruit staff consider

carefully who to employ in thatsense that the new personality may bring to the company prosperity,

or, conversely, have a destructiveinfluence on the whole organisation depending on how that person

‘fits in’. This all in all, seems tobe a fundamental part of the selection process not only for the

managing body, but for the wholeorganisation as well.

Part two

‘The character of socialorganisations, and of society as a whole, is greatly affected by the

way people are selected to filldifferent positions. If a firm starts to choose a different kind

of person to occupy the seniorposts, the whole atmosphere and character of the firm will

change in a few years’ (MichaelArgyle, 1964). Therefore, the entire process of selecting

new members for an organisation needto be quite sophisticated, as has been well defined

by Arnold, Cooper and Robertson(1998) beginning from the interviews and ending with

handwriting analysis. Sometimes asingle method is used in the process of personnel selection;

at other hand, depending on thecompany’s needs and on the seniority of the job position

available, a variety of methods areused. However, as Arnold, Cooper and Robertson (1998)

state, ‘Although a large variety ofpersonnel selection procedures have been developed and

used in organisational settings, therelevant research shows rather clearly that not all of the

methods are equally useful.’

Moreover, nowadays is increasinglypopular the interview within organisations trying to

recruit new candidates. It isevident that in most cases the interview process has priority

over all other ways of selection(from the small groups to large organisations) for the reason

that ‘If a person has to communicatesomething to another and recognises that his aim in

communication is not just to expresshimself but to give information in a way that the

receiver is most likely tounderstand he is likely to do it more effectively.’ Peter R. Day


Before the process of the interview,some factors must be considered: Where to interview,

when to interview, group orindividual interviewing? – These can be quite critical, but

different situation requiredifferent approaches. From our role playing experience it was

clear that, when interviewing out ofearshot of an audience, individuals were more likely

to discuss freely than in groups. Asa result, Confidentiality is an important element in a

successful interview and in findingout more about a person.

Turning to the advantages anddisadvantages of the interview, I would like to stress some

frequently encountered issues.Employment decisions have traditionally been regarded as

a privilege exclusive to management.Torrington and Hall, (1991) describe this process in

terms of 'hurdles over whichprospective employees have to try to leap to avoid rejection'.

Clearly, it is evident that in theinterviewing procedure, a candidate sometimes tries to adapt

himself/herself to theinterviewer(s) and may not react honestly. For this reason, there are

‘Psychometric tests’ (Arnold, Cooperand Robertson, 1998), where the candidate may be

low certain which answer is suitablefor the employer.

Furthermore, interviews frequentlyhave another element, well described in one sentence

by Keenan (1977) — ‘interviewersassess candidates more favourably if they hold similar

attitudes’. This is good because ithelps the interviewer to decide whether that person will

fit in the team, on the other handnot all people with the same attitudes can define the

requisite competencies (knowledge,skills, aptitudes and personal characteristics). Equally,

friendliness and likeability may bepleasant characteristics, but may not be important to

success in some jobs. Returning tothe experience from the role-play it was obvious that

some of us would select the individualswho had the same attitudes and interests despite the

fact that these people may have hadinappropriate skills. This may possibly affect in a

negative way a successful outcome ofthe interview, which has a key purpose to distinguish

the individual who can success thejob.

In continuation, perhaps it isnecessary to devote some attention to the types of the interviews:

Structured and Unstructured. Both havepriorities and deficiencies between them. If to

considerate the unstructured type ofthe interviews, which is wide used in the organization’s

recruitingpractice, moreover was also evident from the role-play experienced, possibly we

maystate that it has inevitable tendencies to deviate from the planned way ofinterviewing.

Inaddition, it is also good to affirm that perhaps these tendencies are mainadvantages of

theinterview processes, as the interviewed persons may communicate usefulinformation


employer,which sometimes, cannot possibly be done so by the structured types of theinterviews

or byother types of the selection described by Arnold, Cooper and Robertson (1998).

Anotherpoint that may be stressed, relating perhaps to one of the disadvantages of theinterviews

isthe stereotyping and discrimination, which persist to be presentin the people’s psychology and

oftencould bring to the company ineffective outcome of the interview if these arereflected quite

strongin the interviewer, as people have the ability to make an impression of theperson from the

firstsight, which sometimes may be wrong.

Furthermore,quoting Michael Argyle (1964) ‘Selection for management and leadership was

traditionallydone by interview, together with study of previous performance’ and subscribingto

thisopinion, based on our experience of role-play where was obvious that questionsformulated by

theinterviewers were less or more tangible with finding out the previousexperience of candidates,

itcould be stated that the interview processes are a crucial element in theselection of a candidate.

Moreover,interviews possibly in comparison to the other ways of selection may have thehighest

predictionpercent in detection which person will ‘fit in’.



Arnold,J., Cooper, C.L. and Robertson, I. T., (1998): Work Psychology-Understanding Human

Behaviourin the Workplace. FT/Pitman Publishing.

Mears,P. and Voehl, F., (1997): Team Building – A Structured Learning Approach.St. Lucie Press.

MichaelArgyle, (1964). Psychology and Social Problems. Methuen & Co LTD,London.

PeterR. Day, (1977). Methods of Learning Communication Skills. PergamonPress, Oxford.

Torrington,D. and Hall, L., (1991): Personnel Management — A New Approach. London:Prentice


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