Реферат: Mass Media in England

The media play a central role in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>’s dailylife, informing and educating, questioning and challenging – and of course –entertaining. In recent years the availability of more radio frequencies,together with satellite, cable and microwave transmissions, has already made agreater number of local, national and international services possible. Thetransition from analogue to digital transmission technology is now expandingthis capacity enormously. The Internet is providing, increasingly, an additionalmedium for information, entertainment and communication.

Televisionand Radio

Broadcasting in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region> has traditionally beenbased on the principle that it is a public service accountable to people. Whileretaining the essential public service element, it now also embraces theprinciples of competition and choice:

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the BBC(BritishBroadcasting Corporation), which broadcasts television and radio programmes;

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the ITC(IndependentTelevision Commission),whichlicenses and regulates commercial television services, including cable andsatellite services.

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the Radio Authority, whichlicenses and regulates commercial radio services, including cable andsatellite.

 The three bodies work to broad requirementsand objectives defined and endorsed by Parliament, but are otherwiseindependent in their daily conduct of business.  

Television viewing is by far <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>’s mostpopular leisure pastime: over 97 per cent of households have at least one TVset. British television productions are sold world – wide.




The BBC provides two complementary nationalterrestrial television networks: BBC 1 and BBC 2, which transmit 24 hours aday. It also provides a range of digital channels, including BBC News 24 andBBC Choice. BBC Network Radio serves an audience of 29 each week, transmitting24 hours a day on its five national networks. BBC has 39 local radio stationsserving <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>and the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Channel Islands</st1:place>, and regional andcommunity radio services in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:place></st1:country-region>,<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Wales</st1:place></st1:country-region>and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Northern Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region>.BBCWorld Service broadcasts by radio in English and 42 other languages world –wide. It has a global weekly audience of at least 140 million listeners. BBCWorldwide Television is responsible for the BBC’s commercial televisionactivity. It is one of <st1:place w:st=«on»>Europe</st1:place>’s largestexporters of television programmes. It also runs an advertiser – funded, 24 – hourinternational news and information channel; and an entertainment and dramachannel broadcast to subscribers in continental <st1:place w:st=«on»>Europe</st1:place>and <st1:place w:st=«on»>Africa</st1:place>.

The BBC’s domestic services are financed predominantlyfrom the sale of annual television licences; there are no paid advertisements.BBC World Service radio is funded by a government grant, while BBC WorldwideTelevision is self – financing.


        The ITClicenses and regulates three commercial television services – Channel 3 andChannel 4 (in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Wales</st1:place></st1:country-region>the corresponding service is S4C), which complement each other, and Channel 5 –all financed by advertising and sponsorship. Channel 3 programmes are suppliedby 15 regionally based licensees and an additional licensee providing anational breakfast – time service. Licences for Channel 3 and 5 are awarded fora ten – year period by competitive tender to the highest bidder who has passeda quality threshold.


          Independent radio programme companiesoperate under licence to the Radio Authority and are financed mainly byadvertising revenue. There are three independent national services: Classic FM,broadcasting mainly classical music; Virgin 1215, playing broad – based rockmusic; and Talk Radio UK, speech – based service. About 200 independent localradio services are also in operation. Stations supply local news andinformation, sport, music and other entertainment, education and consumeradvice.

Teletext,Cable and Satellite Services

        The BBCand independent television both operate a Teletext service, under whichinformation is displayed as “pages” of text and graphics on receivers equippedwith the necessary decoders.

          Cable services are delivered throughunderground cables and are paid for subscription. Cable franchises have beengranted covering areas comprising 83 per cent of all homes and nearly all urbanareas in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>.In mid – 1999 there were about 12.1 million homes able to receive such services,and 3 million subscribing homes. Digital technology is being introduced whichwill support up to 500 television channels. Cable also has the capacity forcomputer – based interactive services, such as home shopping and email.

           Many British – based satellitetelevision channels have been set up to supply programmes to cable operatorsand viewers with satellite dishes. Some offer general entertainment, whileothers concentrate on specific areas of interest, such as sport, music,children’s programmes and feature films. The largest satellite programmer isBSkyB (British Sky Broadcasting) which, with around 7 million subscribers,dominates paid – for television in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>. It launched its digitalsatellite service in 1998, carrying more than 140 channels.

            Satellite television and cableservices are funded mainly by subscription income.


National newspapers have an average total circulationof over 13 million on weekdays and about 14 million on Sundays, although thetotal readership is considerably greater. There are 10 national morning dailypapers and 10 national Sundays – five “qualities”, two “mid – market” and three“populars”. There are about 1,350 regional and local newspapers, and over 7,000periodical publications.

There is no state control or censorship of thenewspaper and periodical press, which caters for a range of political views,interests and level of education. Where they express pronounced views and showobvious political leanings in their editorial comments, these may derive fromproprietorial and other non – party influences.

A non – statutory Press Complaints Commission dealswith complaints by members of the public about the content and conduct ofnewspapers and magazines, and advises editors and journalists. In 1995, theGovernment rejected proposals for statutory regulation of the press and forlegislation to give protection to privacy. Instead, it endorsed self –regulation under the Commission and recommended tougher measures to make self –regulation more effective.

Working practices throughout the newspaper industryhave become more efficient with the widespread used of advanced computer –based technology. Publishers have been able to reduce production costs by usingcomputer systems for editing and production processes.     


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