Реферат: Топики по Англ. языку

Educational System in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region>.

I think that education is a key to a good future.

<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region>has always shown agreat concern for education. The right to education is stated in the Constitutionof the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russian Federation</st1:place></st1:country-region>.It is ensured by compulsory secondary schools, vocational schools, and highereducation establishments. It is also ensured by the development of extramuraland evening courses.

Russian children begin to go to school when they are 7. Education iscompulsory up to the 9th form inclusive. If a pupil of secondaryschool wishes to go on Higher education, he or she must stay at school for twomore years. Every school has a number of general subjects such as Russian,Literature, Mathematics, History, a foreign language and others. Some privateschools, Lyceums and gymnasiums offer special programs giving a profoundknowledge in some fields of study.

After finishing the 9th form one can go on to a vocationalschool which offers a programme of training in a technical field, or aprofession.

After finishing the 11th form of a secondary school, a lyceumor a gymnasium one can go on in higher education. All applicants must takecompetitive examinations. Higher education establishments, which are institutesor universities, offer 5-year programme of academic subjects for undergraduatesin a variety of fields, as well as a graduate course. If one finishes agraduate course and writes a thesis, he or she receives a candidate’s or adoctoral degree.

The system of secondary and higher education in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region> is goingthrough a transitional period. The main objectives of the reform are: to decentralizethe higher education system, to develop a new financial mechanism, to give moreacademic freedoms to faculties and students. All secondary schools, institutesand universities until recently have been funded by the state. Now there is anumber of private fee-paying schools and some universities have fee-payingdepartments.

Today Russian education is one of the best in the world. But I thinkthat if our educational system wouldn’t be changed in the nearest future wewill lose this place.

Higher Education in the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>U.K.</st1:place></st1:country-region>

I think that education is a key to a good future. And universities arethe main step on the education-way.

There are more than 60 universities in the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>U.K.</st1:place></st1:country-region> The leading universities are <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Cambridge</st1:place></st1:City>, <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Oxford</st1:place></st1:City> and <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>. Englishuniversities differ from each other in traditions, general organization,internal government, etc.

British universities are comparatively small; there are about 7 thousandsof students. And most universities have fewer than 3000 of students. <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City> and <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Oxford</st1:place></st1:City> universities areinternational, because people from many parts of the world come to study at oneof their colleges. A number of well-known scientists and writers, such as <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Newton</st1:place></st1:City>, <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Darwin</st1:place></st1:City>, Byron and others were educated in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Cambridge</st1:place></st1:City>.

A university consists of a number of departments: art, law, music,economy, education, medicine, engineering, etc. After three years of study astudent may proceed to a Bachelor's degree, and later to the degrees of Masterand Doctor.

Besides universities there are about 300 of technical colleges,providing part-time and full-time education.

The organization system of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Oxford</st1:place></st1:City>and <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Cambridge</st1:place></st1:City>differs from other universities and colleges. The teachers are usually calledDons. Teaching is carried out by tutorial system. Each student goes to histutor's room once a week to read and discuss an essay which the student has prepared.Some students get scholarship but the number of these students is comparativelysmall.

There are many societies and clubs at <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Cambridge</st1:place></st1:City> and <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Oxford</st1:place></st1:City>. The most celebrating at <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Cambridge</st1:place></st1:City> is the DebatingSociety at which students discuss political and other questions with famouspoliticians and writers.

It should be mentioned that not many children from the working-classfamilies are able to receive the higher education as the fees are very high. Andthere are special fees taken for books, for laboratory works, exams and so on.

Recycling is theurgent problem of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Novosibirsk</st1:place></st1:City>.

That the problem of pollution and ecology has becomethe most important one for mankind is evident to all. The more civilization isdeveloping, the greater the ecological problems are becoming.

The problem of recycling attracts the great attentionof society.

It’s very actually today. Only in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Novosibirsk</st1:place></st1:City> we have more than 1.5 millioncubic meters of trash in a year.

Today we only have one glass-recycling plant. And wehaven’t any trash-recycling plants in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Novosibirsk</st1:place></st1:City>.It isn’t good of course. Streets are dirty and there are many waste places inour city. Unrecycled trash is burnt by people. Itmakes smog that is very bad for ecology.

As the government says a trash-recycling plant isgoing to be built in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Novosibirsk</st1:place></st1:City>in the nearest two years. It will be invested by the private company.

Well, I think it’s strange that local powers aren’table to do this for our city and people have to do it themselves. But at thesame time it’s good.

We see that <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Novosibirsk</st1:place></st1:City>is a city with very bad ecology. And we shouldn’t think that our governmentwill improve this situation for us. Everybody must do everything he can toprotect our environment. All society as a whole must fight against pollution.

We must get more knowledge about environment. We mustlearn how to make new products from old things. There are some charitable fundswhere you can invest your money if you want to do something.

Novosibirsk State TechnicalUniversity

<st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Novosibirsk</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>State</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>technical University, foundedin 1953, gained its status of a technical University in 1992. It is one of thetop ten technical universities in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region>, and a large scientific andeducational centre of <st1:place w:st=«on»>Siberia</st1:place>.

NSTU trains specialists and offers additional training in 35 areas and10 faculties: Automation and Computer Engineering; Applied Mathematics and Informatics;Automated Electromechanical Systems; Automated Machine Building; Aircraft;Business; Power Engineering; and Humanities.

The period of study is 4-6 years depending on the qualification asfollows: Bachelor of Science 4 years; Engineer 5 years; Master of Science 6years. Students are awarded M.Sc. degree inEngineering after defending their Master’s theses in the corresponding fieldsof study. Postgraduate students are offered a 3 year program of study andresearch leading to candidate of Science degree in Engineering.

The number of students at NSTU is about 10000. The number of academicstaff is about 1000. They work and study at 61 departments.

The students actively participate in all types of scientific research.The University publishes the journals, scientific works, textbooks, monographs,and teaching manuals.

The university participates in some international programs. It hasrelations with 12 Universities in <st1:place w:st=«on»>Europe</st1:place>, <st1:place w:st=«on»>Asia</st1:place> and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>America</st1:place></st1:country-region>.

The University has 8 teaching blocks. Its research laboratories areequipped with modern facilities. The campus includes 7 students’ hostels, asport centre with a swimming pool and sky centre. The University has sportscamps in the picturesque <st1:place w:st=«on»>Altai Mountains</st1:place> andin suburbs of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Novosibirsk</st1:place></st1:City>.

The rector of the University is Professor Anatoly S. Vostricov.He took office in 1990. He continues the tradition began by Professor Georgi P. Lyshchinsky, to keepthe University on the leading edge, a place where students and academic staffare justifiably proud to work and learn.

Faculty of Automation andComputer Engineering.

The Faculty of Automation and Computer Engineering is one of the largestNSTU faculties. The faculty was set up in 1963. It comprised three departmentsat that time. These were the Department of Automation and Teleautomaties;Electric Metering Technology; and Mathematical and Calculating Machine and Devices.

Since 1994 the Faculty has been located in the seventh teaching block,being the only faculty occupying separate building.

At present the faculty comprises six major departments awarding degrees.These are the following ones: Department of Automation; Department of AutomatedControl System; Department of Computer Engineering and others.

Students are given an opportunity not only to obtain the most up-to-dateknowledge in the area chosen, but also to carry out research and participate inengineering developments. The Faculty has about 40 instructional and researchlaboratories and computer classrooms.

The Faculty offers multi-level system of training awarding Bachelor’s,Master’s and Engineer’s degrees. The Bachelor degree is awarded after 4 yearsof study, Engineer’s degree after 5.5 years, and Master’s degree after sixyears of study.

Some departments give training in additional area expanding thestudent’s major field.

More than a 1000 students study at the Faculty. The number of teachingstaff is about 100 of teachers and professors.

Students acquire fundamental knowledge and practical training in variousfields of science and engineering. They actively participate in all types ofwork. There are a journal and some teaching manuals, published by the faculty.The dean of the faculty is Professor V.V. Gubarev.

As conclusion, I can say that I study at this faculty, and I’m reallyproud of this.


In the past, computers were used only in the workplace.  They were commonly used for mathematicalexplorations and innovations. The earliest computer was Babbage’s AnalyticEngine. Charles Babbage designed his Difference Engine in the nineteenth-centurybecause people were making many errors in calculations.

First computers were really huge. They occupied whole rooms. And manypeople were needed to work with them.

Modern computers are able to do great number of things, not only tocalculate. In today's society, computers are necessary.They are used in all kinds of jobs. They are used in Science, Math, Medicine,mechanics and so on.

We can’t imagine our life without computers. They havea respected place in the modern world. New generations are using them foreverything: to learn, to communicate, to do research, etc. And old generationshave become to accept them as well.

As a student of NSTU, I use computers every day both in my studying andin my personal life. They help me to relax when mystress is maximum. I can also find a lot of interesting and useful things byusing the internet. By using e-mail to communicate with my friends I save a lotof money because I don't need to make long distance calls.

Computers help me to make my life easier.

But on the other hand computers are dangerous forpeople. They are very bad for our eyes and nervous system. But in spite of thismillions of people use computers in their ordinary life. They can spend hoursand hours in front one of them.

I think my future profession will be connected withcomputers. At real I think that all professions in the nearest future will beconnected with them.

Alexander Bell

Alexander Bell never planned to be an inventor; he wanted to be amusician or a teacher of deaf people. The subjects that he studied at schoolincluded music, art, literature, Latin and Greek. They did not include Germanwhich all scientists used in their books. Alexander’s mother was a painter anda musician. His father was a well-known teacher of deaf people.

When Alexander was only sixteen, he became a teacher in boy’s school in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:place></st1:country-region>. Heliked teaching there, but he still wanted to become a teacher of deaf people ashis father.

At twenty five Alexander became interested in finding a way to sendhuman voice through an electric wire. The parents of his pupils invested moneyfor the equipment. He found an assistant, Tom Watson, who worked in anelectrical shop. For two years Tom and Alexander were working together to builda machine that people could use to talk to one another over long distances. Oneday, when they were working on a new transmitter Alexander spilled some acid onhimself. Tom Watson, who was alone in another room, heard a voice. The voicewas coming through a wire on the table. It was Alexander’s voice.

The first telephone line was built in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Germany</st1:place></st1:country-region> in 1877. Then a telephonelines were opened in the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United States</st1:place></st1:country-region>.  First telephones were big. And the distance oftalking wasn’t very long.

Now there are such great inventions as mobile and video telephones. Andyou can speak with your friend from any part of the world.

Who knows, may be in the future telephones will transmit smells andfeelings.

<st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Novosibirsk</st1:place></st1:City>.

Today, <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Novosibirsk</st1:place></st1:City>is the 4th large city in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region> by population and the thirdlarge by area. The city is divided into 10 districts, 2 of which are situatedon the left and 8 – on the right bank of the Ob River.

<st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Novosibirsk</st1:place></st1:City>was born in thepoint of intersection of the mighty Siberian River Ob and Trans-Siberian Railwayin 1893. It was called Novonikolaevsk those days. Thegod-father of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Novosibirsk</st1:place></st1:City>was famous Russian engineer Garin-Mikhaylovsky, whoselected a place for the construction of the railway bridge across the ObRiver.

The city was developing at a super fast rate of growth. In the twentiesit became the centre of new administrative formation – the vast Siberian territory.

Today, <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Novosibirsk</st1:place></st1:City>is an important industrial, cultural and educational centre.

The city’s rich cultural life includes the world-class Opera and Ballettheatre, the Conservatoire of Music, more than a 100 libraries, museums and soon. Novosibirsk Picture Gallery is one of the finest and valuable in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region>.

The city is also home to The State and Public and Scientific andTechnical Library that celebrated its 80th anniversary in 1998.

<st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Novosibirsk</st1:place></st1:City>is also ascientific centre. Academgorodok, the township of theSiberian branch of <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Russian</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Academy</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> of Sciences isfamous throughout the world. It was founded by the Academy in the 1950’s in apicturesque place near the Ob Sea. Today a number of research institutes,laboratories, schools and <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Novosibirsk</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>State</st1:PlaceType> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>University</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>are situated there.

The 2nd half of the 1980s is a very remarkable time period inthe history of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Novosibirsk</st1:place></st1:City>.That is when a metro was built in the city. Today its passenger turnover is the3d in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region>.

As conclusion, I can say that I live in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Novosibirsk</st1:place></st1:City>. I love my city. And I’m veryproud of it.

Attributes of aGood Employee

Sadly, most people don't realize how valuable and rare a good employeeis, nor how good it is to be one themselves, until they own their own businessor are in charge of their own employees.

First, it is important to have a fundamental information about theproduct of your company or group. You have to use the product yourself.

Second, you need a real interest in discussion with customers about howthey use your product, what they like or don’t like in order to know where yourcompany’s product could be better.

Third, once you understand your customer’s needs, you have to enjoythinking through how this product can make work more interesting.

These first three points are related. Success comes from understandingand caring deeply about your products, your technology and your customers’needs.

Fourth, you as an individual employee should developyour own skills and those of the people you work with. If maximizing your nextbonus or salary increase is all that motivates you, you will lose out.

Fifth, you need to have specialized knowledge orskills. Big companies, in particular, need employees who can learn specialtiesquickly, so a willingness to learn is critical.

Sixth, a good employee will want to learn theeconomics of the business. And a company, in turn, should educate its employeesin the fundamental financial realities of its industry.

Seventh, you must focus on competitors, you must thinkabout what is going on in the marketplace.

Finally, being a good employee means being a good person. You should bepatient, attentive, courteous and reliable. Good companies know that thosevalues cannot be learned in any college, or on the job training. They must bewithin you before you work for them and not only are they the most valuedcharacteristics to find in an employee, they are also the most rare.

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