Реферат: Английске тексты


1.   Production can be defined as the creation ofwealth which in turn, adds to society's welfare .It is a vital link in theprocess of satisfying wants; As man's wants are almost unlimited relative tothe resources available, it is important in production, then, that the limitedresources be used efficiently in order to create the maximum possible welfare.

2.  At a general level, all economies,irrespective of their organisation, face the same basis decisions of what, howand for whom to produce, subject to their production possibilities. In a mixedeconomy, such as the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United Kingdom</st1:place></st1:country-region>, some production decisions are leftto private enterprise and the market mechanism whilst others are takenby the government: the production by shoes for example, is the result of thedecisions of private firms, where as the quantity of hospital services ormilitary tanks produced is the result of political decisions.

3. Thefirm and its   The total level ofoutput in an economy is of objective     course, the sum of the outputs of all the individual firms. It isimportant at the outset, therefore, to explain what is meant by a firm

and toconsider some of the main factors which motivates firms to produce goods andservices.

4.Definition:A, firmis a decision-making production unit which transforms resources into goods andservices which are ultimately bought by customers, the government andother firms.

5.Traditional economic theory has assumed that the typical firm has a singleobjective-to maximise its profit. No distinction is drawn between theobjective of a comer-store proprietor and that of the largest firm. Themodern theories of the firm, however, do acknowledge that firms may -have otherobjectives, such as sales-revenue maximisation or the maximisation ofmanagerial utility.

6. Typesof busi ness units. Consider now the legal status of the differant,

 types of firms in a western economy, such sothe <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United Kingdom</st1:place></st1:country-region>.

7. One-manbusiness. In terms of numbers, the one-man business (or soleproprietorship) is the most common type of firm. Typically it

is a small-scaleoperation employing the moat a handful of people. The proprietor himself isnormally in charge of the operation of the business, with the effect that he islikely to be highly motivated as he benefits directly from any increasein profits. As the one-man business is small it can provide a personal serviceto its customers and can respond flexibly to the requirements of the market.Decisions can be taken quickly as the owner does not have to consult with anydirectors.

8.    Disadvantages associated with a one-manbusiness are that the owner cannot specialise in particular functions but mustJack-of-all trades, and the finance available for the expansion of the businessis limited to that which the owner himself can raise. An even biggerdisadvantage is perhaps that there is no legal distinction between the ownerand his business: The owner has, therefore, unlimited liability for any debtsincurred by the business, so that in the eventually bankruptcy allhis assets (for example his house and car) are liable to seizure.

9 One-manbusiness as are common in retailing, fanning, building and personalservices, such as hairdressing.

10 PARTNERSHIP.The logical progression from a one-man business is to a partnership. Anordinary partnership contains from two to twenty partners. The main advantagesover a one-man business are that more finance is likely to be available theinflux of partners, and that each partner may specialise to some extent (forexample, the marketing, production or personnel functions). The majordisadvantage, once again, is that of unlimited liability. As each partner isable to commit the other partners to agreements entered into, all of the othersmay suffer from the errors of one unreliable or foolhardy partner.

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I I   Partnerships are oftcn found in theprofessions-for example, among doctors, dentist, solicitors and architects,Ultimately, the upper limit on the number of partners is likely to restrict theamount of finance available to the partnership and so place a limit onits growth. This, together with disadvantage of unlimited liability, means thatmany growing business eventually form joint-stock companies.

12. JOINT-STOCKCOMPANY, the Joint-stock company with limited liability developed inthe second halt of the nineteenth century. It helped to promote the developmentof large companies by providing a relatively safe vehicle for investmentin industry and commerce by a wide cross-section of the community. Theliability of the shareholders is limited to the amount they have subscribedto the firm capital and each shareholder knows the extent of hispotential loss it the company goes bankrupt. So make informationavailable to potential shareholders, all joint-stock companies are required tofile annually with the Registrar of Companies details of their profits,turnover, assets and other relevant financial information, such as the remunerationof the directors.

<st1:metricconverter ProductID=«13. A» w:st=«on»>13. A</st1:metricconverter>joint-stock company can be either aprivate limited company or a public limited company. The shares of aprivate cannot be offered for sale to the public and thus are not tradedon the Stock Exchange .The shares cannot be transferred withoutthe consent of the other shareholders. Private companies require a minimum oftwo and a maximum of fifty shareholders (or members), though the upper limitmay be exceeded in the case of employees or former employees of the company.

14.   The shares of a PUBLIC company can beoffered for sale to the public. A public company requires as minimum of twoshareholders, but there is no upper limit. Shares are freelytransferable and the company is required to hold an annual general meetingwhere shareholders are able to question the directors, to change the company's articlesof association, to elect or dismiss the board of directors, to sanctionthe payment of dividends, to approve the choice auditors

and to fixtheir remuneration. In practice, attendance at annual general meetings is low,and normally the approval of the director's recommendations is a formality.

15.  Although only about 3% of companies arepublic companies, most large companies are public companies. Indeed, theyaccount for about two-thirds of the capital employed by all companies.

16. CO-OPERATIVES.In <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>the'United</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Kingdom</st1:PlaceType>consumer co-operatives have been successful since the first co-operative wasformed at <st1:place w:st=«on»>Rochdale</st1:place> in 1844. The movement,which comprises a familiar section of the retail trade, is based on consumer ownershipand control, al-though there is a professional management. In 1985 it wasreported that there were 8,5 members of retail co­operative societies inthe <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United Kingdom</st1:place></st1:country-region>.

17.   Producer co-operatives, on, the other hand,have not generally been successful and are not particularly significant in the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United Kingdom</st1:place></st1:country-region>.The recession of the early 1980s, however, led to an upsurge in the number ofproducer co-operatives. In many cases they sprang from on attempt by workers tocontinue production and to maintain jobs after a parent company haddecided to close or to sell a plant. This type of co-operative is sometimesreferred to as «phoenix co-operative». The Co-operative Developmentof producer co­operatives reported the existence of 911 producer co-operativeswith around 20000 members in <st1:metricconverter ProductID=«1984. In» w:st=«on»>1984. In</st1:metricconverter> some other countries of the EEC, such as <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>France</st1:country-region> and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Spain</st1:country-region>,producer co-operatives are of more significance than in the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United Kingdom</st1:place></st1:country-region>.

18. PUBLICCORPORATION. The public corporation is the form of enterprise thathas developed in the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United Kingdom</st1:place></st1:country-region> for those areas where the governmenthas decided to place production in the hands of the state. Whilst there areearly examples of the formation of public corporation, such as the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Port</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>London Authority</st1:PlaceName></st1:place> (1909) and the BritishBroadcasting Corporation (1927),Boat were formed in the period of the post-warLabour government of 1945-51. The


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government appointsthe chairman and the board of directors which is responsible to a minister ofthe Crown for full filing the statutory requirements for the public corporationaid down by Parliament. The minister is supposed not to concern himself withthe day-to-day running the company.

19. Recentgovernment policy has been to return state-owned enterprises to theprivate sector. Privatisation is the word used when the ownership of a state-ownedasset is transferred to private individuals or companies.

20.Examples of privatisation include the sale of British Aerospace (51% sold in1981 and 49% 1985) and of British Telecom (51% sold in 1984).

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                                Effective Communication

Effectivecommunication is absolutely crucial to good management. You can't get the bestout of people unless you can communicate effectively with them, and they withyou.

It seemseasy enough. All you have to do is to tell your subordinate what you want himto do, and he gate on with it. A few words of encouragement or criticism nay beneeded, but that's all there is to it. If only it were so simple. The managerhas to consider three forms of communication, any of which can cause himproblems if he is not careful. They are:

• oral

• written

•non-verbal communication.


Speakingdirectly to someone in person, by telephone or via a television link is themost common form of human communication. Oral communication is instantaneous,allows great flexibility, and permits sentiment to be combined with anintellectual message without difficulty. Effective oral communication dependson a number of factors which can't always be taken for granted. These are:

• language

• the styleused

• thesupporting signals


If amanager was asked to take charge of a group of Chinese workers he wouldprobably expect to have a language problem since everyone knows that apparentlyidentical words can have very different meanings to people living in differentcountries. If, on the other hand, the group comprised his own countrymen hewould assume a shared vocabulary. And terms of ordinary words he would beright. The problem is that management includes many complicated issues whichrequire the use of specialised words. If both parties don't share the samesense of what these words mean, the scope for misunderstanding is considerable.As a result the manager's intentions are often not fulfilled. This in turncauses him frustration and the employee confusion, and perhaps a sense of Injustice.

It is only technical or abstruse languagewhich causes the problems; It can just easily happen with what would otherwiseseem commonplace words. Any new manager has to take particular care to explainhis meaning since his predecessor might well have used words in different nay.Some examples serve to illustrate the point. The interpretations are not meantto be typical-only what can happen.

What the manager says

What he means

What the employee may think he means

If you have the time

I want you to do it right away

You have the choice

Finish it this evening

Even if you have stay late

You have until 5.30

I'm disappointed with your work

You've got to improve or you're fired

This is friendly hint

We shall certainly bear in

You're in the running

You've got the job

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We shall have to let you go

You're fired

Take you time to look around

The list ofopportunities for misunderstandly becomes immeasurably longer when meetings areinvolved. Managers addressing a group of staff mixed by seniority, age and sexhave no tiptoe through a potential minefield of confusion. If the issues areones of personnel management, for example, organisation, pay scales, workingpractices or whatever, they should take great care the words they use.

Imaginesuch a meeting. The manager says: «I think we could be more efficient ifwe combined order checking with computer logging so I've decided to transferStan and Susan to Michael's section. I've asked Mike to join the executivecommittee and he'll take responsibility for liaison with the factory...

By saying,»we could more efficient", does he really mean that it's a shamblesat the moment? If so the staff presently involved may well find it less thangratifying. The manager's decision to transfer Stan and Susan sounds like adirective which doesn't involve any sort of consultation. This may or may notbe true, but the opportunity for misunderstanding is there. Mike's joining theexecutive sounds like good news. The likely hood is that the staff are eitherunsure about what its powers are or who is on it anyway. What does liaison withthe factory entail? Was someone already doing the gob who has been given theelbow? And soon and so forth.

Thingsoften get worse when question are asked the questioner may use«insider» language which underlines his relationship with themanager. For example, «Isn't the same trouble we had with Frank Barnes? Noone else has a clue who he was and the Manager has either to ask the questionerto explain what be means or pass on quickly leaving an air of mystery in hiswake. Quest oners often use meetings to make implicit political points aboutthe organisation

and theirown position within it. Some use the opportunity to score points off themanager, if he allows it.

Whether themeeting is face to face or in a group .the manager has to bear three principlesin mind:

• he shouldalways be prepared to explain what he means if he has any reason to suspectthat he's being misunderstood ;

• He shouldalways be in control of the communications process when dealing withsubordinates and determine the vocabulary to be used ;

• he shouldstrive to make his own use of language as clear and

unequivocalas possible. Telephone calls. .These too can hold pitfalls because;

• you don'tknow what the other person is doing (or who he is with);

• you can'tsee his facial expression;

• it's veryeasy to mishear what he has said. There are few things worse than givinginstructions on a conference phone. Not only is the voice disembodied, but theperson receiving the call will suspect that is being overhead. This discouragesopen response and mumbled ascent is often the only reaction the callerreceives. Obviously, a good deal of man management is conducted on thetelephone. Here are some simple rules which is sound for a manager to follow :

• Befriendly-the recipient doesn't know if you're pleased or angry with him at hisease straight way;

• Bedear-explain the purpose of your call including your Instructions (if there areany) before asking for comment. This gives the recipient, time to assimilatethe whole message end not waste time by disgracing.

• Confirmthat the message is understood-this la essential because words become garbledvery easily. „Offer them 15 per cent discount“ can easily become»offer them 50 per cent discount".


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• Listencarefully to the recipient's comments-ask for them to be repeated if youhaven't wholly understood them.

• Closecheerfully-however miserable you say feel your instructions are more likely tobe implemented it you are cheerful and encouraging...


Communicationin writing should have the advantage of clarity since the writer has theopportunity to marshal his facts, present the case and make a clearrecommendation.  Also several people canbe communicated with simultaneously, particularly in this age of electronicmailboxes and the fax machine.

In thecontext of man management, however, there are pitfalls which should be avoided.

Instructionscan often be given more clearly in writing then orally. Remember that therecipient lacks the opportunity to question the manager directly and it is veryeasy for a feeling of authoritarianism to creep in, «Give me an analysisof the Sales figures for May, broken down by product and customer type,»may be unequivocal, but it can sound like a military order and the employeereceiving the memorandum might be forgiven for assuming a crispness that wasunintended. Small organisations use fewer internal memo­randa to giveinstructions than large companies, and everyone probably benefits from thesmaller amount of paperwork and the greater informality involved. Itinstructions are given at a meeting, it is always good practice to confirm themain points in writing afterwards, whatever the size of the organisation.Personnel Issues are also better dealt with orally with subsequent accurateconfirmation in writing. Pay rises, promotions, changes in job specificationsand the like, should not be communicated initially in writing, however good thenews for the employee. Face-to-face meetings reinforce the relationship withthe employee and should always be used.

Disciplinarymatters are sometimes dealt with inwritings because the

manager isreluctant to confront the employee. This practice is always wrong and will breedmisunderstanding and resentment. It is even worse when the memorandum is copiedto others not directly concerned with the employee's welfare. If, for example,someone another part of the organisation, complains about an employee'sefficiency or behaviour it is tempting for the manager to kill two birds withone stone. A memo of apology copied to the employee may placate thecomplainant, but will, almost certainly infuriate the employee. If the managerneeds to respond to the complaint in writing he must see the employee first andideally show him the draft memorandum before sending if off. Notice boardsoffer a valuable means of keeping a team up to date will relevant personneldevelopments. The language used should, however, always be chosen with care. Forexample, a notice which simply says, «Joe Smith is leaving us after foryears service,» is doubtless factually correct, but offers endless scopefor different interpretations. Did he fall or was he pushed? Are they glad tosee the back of him or is he grieved over? The addition of the world«valuable» before «service» and phrase «and we wishhim well in his future career» could resolve all doubt. Copies of memosand letters should only be sent to those who have a relevant interest in thematter in hand. Sending a copy of a memo to recipient's superior «forinformation» is usually flagrant politicking and should be discouraged.Ease of copy-making unfortunately encouraging widening the audience for memoswell beyond the bounds of common sense. Since recipients often feel honourbound to keep the copies they receive, the real cost to the organisation can beenormous.

Letterswritten to employee should always conform to the style normally used by hismanager. Thus if the employee is «John» to him letters addressing himas «Dear Mr. Smith», «Dear Smith», or «Dear Sir»should always be avoided. It is part of the good manager's task to make surethat all of the good manager's task to make sure that all communications withemployee reinforce the organisations normal style, whether formal orinformal...

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Getting thebeat out of communication. The key component in all communication is the trustand understanding which is built up through face-to face conversations.Telephone conversations are necessary but less effective, and written   communications have many pitfalls for theunwary. The manager needs to use all three forms which skills which may notcome naturally to him. Training in interviewing. Charring meetings, effective speakingand effective writing is readily available.; Even in the smallest organisationsan investment in this branch of training is always soundly made.


Imagineyourself in a sales meeting with a client. As the client tells you how pleasedshe is with your products and how she plans to recommend an even largerpurchase this year than last ,you sense that something is wrong. Her voice ishigh-pitched and rapid and her eyes over yours focusing instead on theballpoint pen she is nervously checking on the desk. About a week after the meeting,she sends you a note, telling you that the entire deal is off. You aredisappointed but not surprised for you had understood the non-verbal messagesshe was sending at the meeting.

Accordingto Albert Mehrabian a leading authority on non-verbal communication, all ouremotional messages are communicated without words. We tell others what wereally feel through our facial expressions, eye, leg, hand, and torsomovements. We also communicate through the pitch, loudness, and cadence of ourvoice, the distance we maintain between ourselves and others in conversation,our clothing, and more. Since non-verbal communication can tell you what otherpeople are saying without their ever uttering a word, its importance inbusiness communication is obvious. Here are a few of the ways in whichnon-verbal messages can be sent and used:

• Even inbusiness meetings, the eyes can be the mirror of the soul. By averting yourgaze, you tell those around you that they are not getting


theirmessage across or that something negative is going on. If you choose instead tostare directly at a meeting participant, you will probably make the personextremely anxious. If you are in the midst of an argument the harder you starethe menacing you seem.

• Gestureswhich include the position and movement of the hands, feet, arms, legs, torso,and shoulders, communicate a variety of non-verbal messages. A handshake, forexample, often expresses a persons real feelings. A limp handshake is a sign ofreserve and lack of enthusiasm while a strong, powerful grip communicateconfidence.

• In adisagreement, you may find your boby turned away from the person with whom youare arguing. If, on the other hand, you are on good terms with your businessassociate, you are more likely to directly face the person. Insecurity iscommunicated through the position of the arms and legs. If in a meeting youdiscover that your limbs are wrapped around you, try to analyse why you arenervous.

• As youspeak, keep in mind that the pitch, tone, loudness and rate of your voicecommunicate as much and sometimes more than your words, Rapid speech, forexample, may signal excitement or nervousness while hesitant speech mayindicate insecurity or doubt.

• The wayyou dress delivers an unmistakable message to those around you. If you chooseto wear jeans to a sales call on a conservative client, your chances of makingthe Bale are small.

Don't fallinto the trap of believing that an understanding of non-verbal communicationwill enable you to read every potertial buyer like a book. Our speechlessmessages are extremely compile, varying with the situation and culture we findourselves in and with particular personalities and habits. However, a workingknowledge of the nuances of body language wiil still provide you with aninvaluable business tool.

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It's Mondaymorning and Jim Anderson, a financial manager, is already behind schedule. Withthree phone calls waiting for him, a budget meeting at 10,a lunch date with asupplier, and an analysis of last quarter's due at 2. Jim is frantic. Hedoesn't know what to do first and worse yet, he knows that he'll never meet allhis deadlines.

Jim issuffering from a common problem plaguing manager-an inability to control andeffectively manage time. This problem which affects college students as well,can be minimised by following simple suggestions;

• Establishyour goals and set priorities. Make a list of your long-and short-termprojects. Look at the list regularly and revise at as needed. Arrange the listinto specific tasks. Then on start at the top of the list and get towork.(Don't upset it your priorities change by the hour. Just revise your listand get on with the work. Schedule your daily activities on an hour-by hourappointment calendar.

• Learn todelicate work. Then follow this procedure to make sure you get the result youwant. Give clear instructions on what you want done, make sure yourinstructions are understood, set a deadline, regularly check on the projectsprogress, and allow enough time to correct mistakes.

• Spendyour time on those activities that will yield the moat results. The PARETOPRINCIPLE of time management states that 80%, of your goals can be achieved in20% of your time if your work on those tasks that are critical to the completionof the overall project and avoid those contribute little to the outcome.

• Do yourmost important when you are at your best. Work on high-priority items when youare mentally alert and on low-priority items when your energy has ebbed.

• Groupyour activities. By reading all your mail and making all your phone calls atonce, you will make the most efficient use of your time.

• Learn howto held interruptions. Incoming phone calls, unscheduled visitors, and even themail can play havoc with your schedule. You can control these by having yoursectectary handle all but essential calls when you are working on an importanttask  by working in another office (noone will be able to find you), by   setting times when they cannot (except for emergencies), and by learning    how to deal with long-winded callers.

Interruptingyourself also wastes time. Instead of getting yet another    cup  of coffee or walking down the hall to chat with a friend, try to finishwhat you're doing, even if the job is difficult or unpleasant.

• Avoid thepaper shuffle. Try to handle every piece of paper on your desk only once.

• Avoidlong lunches when you are in a time crunch.

• Finally,give yourself the time you need to get the Job done. Time management is not thesane thing as time compression. Be realistic about the amount of working timeyou need to get an important job done and then schedule the rest of your dayaround it. By using these and other time management techniques, you will beginto fed in control of your schedule. The inevitable result will be greaterproductivity.


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DEVELOPMENT OF THE <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>U.S.</st1:place></st1:country-region> ECONOMY

I.I. The <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United States</st1:place></st1:country-region>has a fascinating business, history. Business has significantly influencedcustoms, politics and even family living. The historical development of the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>U.S.</st1:place></st1:country-region> economycontinues to effect the way of business operates today. Colonial Society.Colonial society was primary agricultural-built

on theproducts of its farms and plantations. The nations prosperity depended on thesuccess of its crops, and most people lived in rural areas. The cities-quitesmall in comparison to those of <st1:place w:st=«on»>Europe-</st1:place> werethe marketplaces and residences craft workers, traders, bankers and governmentofficials.

2. But thereal economics and political power of the nation was centered in rural areas.The population was tied to the land socially as well as well as economically.The colonies looked to <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>for manufactured products and capital with to finance infant industries.

3. Evenafter the Revolutionary war (1776-1783), the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>United States</st1:country-region> maintained close economic relations with <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>.Indeed, British investors provided much to the money needed to finance thedeveloping business system. This financial influence remained well into 19*century.

II. 4. The IndustrialRevolution. The industrial revolution occurred in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region> around1750. The traditional manufactured system of independed skilled workersindividually pursuing their specialities was replaced by a factory system thatmass-produced items by bringing together large numbers of semiskilled workers.

5. Thefactory system profited from savings that were created by large-scaleproduction. For example, row materials could often be purchased cheaper inlarge lots. Another savings came from the specialisation of labour; each workerconcentrated on one specific task. Production efficiency improved substantiallyand the factory system revolutionised business.

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6. Influenced by the events occurring in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>England</st1:country-region>, the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United States</st1:place></st1:country-region> soon began its marchtoward industrialisation. Agriculture became mechanised and factories sprang upeverywhere. But most business historians agree that real progress did not occuruntil railroads provided a fast, economical method of transporting the goodsproduced by business.

7. The American Industrial Revolution washighlighted by the rapid construction of railroad systems during the 1840s and1550s. Not only did the railroad provided the necessary transportation system,the also created the need for greater quantities of lumber, still, and realestate.

III. 8. The age of the entrepreneur. During the19th century business made sizeable advises in the U.S. Eli Whitneyintroduced the concept of interchangeable parts, an idea that would laterfacilitate mass production. Peddlers, the sales people of the day, operated throughoutthe country. Financiers became less depended upon <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>, and the banking systembetter established after some early problems. Investors created a virtuallyendless array of commercially usable products.

9. People were encouraged to take risks and tobecome entrepreneurs. Cornelius Vanderbilt, John D. Rockfeller, J.P. Morgan,and Andrew Carnegie -all became wealthy because of their willingness to takebusiness risks during this period. Admittedly, some people were hurt by thespeculation that characterised industry during the 1800s but, on balance, theentrepreneurial spirit of the age did much to advance the business system andraise the standard of living.

IV. 10. PRODUCTION ERA. The early part of the20th century — the production. era — was a period when businessmanagers concentrated almost solely on the firm's production tasks. Industrywas under considerable pressure to produce more and more to satisfy growingconsumer demand and to correct product shortages.

Work assignments became increasinglyspecialised. Assembly lines, such as the one introduced by Henry Ford, becamecommon. Owners turned over management responsibilities to a new class ofmanagers, who specialised in operating established businesses rather than instarting new ones.

Marketing tended to be viewed strictly asselling. Business did not yet accept disiplines like consumer research. Inother words, marketers were those individuals responsible for distributionafter the production function had been performed. Business was internallyoriented rather that consumer oriented.

V.ll. THE MARKETING CONCEPT. The post-World WarII era was influenced by an important new concept in management. The marketing concept,which became the prevalent business philosophy, advocated  that all activities and functions of theorganisation be directed toward the identification and satisfaction of consumerwants. Aconsumer orientation became the principal goal of companies.

12.  Business organisations throughout <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United States</st1:place></st1:country-region> formed marketingresearch departments to analyze what the consumer would buy before the companyproduced the item. This concept stood in marked contrast to the earlierphilosophy of producing a product then trying to sell it to the consumer.Advertising reached over larger numbers of consumers and increased theefficiency of firm's promotional affords. Today, firms must have a strongconsumer orientation if they are to remain competitive in the marketplace.

VI. 13. THE CURRENT BUSINESS ERA. Challengeafter Challenge has confronted business in recent years. Well-known firms likeWhickers and Continental Airlines have filed for bankruptcy. Concern over highnumbers of industrial accidents and illnesses has resulted in the passage offederal legislation regarding occupational safety and health. Financialscandals have touched off public demand. Millions of people have been shockedby the ecological reports of environmentalists. Higher fuel costs have madeenergy-saving programs priority items at managerial meetings.

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14. Thesechallenges have produced several noticeable trembles in the business world.Business has become more socially responsible; the social impact of a businessdecisions making. Business has become more conscious of its operating costs,particularly energy costs. More minorities and women porsue business carrierstoday. Management continues to struggle with the problem of predicting and thenreacting to new government regulations and requirements. Business has found newmarkets abroad — Some in Communist nations — but has encountered increasingcompetition from foreign producers at home writers may some day describe thecurrent business era as one of the most challenging for the private enterprisesystem.

ПРОИЗВОДСТВО<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

1. Производствоможет быть определено как создание богатства который в свою очередь, добавляетк благосостоянию общества. Это — жизненная связь в процессе удовлетворения,хочет; Поскольку человек хочет,  почтинеограничен относительно доступных ресурсов, это важно в производстве, тогда,что ограниченные ресурсы использоваться, эффективно, чтобы создать максимальноевозможное благосостояние.<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:RU">

2. На общем уровне, все экономика(экономия), независимо от ихорганизации, стоят перед теми же самыми решениями основания что, как и длятого, к произвести, подчиненный их возможностям производства. В смешаннойэкономике(экономии), типа Великобритании, некоторые решения производстваоставлены к частному предприятию и рыночному механизму, пока другие принятыправительством: производство ботинками например, является результатом решенийчастных фирм, где, поскольку количество услуг больницы или военныхпроизведенных резервуаров — результат политических решений.<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

3. Фирма и общий уровень производства в экономике(экономии) имеетобъективный курс, сумма продукций(выпусков) всех индивидуальных фирм. Это важнов начале, поэтому, объяснять, что предполагается фирмой<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

И рассматривать некоторых из главных факторов, который мотивирует фирмы,чтобы произвести товары и услуги.<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family: «Times New Roman»;color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

4. Определение: A, фирма — единица производства принятиярешения, которая преобразовывает ресурсы в товары и услуги, которые в конечномсчете куплены клиентами, правительством и другими фирмами.<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

5. Традиционная экономическая теория предположила, что типичная фирмаимеет единственный(отдельный) objective-to, максимизируют прибыль. Никакоеразличие не оттянуто между целью владельца comer-запаса и таковогосамой большой фирмы. Современные теории фирмы, однако, подтверждают, что фирмымогут иметь другие цели, типа максимизации дохода от сбыта или максимизацииуправленческой полезности.<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

6. Типы busiединиц мыса. Рассмотрите теперь правовой статус differant,<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

 Типы фирм в западнойэкономике(экономии), такой так Великобритания.<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family: «Times New Roman»;color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

7. Индивидуальный бизнес. В терминах номеров, индивидуальный бизнес (илифирма в индивидуальной особенности) — наиболее общий тип фирмы. Типично это<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

Является мелкосерийным действием, держащим на службе(использующим) ровгорстка людей. Владелец непосредственно — обычно на попечении действия бизнеса,с результатом(влиянием), что он, вероятно, будет высоко активен, поскольку он извлекает выгоду непосредственно излюбого увеличения в прибыли. Поскольку индивидуальный бизнес маленький, этоможет обеспечивать персональное обслуживание(службу) клиентам и может ответитьгибко на требования рынка. Решения могут быть приняты быстро, посколькувладелец не должен консультироваться с любыми директорами.<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

8. Неудобства, связанные с индивидуальным бизнесом — то, что владелец неможет специализироваться в специфических функциях, но должен, отрасли(продажи) Jack-of-all, и финансы, доступные для расширения бизнеса ограничены этим, котороевладелец непосредственно может поднимать. Даже большее неудобство — возможно,что не имеется никакого юридического(законного) различия между владельцем и егобизнесом: владелец имеет, поэтому, неограниченная ответственность за любыедолги, понесенные бизнесом, так, чтобы во в конечном счете банкротстве все егоавуары (например его торговый дом(дом) и автомобиль) подлежит конфискации.<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

9 Индивидуальных бизнеса как общий в розничной продаже, раздувании,здании и персональных услугах, типа hairdressing.<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

10 ТОВАРИЩЕСТВА. Логическая прогрессия от индивидуального бизнеса ктовариществу. Компания с неограниченной ответственностью содержит от два додвадцати партнеров. Главные преимущества по индивидуальному бизнесу состоят втом, что большее количество финансов, вероятно, будет доступно приток партнеров, и что каждый партнер можетспециализироваться до некоторой степени (например, маркетинг, производство илифункции персонала). Главное неудобство, еще раз, является таковымнеограниченной ответственности. Поскольку каждый партнер способенпередать(совершить) других партнеров соглашениям, введенным в, все другие могутстрадать от ошибок одного ненадежного или безрассудного партнера.<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

Я я, товарищества являются oftcn, найденным в professions-forпримере, среди докторов, дантиста, solicitorsи архитекторов, Вконечном счете, верхний предел колебания на числе партнеров, вероятно,  буду ограничивать сумму(количество) финансов,доступных товариществу и так место предел на росте. Это, вместе с неудобствомнеограниченной ответственности, означает, что много возрастающих бизнеса вконечном счете формирует акционерные компании.<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family: «Times New Roman»;color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

12. АКЦИОНЕРНАЯ КОМПАНИЯ, Акционерная компания с ограниченнойответственностью, развитой во второй остановке девятнадцатого столетия. Этопомогло продвигать развитие больших компаний, обеспечивая относительно безопасное транспортное средство для вклада впромышленность и торговлю широкой взаимной секцией объединения. Ответственностьакционеров ограничена суммой(количеством), которую они подписались наустойчивый капитал, и каждый акционер знает степень о его потенциальной потереэто,  компания идет банкрот. Так чтоделайте информацию доступной потенциальным акционерам, все акционерные компаниитребуются, чтобы регистрировать ежегодно с деталями Бюро по регистрацииакционерных компаний их прибыли, товарооборота, авуаров и другой уместнойфинансовой информации, типа вознаграждения директоров.<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

13. Акционерная компания может быть или частная ограниченная компания илиобщественность ограниченная компания. Акции частных нельзя предлагать дляпродажи общественности и таким образом не торгуется на Фондовой бирже. Акции немогут быть переданы(перемещены) без согласия других акционеров. Частныекомпании требуют минимума два и максимума пятьдесяти акционеров (или члены),хотя верхний предел колебания может быть превышен в случае служащих иливышеупомянутых(прежних) служащих компании.<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family: «Times New Roman»;color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

14. Акции АКЦИОНЕРНОГО ОБЩЕСТВА можно предлагать для продажиобщественности. Акционерное общество требует как минимум двух акционеров, но неимеется никакого верхнего предела колебания. Акции — свободно на предъявителя икомпания требуется, чтобы провести(держать) ежегодное общее собраниеакционеров, где акционеры способны подвергнуть сомнению директоров,изменять(заменять) статьи(издeлия) компании ассоциации, выбирать илиотклонить(увольнять) совет директоров, санкционировать оплату дивидендов,одобрять ревизоров выбора<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

И устанавливать их вознаграждение. Практически, обслуживание(посещаемость)в ежегодных общих собраниях акционеров низко, и обычно одобрение рекомендацийдиректора — формальность.<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

15. Хотя только приблизительно 3 % компаний — общественные компании,наиболее большие компании — общественные компании. Действительно, они составляютотносительно двум трети капитала, нанятого(используемого) всеми компаниями.<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

16. Кооперативы. В the'Unitedпотребителе Королевства Кооперативыбыли успешные, начиная с первый кооператив был сформирован в <st1:place w:st=«on»>Rochdale</st1:place>в 1844. Движение, которое включает знакомую секцию розничной продажи,является основанным на собственности потребителя и контроле(управлении), хотятам — профессиональное управление. В 1985 было сообщалось, что имелись 8,5членов розничных совместных(кооперативных) обществ в Великобритании.<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

17. Кооперативы Производителя, на, другая рука, вообще не были успешные ине особенно существенны в Великобритании. Спад начала 1980-ых, однако, вел кповышению в числе кооперативов производителя. В многих случаях они прыгали отна попытке рабочими, чтобы продолжить производство и сохранять рабочие местапосле того, как материнская компания решила закрывать или продавать завод. Этоттип кооператива иногда упоминается как " phoenixкооператив". Совместное(кооперативное) Развитие кооперативов производителя сообщилоо существовании 911 кооперативов производителя с вокруг 20000 членов в 1984. Внекоторых других странах ЕЭС, типа Франции и Испании, кооперативы производителяимеют большее количество значения чем в Великобритании.<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

18. ГОСУДАРСТВЕННАЯ КОРПОРАЦИЯ. Государственная корпорация — формапредприятия, которое развилось в Великобритании для тех областей, гдеправительство решило размещать производство в руки государства(состояния). Покаимеются ранние примеры формирования государственной корпорации, типа ПортаЛондонской Власти(полномочия) (1909) и британская Радиовещательная корпорация(1927), Лодка(теплоход) была сформирована в периоде послевоенного Трудовогоправительства 1945-51.<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">27

Правительство назначает председателя и совет директоров, который являетсяответственным министру Короны для полной регистрации требования установленныйзаконом для помощи государственной корпорации вниз Парламентом. Министр, какпредполагается, не интересуется ежедневным управлением компания.<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

19. Недавняя правительственная политика(полис) была должна возвратитьпринадлежащие государству предприятия частному сектору. Приватизация — используемое слово, когда собственность принадлежащего государствуфонда(актива) передана(перемещена) частным лицам или компаниям.<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

20. Примеры приватизации включают продажу Британского Космоса (51 %,продаваемый в 1981 и 1985 49 %) и Британской Телесвязи (51 %, продаваемый в1984).<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

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Действенная(эффективная) Связь<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:RU">

Действенная(эффективная) связь абсолютно критическая к хорошемууправлению. Вы не можете получать лучшее из людей, если Вы не можетесвязываться эффективно с ними, и ими с Вами.<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family: «Times New Roman»;color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

Это кажется достаточно легким. Все, что Вы должны делать, должны сообщитьвашему подчинять(подчиненный) то, что Вы хотите, чтобы он делал, и он ворота нас этим. Несколько слов поддержки или критики нет, быть необходимо, но это — все, что там(туда) к этому. Если только это было настолько просто. Менеджердолжен рассмотреть три формы связи, любая из которых может причинять емупроблемы, если он не осторожен. Они:<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family: «Times New Roman»;color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

• устный<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

• написанный<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

• не-устная связь.<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

Устная связь<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;layout-grid-mode:line">

Разговор непосредственно к кому — то лично, по телефону или черезтелевизионную связь — наиболее общая форма человеческой связи. Устная связьмгновенна, позволяет большую гибкость, и разрешает чувству быть объединенной синтеллектуальным сообщением без трудности. Действенная(эффекти

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