Реферат: The enviromental problems which concern the Mankind
The environmental problemswhich concern the Mankind.
I’m going to speak about some kindsof pollution, for example air pollution or acid rain, water pollution. Nowdifferent kinds of trees, many of the animals, birds, fish are in seriousdanger. What should government do to stop the polluting, nowadays?
First of all I would like to speakabout water pollution There is no ocean or sea which is not used as a dump.Many rivers and lakes are poisoned, too. Fish and reptiles can’t live in them.There is not enough oxygen in the water. It happens so because factories andplants produce a lot of waste and pour it into rivers. In the 1970s, many ofthe elm trees in Europe were killed by Dutch elm disease. Now an even greaterdanger is threatening the woods and forests of Europe. This new danger attacksall trees – deciduous trees like oak, beech, birch as well as coniferous treeslike fir and pine. First the branches turn yellow and brown. Then the tree’sneedles or leaves fall. The roots and the trunk shrink. Finally the tree die.But what is killing the trees. Nobody knows exactly but it is probably airpollution or acid rain. Factories, power stations, cars emit tons of smoke intothe air. This smoke contains sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. Thesesubstances mix with water vapour in the atmosphere and form sulfuric acid andnitric acid. Sunlight turns these acids into the poisonous oxidants which fallin rain or snow onto the trees. Unfortunately acid rain doesn’t always fall onthe countries which produce the pollution. The wind carries the poisonoussubstances from one country to another. In some parts of the world trees arethreatened by people. The great rain forests of Asia or South America are beingdestroyed for firewood and building material. Trees are important because theyprovide home for many other plants and animals. They provide food for insects,reptiles, birds and mammals. They protect the soil from the wind and rain. Itmay be that the medicines we need will be discovered in wild plants in savannas,deserts or rainforests. Most important of all Trees are the lungs of theplanet. If the trees die, we will too. Animals and birds are in danger too.Many of the animals are now extinct. The reason is a Man that killed animalsand destroys their habitats. We used a lot of electricity. Our house is full of electrical appliances. Using electricitydoesn’t cause the pollution, but making it does. There are many way to makeelectricity. For example, Nuclear Power Stations, HydroElectricPower Stations, Fossil Fuel Power Stations and some alternative means of energylike windmills and solar mirrors. They all have there advantages anddisadvantages. Nuclear Power Station doesn’t cause any pollution and it is veryeffective, but It has to be build and looked after very well, the used fuelneeds to be stored very carefully and it still give out the radiation.Hydroelectric Power Station also doesn’t cause any pollution and there is nofuel to pay for. But dams can cause flooding, it is expensive to build becauseit should be build up to very high standards. Fossil Fuel Power Station ischeap and the world has large stocks of fuel. It causes acid rain and a globalwarming effect. Alternative means of energy don’t cause any pollution, they arecheap and there is no fuel to pay for. But now they are not effective enoughand are very noisy. To produce much electricity you need to build a lot of them– it’s expensive. We need to choose cheap electricity and polluting theenvironment and expensive electricity but healthy life and clean environment.But what government can do with it? I think government can stop producingnuclear and chimic weapon, allocate more money tovarious environmental projects, use organic fertilizer, install purifyingsystems, plant and grow trees bushes and other greenery. Mass media should atrach people’s attention to environmental problems.
Everything I have already spokenabout it is only a small part of nowadays polluting the environment. Everyoneshould remembers when he kills a plant or animal he kills a part of himselfbecause everything in the world is interconnected. And people should to protectthe nature but not to kill it.