Реферат: The Khabarovsk territory


1.   Branches of the Economy

1.1 Fuel-PowerComplex


1.3 FerrousMetallurgy

1.4 CivilEngineering

2.   Transport and Communication

2.1 RailwayTransport

2.2 RiverTransport

2.3 MarineTransport

2.4 Air Transport

2.5 MotorTransport and Roads

2.6 Communication



            Fuel and Energy Complex

       The Territory produces 9,23 billion kWhrof electric power which

covers 95% of theTerritory's demand.The rest of the electric power

comes from theAmurskaya Region and the Primorski Territory since

the power systemof the Territory is integrated through Power Line

220-500 kW intothe Interconnected Power System of the East.

Practically allthe industrial centers of the Therritori in its southern and

near-northernparts are connected to the power network of the

InterconnectedPower System «Vostok-energo».Only Nikolaevsk heat

electricgeneration plant operates in an isolated mode. Separate

consumers in thenorthern areas of the Territory are supplied with

electric powerfrom the out-of-system small diesel power stations.

       The installed power of the 109 powerstation of the Territory are

nearly 2000 MW,95 % of which belongs to heat-electric generation

plants located inindustrial centres.

       The largest power stations in theTerritory are the Khabarovsk

Heat-ElectricGenerating Station -3 (HEGS-3) (540 MW), the

Khabarovsk HEGS-1 (462 MW), Amurskaya HEGS (285 MW) and

Komsomolsk-on-AmurHEGS -1 (275 MW) .

       At present the Urgal black coal depositis developed in the

Territory. Theproductivity of the Urgal mine amounts to 2,4 mln tons

of coal per year.Because of the specific features of using the coal mined,

and the establishedpractice of fuel supply, 70 % of the Urgal coal

output issupplied to Magadan and Sakhalin Regions. At the same time

up to 7 mln tonsof coal from Yakutiya, Transbaikal, Amurskaya and

other regions ofRussia are imported annually to the Therritory .

Natural gas forenergy needs and ferrous metallurgy of Komso -

molsk-on-Amurindustrial region is delivered by gas pipe line from

Sakhalin .

       Oil processing industry of theFar-Eastern Economic Region is

concentrated inthe Territory and is represented by the Komsomolsk-

on-Amur andKhabarovsk Oil Refineries. These refineries satisfy over

50 % of the FarEast demand and run on the oil imported to the Territory

(9,8 mln tons peryear). About 20 % of the oil comes from Sakhalin oil

fields by oilpipe line, while 80 % is delivered by railway from Siberia.

       At present time works on implementationof wind energy

developmentprogramme are under way in the Territory. This is the

only one in theFar East wind energy assembling base for wind energy

installations ofvarious capacity .


       Machine-building enterprises manufactureocean and river ves-

sels, aircrafts, diesel engines and diesel generators, metal cutting

tools, powerengineering and casting machines, cable products, electric

travelling cranes, processing equipment for fish industry and consumer

goods .

       The Khabarovsk Territory accounts for 27% of the gross Russian

output ofelectric travelling cranes, 1,8 % of diesel engines .

       Characteristic features of the branchare unsufficient develop -

ment of accessorymanufactures, poor cooperation between the local

producers,orientation of the enterprises to manufacturing products

intended to beused outside the Far-Eastern region. Up to 80 % of

machine-buildingproducts are exported to the European part of the

country andabroad, while the bulk of units, parts and accessory

components areimported from the other areas of the country .

       Specificity of the machine-building ofthe Territory consists in its

being a highlydeveloped military-industrial complex comprising large -

scale aircraft — and ship-building works .

       New tasks now facing the machine-buildingindustry of the

Territory arenamely those of its re-orientation to satisfy the needs of

local economy andthe people living here .

                                                Ferrous Metallurgy

       The only metallurgical work in the FarEast is «Amurstal» Works

(Komsomolsk-on-Amur),with the annual capacity about 2 mln tons of

rolled stock.The main product is steel sheets (57 %). At the same time

the kinds andtype of metal products non-productive in the Territory

are imported fromthe other areas of the country .

       The primary material processed at the«Amurstal» Works is scrap

metal which issupplied by the far-eastern enterprises. Other kinds of

raw materials forsteel-making are supplied from Siberia and the Urals .

                                                Civil Engineering

       The Khabarovsk Territory has a developedcivil engineering

which promotesfunctioning and development of indusrial, agricultural

and socialsectors of economy. About 4 % of the fixed assets of the

industrialenterprises are concetrated in civil engineering .

       The largest construction associations inthe Therritory are ;

«Dalstroi»(civiland industrial engineering),corporation «Rosenergostroi»,


       In addition, industrial and agriculturalenterprises carry out

individually 7 %of all construction work done annually in the Therritory .

       Engineering complex has strong enoughproductive capacities

available whichcomprise highly mechanized works producing struc -

tures and partsof dwelling and industrial houses, basic construction

materials .

       In 1992 over 700,000 cubic metres ofprefabricated reinforced

concretestructures, 113 mln pcs of bricks, 830 thd cu.m of fractionated

road material 218thd cu.m of gravel ,626 thd cu.m of joinery (windows,

doors),98 mlnsq.m of ruberoid and other construction materials were

produced in theTherritory .Capacities of construction industry enter -

prises allow toincrease production output by 25-30 % per year .

       Besides traditional types ofconstruction materials highly effec -

tive basalt fibreis being produced ,linoleum production is being

organized inAmursk, the cardboard ruberoid plant is planning to

produce a newkind of roofing material — tile, made of bitumen base ,

for cottagebuilding .

                                               TRANSPORT and COMMUNICATION

       Being one of the key branches of theeconomic complex of the

KhabarovskTerritory, transport is represented by all kinds thereof .


                                                 Railway Transport

       There are two railway arteries crossingthe Territory — the Trans -

Siberian Railwayand Baikal-Amur Mainline — which connect the

eastern andwestern parts of the country. The continental network and

that of theisland of Sakhalin are linked by a sea-going ferry Vanino -

Kholmsk (270 kmlong) .

       The total railway length, one way approachesto the mainlines

including, is2,3 thd km or over 1/4 of the total Far-Eastern road

network length.Over 80 % of the territorial cargo exchange with the

other regions ofthe country and 72 % of the intraregional cargo freights

are carried outby rail. Every year about 20 mln tons of varios

commercial cargoare delivered and backhauled to the sea ports and the

China borderstations .

       modernization of the single railroadbridge across the Amur river

near Khabarovsk(2617 m long), which is the last one way section of

theTrans-Siberian Railway, is under way .


                                                     River Transport

       The total length of the navigable innerwaterays in the Territory

is 3,2 thd km(rivers Amur,Ussuri,Amgun,Tungusska,Maya).

       The major part of cargo turnover is doneby large ports of

Khabarovsk andKomsomolsk-on-Amur.

       Mixed river-sea-going ships carry cargoby direct waterways

from the Amurriver ports to the north of the Territory and to the

Sakhalin andAmurskaya Regions,and to the seashore destination

points in thePrimorski Territory and the Magadan Region .

       The Amur river has also turned out to bea large international

transportationartery. In 1992 the ships of the Amur Shipping Company

carried to andbackhauled from the Japanese ports 314 thd tons of

commercial cargo, to and from the Chinese ports-78 thd tons, and to

and from theKorean ports-40 thd tons.The Company's vessels carry

sand,timber,fertilizersand construction material for export, while

equipment andmachinery,refrigerating chambers,consumer goods

and foodstuffsare brought back as import goods .

       The Amur Sipping Company has recentlyexpanded the

geography of itsoutward voyages. The ports of Poyarcovo,Khabarovsk,

Komsomolsk-on-Amurand the port station of Nizhneleninskoye have

been additionallyopened to be visited by the Chinese ships, while the

Chinese side hasopened the ports of Cene,Fuijin,Jiamusi,Harbin .

       The mixed river-sea-going shipsbelonging to the Amur Shipping

Company haveblazed new trails to Shanghhai,Singapore,Hong-Kong

as well as to theSouth-Korean ports of Pusan and Inchon.In future it

is planed toarrange through traffic of commercial cargo from Japan

and the Republicof Korea to the North — Eastern China using waterways

of the Amur andSungary to this end.A boat trip for foreign tourists

and businessmenfrom Khabarovsk down to the mouth of the Amur

river (the cityof Nikolaevsk-on-Amur ) is also to be provided for .

                                                Marine Transport

       The main sea-port of the KhabarovskTerritory is the port of Vanino .

As for the cargoturnover (exceeding annually 10 mln tons) the port

Vanino takes thethird place among the sea-ports of the Russian Far

East. Every year3,5 thd ships and 170 thd railway cars are processed

at the port. Inthe port there is a complex of loading on processing large

capacitycontaners — 500 thd t annually. The sea railway ferry Vanino-

Kholmsk is a partof Vanino port .The year round operation of the port

is ensured by theice-breaker fleet. Construction of the transshipment

centre to handlevessels of Ro-Ro type using horizontal handing

techniques fortranshipping operations is to enable an increased

carrying capacityof Vanino port up to 12 mln tons .

At presentrealization of a large project to significantly expand the ca -

pacities up to 30mln tons and modernize the port as well as to

accelerateeconomic development of the areas adjacent to the port has

been started .

       Other ports in the Territory are inNikolaevsk — on — Amur ,Okhotsk ,

Lazarevo andDe-Kastry. A new commercial port has been opened in

Sovetskaya Gavanin 1993 .

                                                Air Transport

       There are 38 airports in the Territory,36 whereof being those

of local serviceair lines including 6 airports with paved year round

runways and 31airports with natural serviced runways, 21 airports

thereof areintended to receive only the airplanes of AN — type and

helicopters .

       Aircrafts of the Far-Eastern Corporationof Civil Aviation carry

over 2 mlnpassengers and about 30 thd tons of cargo a year .

       Air transportation at domestic air-linesis primarily carried out

through the mainairport of the Territory — the Khabarovsk airport

located 10 kmaway from the city. The routes come therefrom to link

the city withmore than 40 cities of Russia and CIS countres. The

KhabarovskAirport is the leading airport of international travel in the

Russian Far East. It is connected by scheduled flights with Harbin

(China),Seoul(Korea),Ancorage and San-Francisco (USA),Niigata

(Japan),Pyongyang(PDRK). At present the opening of a number of

internationalflights is being studied .

                                                Motor Transport and Roads

       The general purpose motor transport ofthe Territory carry

annually about13,1 mln tons of cargo and over 260 mln of passengers .

There are 21motor transport enterprises including 6 passenger

enterprisesintegrated into Association «Khabarovskavtotrans.»

       The network of motor road is weaklydeveloped and is concen -

trated primarilyin the soutern are of the Territory. The cities

of SovetskayaGavan and Nikolaevsk-on-Amur have no motor road

connection withterritorial centre — Khabarovsk. The total length of

motor roads is12,2 thd km, including 6,6 thd km of inner secondary

roads .

       The length of general purpose motorroads is 4,3 thd km ,

including 3,2 thdkm of hard-surface roads. Main trunk roads include :

the roads offederalsignificance — «Amur» (Chita-Khabarovsk) and

«Ussuri»(Khabarovsk-Vladivostok) and Khabarovsk-

-Komsomolsk-on-Amurwith bridge crossing Amur river near Komsomolsk,and Khabarovsk-Birobidzhan .


       The main types of communication in theKhabarovsk Therritory

are mail,andtelephone communication. Telex and telefax are

now widely used.It is planned to establish a centre of international

communication inKhabarovsk .

       Stations of international satellitecommunication: Russian-

American jointventure «Daltelecom-International», Russia — Japan

joint venture«Vostoktelecom» and join-stock company «Vostok-

Infocosmos»with going out for Korea,Japan,China and other countries

have been putinto service .

       In1993-1995 an automatic telephone station for 41 thd customer

telephone numbersis to be put into service. The number of telephones

per 100 familiesin cities is 30,2, in the countryside — 23,7 .

       TV broadcasting will be furtherdeveloped in the Therritory. TV

broadcasting(three and more) programmes make up 69,6 % .


InternationalInformation Agency «Inform-Ethnos».

Addres:VolochaevskayaSt.71,Khabarovsk,680020,Russian Federation,



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