Реферат: Политический лидер-Хосни Мубарак
<img src="/cache/referats/14835/image001.gif" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1028">HOSNY MUBARAK
For years of board Mubarak has recommended itself, if not as the bigstatesman, that, at least, as the sincere and reliable Arabian head. Can solvenumerous problems of the country, he, nevertheless, uses the best efforts toprevent degradation.HOSNY MUBARAK- " MISTER HONESTY "
Ten centimeters! Such distance separated vice-president Hosni Mubarakafrom death October, 6-th, 1981 when during military parade was killed (moreprecisely to tell — Egyptian president Anvar Sadat is executed).
He till now hears singing the bullets flying around of him. Remembersthat instant when one of aggressors has shouted to him: " Stand aside! Youare necessary for us not, the Pharaon is necessary for us! " Sees Sadat,laying in a pool of blood…
In the evening of the same day,shocked, but safe, Mubarak officially has informed compatriots on death of thehead of the state. In one week he became the president of Egypt. In that yearto him it was executed 53 years and he, apparently, was rather pleased with therole of vice-president. But...
<img src="/cache/referats/14835/image003.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1030"><img src="/cache/referats/14835/image004.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1029"> April, 15, 1975 Sadat hasappointed the 47-years commander of Air Forces Hosny Mubarak vice-president.
— Ihave chosen him for loyalty and reliability, — he has explained the step someweeks after.
Hardly later,speaking about Mubarak, the Egyptian president will note his such qualities, aspersistence, fidelity and competence.
Wife of Sadat — Djihan which by then had already sufficient influence onthe husband, has agreed with this choice. She, on an own recognition, foundMubarak" deprived any ambitions to remain devoted to his spouse ".
Itself Mubarak, as he said, wassurprised and puzzled, when Sadat as caused him and has offered a post ofvice-president. Him career political or the statesman as he secretly dreamedbecome the chief of the Joint Staff of the Egyptian army never interested.
It is necessary to tell, that so unexpected choice has thrown intoconfusion also his nearest environment. However, soon the reasons of this stepof steel are clear: the president wanted to get support of militarians. It wasfound out also, that a choice of the Egyptian leader has affected, as spoke inretinue Sadat, «unity of sights on rapproachement of Cairo with Washington»and an allergy" to Soviet Union which suffered both that, andanother.
Anyway, Mohammed Hosny Seid Mubarak (his full name is those) became thesecond person in Egypt, right hand of Sadat, his shadow. Before it he has madean outstanding career of the professional militarian.
The Future president was bornMay, 4-th, 1928 in Egyptian country — in small village Kafr an ale — Musyl'ha(province Manufia), in delta of Nile. His father owned a small site of theground and simultaneously worked in legal management of a province.
Hosnyit was brought up not in luxury. His friends and schoolmates were children offellah. Probably, it the openness and simplicity of the president speak.
He studied persistently, and after leaving school parents advised him tocontinue education at Cairo university at faculty of fine arts. However he hasdecided on other…
<img src="/cache/referats/14835/image005.gif" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1031"> War of 1948 with Israel has shown: the Arabian armies are disabled. Inthe Egyptian officer case inflow of youth began from average layers, includingfrom a countryside. Hosny Mubarak has selected a trade of the pilot. Havingfinished with distinction in 1949 military college, he served on Sinai, thenwas the instructor of air academy. Repeatedly left in 50th years in the USSRwhere it was trained in flights on modern types of planes which Soviet Uniondelivered Egypt.
In 1956 Mubarak took part in reflection English, French and Israelaggressions.
Abilities of the young pilot were noticed, and in 1959 he was appointedthe commander of a squadron of bombers TU — 16. In some years he became thecommander of a brigade. The maximum military education has received in theUSSR, in Academy of a name of Frunze in which studied in 1964-1965 years.
When in 1962 civil war began from Northern Yemen, Mubarak appeared in structureof the Egyptian contingent directed to this country. He took part in operationsand has recommended himself the brave and skilful military pilot.
By the way to tell, officers envying him, using this fact, began tospread rumours, that Mubarak, being in Moscow, has turned in«procommunist». A reality, however, another. He not bad speaksRussian, gives due to planes of the Soviet manufacture, but he in any waycannot be counted «procommunist». Faster on the contrary…
The most difficult test for Egypt became 1967. Israel has put heavydefeat of the Egyptian army. Practically the aircraft completely was destroyed.
At once after war Mubarak was appointed the chief of military college inBilbeis. Of him have set the task: taking into account the danger which hashung above the country to increase release of pilots, having reduced term oftheir preparation with 4 till 2 years. It was necessary to break all system oftraining. Mubarak days did not leave college, personally watched observance ofthe daily routine and study of cadets.
He Noticed by president Gamalem Abdel' Naserom, becomes the general ofaircraft in 1969 and is appointed the chief of a staff of the Egyptian AirForces. In 1972 he already — the commander military — air forces andsimultaneously the deputy minister of defense.
These posts have allowed him toreorganize the Egyptian aircraft which was not answering at that time modernrequirements and to prepare it for war with Israel, begun October, 6, 1973. Itis necessary to recognize, that then the Air Forces of Egypt have achievedimpressing results.
Mubarak becomes the nationalhero, receives from hands Sadat " Star of Sinai" — the highestEgyptian military award — and погоныthegeneral of army. Military «ascention» he is a native of simple family- is obliged to epoch of Nasere. To political rise of him has pushed Sadat,having appointed vice-president and, thus, having opened him a way to thesupreme authority.
Since then thisbroad-shouldered, a dense constitution the general began to seize art ofpolitical «pilotage». Sadat has given him for this purpose the ampleopportunities, having made him some kind of " departure ambassador ".He has assigned on Mubarak performance delicate, sometimes difficultassignments.
<img src="/cache/referats/14835/image007.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1032"> Aspiration of Sadat to play theleading part on international scene, his often trips abroad gave Mubarak anopportunity to strengthen the positions inside the country. He began that hasreorganized political police and confidential services which have penetratedinto all chink the Egyptian society. He, certainly, did not manage to cure allillnesses of these departments, but as a result of the carried out cleaning hecould get rid of the elements which have compromised.
Becomingin1978 vice-president national — democratic, created by Sadat in exchange him ofthe spoiled Arabian socialist union, Mubarak has got influential friends, thathas strengthened his position even more.
During six with superfluous yearsvice-president honesty put into practice a policy of the cartridge. In the topechelons of power about him responded yours faithfully, marked hisintelligence, natural sharpness, hardness and frankness, serviceability.
Simple Egyptians appreciatedvice-president incorruptibility. He has managed to remain away from corruptionwith which his relatives, many high-ranking officials, which were infectedSadat, not hesitating, plundered the country. It is no surprising, thatEgyptians till now name Mubarak " mister honesty ".
Probably, he and would remain diligent vice-president, but the bulletswhich have struck Sadat, have advanced Mubarak further away — he became thepresident of Egypt.INDEPENDENT FLIGHT
Mubarak has inherited from Sadat almost monarchic mode isolated in theArabian world and wallowing in external duties. However in people and in theenvironment of secular opposition which many representatives appeared at Sadatbehind a lattice, coming to power new president have met with the big hopes forchanges.
«The New leader havesupported therefore, — known Egyptian journalist Hejkal, wrote in one ofarticles — that he was the most suitable person, capable to disseminate thefear reigned in Egypt and to heal the mental traumas put to the country. Theperson who would not began to make grandiose plans was necessary for Egyptians,but also would not finish the country before accident ».
Quiet, modest, but resolute — Mubarak has provided transition of authority practically without a uniformfalse step. As has shown time, the former military pilot who has gone in thefirst independent flight as the head of the state, not only has not given inbefore getting from Sadat troubles, but with honour has left many followedtests, having strengthened the authority. Acknowledgement to that — participation of president Mubarakain meeting of chapters of the Arabian states and the governments, taking placein Casablanca in May, 1989, and then his election on a post of the chairman ofthe Organization of African Unity (OAU).
But it will be later… WhileMubarak, having borrowed a presidential armchair, has set free on all politicalprisoners and has shaken hands with them. Members of the organization finishingwith Sadat, were prosecuted, and then executed or imprisoned. To tell the truth,many secret extremist Islamic groupings soon were revealed, one of which — «Al-Aksa» in May, 1982 has sentenced the president to a deathpenalty.
However, due to the vigorousactivity of confidential services, Mubarak has managed to separate the «moderate»elements of Islamic opposition rejecting violence as a method of internalpolitical struggle, from " incorrigible extremists ". In result, forfirst twelve months of board he has released 4.000 Islamic active workers.
Running forward, I shall tell,that Mubarak, knowing about the danger proceeding from Islamic extremists,avoids drastic measures in religious sphere. He understands, that the problemof radical Islamic fundamentalism still remains on the agenda. Thoughextremists also are tired out in a underground, they at any time can appear,how it already happened in October, 1981, when was killed (or is executed)Sadat.
As to secular opposition, that, having come to authority, the presidentat once has declared readiness to start dialogue with its leaders. He hasresolved activity of opposition parties, and even their representation inparliament. Besides he has agreed with renewal of the edition of newspapers ofopposition.
<img src="/cache/referats/14835/image009.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1033"> Aspiring to strengthenthe position, and at the same time being compelled to be considered withsupporters Sadata, kept key posts in the political and economic life, the newpresident started to carry out gradual «desadatation». Under hisdirect instruction were prosecuted the brother of the deceased -president IsmatSadat and his sons supervising roguish operations. Process above them hasallowed Mubarak to show the determination to liquidate corruption in theEgyptian society.
The majority of thosewho watched activity Mubarak at the initial stage, unanimously marked, that hehas declared himself as the figure of " new type ". When him haveasked: " You are going to follow What political line — of Nasere or ofSadat? ", he has answered with a smile: " Own, certainly ".
On the spot has specified, thathis policy will be based on four principles: democratic pluralism, an openness,honesty and the decision of economic problems.
No,president Mubarak did not call in question (anyway, public) the basicdirections of a political rate of the predecessor. But tried to expand freedomof actions in the inherited frameworks, refusing simultaneously fromsensational gestures in style of Sadat. Moreover, he did not try to disguiseverbal demagogy problems facing to Egypt as it was done by the former leader.In opposite to Sadat Mubarak did not undertake ostentatious attempts to solveinternal problems by reviewing thestudy. But in the first speeches he constantly called for growth of labourproductivity, amplification of feeling of the responsibility, to social justice.
As against Sadat new the head of the stateabstained from promises, but invariable tried to give a new pulse to economicpolicy. He slowly but to develop began truly in Egypt democracy, trusting whatexactly it will provide in long-term prospect political stability to a mode. Itis more than that, he has frankly declared people, that the government cansolve all problems facing to it.
— New Egypt will be constructed only by work of Egyptians, — thepresident likes to repeat.
Nevertheless, Mubarak in the intention to improve economy stillrecognizes that «infitah» — the policy of open doors begun by Sadat,basically was correct, but it was put into practice unsuccessfully and wasdiscredited corruption, reigned in Egypt. Having received thanking Camp-Davingto agreements «special» attitudes from USA, president Mubarak triedto squeeze out from them a maximum possible. Both in political, and in theeconomic plan, skilfully playing on aspiration of Americans to be fixed on NearEast.
Using such trump card as threatof freezing, and even a severance of diplomatic relations with Israel, Mubarakhas received to some extent to influence a middle East policy of USA.Certainly, a degree of this influence to overestimate does not cost, but it,undoubtedly, is.
<img src="/cache/referats/14835/image010.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1034"> President Mubarak, certainly,appreciates communications of Egypt and USA as receives from them two, and evenit is more, billions dollars annually as gratuitous gifts, loans and militarycredits. These injections of steel for him that «lifebuoy ring» whichkeeps on shallow the Egyptian economy.
But also here there are strict limits on cooperation, is especial at apolitical level. So, for example, on the offer of USA to help with constructionof military base on Red sea for the forces of fast expansion the Egyptianpresident has answered with resolute refusal.He has declared, that Egypt willconstruct its itself and will keep there the control. Americans can use it whenCairo will consider military intervention of Washington necessary.
Never refusing«special» attitudes from USA, Mubarak at the same time has madeappreciable efforts for restoration of normal diplomatic relations with SovietUnion which were completely normalized in 1984. Practically all obstacles, longtime braking development of attitudes between our countries today areeliminated.
It is not necessary to think,however, that " independent flight " passed president Mubarakasmoothly. The Israeli intrusion into Lebanon in June, 1982 has caused internalpressure on Mubarak with the purpose to change character of theegipetsko-Israeli attitudes. One more test for him steel of excitement of 17thousand employees of forces of the internal safety, having a place inFebruary, 1986. The army has quickly suppressed these excitements, and thepresident, due to resolute actions, has strengthened the positions even more.
In October, 1987 the Nationalassembly of Egypt unanimously has selected Hosny Mubarak the president on thesecond six-year term. In November of the same year the League of Arabiancountries (LAC) has made the decision that its members can restore if willwish, full diplomatic relations with Egypt. Nine countries, including SaudiArabia, almost immediately have directed the ambassadors to Cairo.
In December of the same year inCairo the flag above representation of Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)was lifted. Thus Mubarak has shown, that Egypt again is ready to play a role ofthe «traffic controller» assisting negotiations PLO and USA, Jordanand Israel about convocation of peace conference on Near East.
One of the key factors whichhave defined finally success of a strategic rate of diplomacy Mubarak on fullreturning of Egypt in the Arabian numbers, precisely thought over, consecutivebehaviour of Cairo in its contacts to Tel Aviv was. From the moment of comingto power by the new president very successful form of the attitude of Egypt toIsrael was produced: " Prospects of development of bilaterialcommunications are defined by the generalsituation on Near East, process of middle East settlement ".
<img src="/cache/referats/14835/image011.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1035">Such formulation (and Mubarak followed it strictly) enabled to holdIsrael on respectful distance. On the other hand, the similar positionobviously directed on protection common Arabian of interests, could not remainunnoticed in the Arabian capitals.
Has not remained unnoticed andsuch fact: president Mubarak — the unique Egyptian head of a high rank whom hasrefused to visit Israel, despite of numerous official invitations. To tell thetruth, when him already «have absolutely got», and he could notresist to pressing, he had to go at some o'clock per the small Israelisettlement located in desert Negev. " I have made it against my heart…" — he has admitted later.
Besides the Egyptian presidentwillingly offered the services for settlement of many bilateral conflicts, forexample, irano-Iraq. All this has helped creation of completely newrepresentation about Egypt, radical image distinguished from Sadat'srepresentation. In many respects this was promoted also by the person ofMubarak.
Sadat loved formal receptions,magnificent suppers, ceremonial. Mubarak does not love high life, hateseverything, that, in his opinion, is an excess. Sadat adored to appear onpublic in motley military uniforms at numerous awards. Mubarak does not put onthe form since the civil post has held.
Sadat was completely corrupt, Mubarak — the incorruptible patriot. Sadatspent time in magnificent palaces. Mubarak lives in the small 2-storeyedcountry house constructed by him(it) on own means still(even) in 1971.
Sadat the born actor, the fan of light of a stage and long tiresomespeeches. Mubarak has no eloquence, but he also is deprived propensities of thepredecessor to eccentric to theatrical gestures, frankly dislikes chatterers.
Intellectuals laugh at him, tellabout him every possible histories. But not malicious, as about Sadat.
Mubarakit is sincerely devoted to business of democracy, Sadat only dexterouslyjuggled with this term. The new president in practice has proved, that hisperformances in protection of a personal freedom — not mere words. At himpolitical life in the country began more democratic, than at Sadat.
<img src="/cache/referats/14835/image012.jpg" align=«right» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1037">In Egypt many consider, that Mubarak, becoming the witness of attempt atthe predecessor, has learnt from this the important lesson: it is better tomove forward gradually and to risk only insignificant failures, than to try tosupervise over the country in the dictatorial style of Sadat fraught withshocks. Probably, for this reason care, the pragmatism, moderation and asequence became distinctive features of a political rate at the new president.
Naming Mubarak«embodiment of care», already mentioned Heikal emphasizes, that it«care of the skilled pilot to which before he will lift the plane in top,the exact data on weather, loading and other data » are necessary.
In opinion of one western diplomat, Mubarak, in essence, has remained" the rectilinear commander who gives orders and expects obedience ".But he not the dictator. He first of all the militarian who annoys if hisorders are not carried out.
Egyptians in the greater degree, than inhabitants of other countries,appreciate a shade of some greatness in the heads. Therefore many criticizeMubarak for his modest suits, the not refined speech and excessive shyness.They consider, that he has not enough scope of the present statesman.
Anyway, but due to persistence and thin feeling of a step presidentMubarak has managed to rally Egypt and to return to it former authority. Arabscould not understand unpredictable of Sadat and did not trust him. Mubarak withhis consecutive and realistic foreign line to them it be clear and causestrust. With him want to deal.
Having disseminated theextremely adverse impression made on Arabian world by Sadat, president Mubarakhas managed to turn to itself arabs.
Year of 1989 became rotary bothfor Egypt, and for Mubarak. The president started to play more and moreappreciable role on middle East, African and even world stages.
<img src="/cache/referats/14835/image013.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1038"> The National hero Egyptians comeback of Casablanca Mubarak where there passed the interArabian meeting havemet. At this summit the president of Egypt already in the first speech withresoluteness inherent in him has let know, that Cairo is going to provide toitself indisputable leadership in the Arabian world.
Alongside with increase of the prestige abroad, the Egyptian presidenthas strengthened the authority and inside the country.
The Ministry of Educatuon of the Russian Federation
The State University of Humanitarian Sciences
The Department of Foreign Languages
HOSNY MUBARAK – THE PRESIDENT OF EGYPT
Thestudent of the first year
theDepartment of political studies
NikolaevaEkaterina AlekseevnaMoscow, 2002
1.<span Times New Roman"">Hosny Mubarak – “Misner Honesty”.
2.<span Times New Roman"">Independent fligyt.
3.<span Times New Roman"">Aerobatics.
In an extremeantiquity the territory of Egypt became a cradle of one of the first in ahistory of mankind of civilizations. It many times was exposed to invasions offoreign conquerors. In 1882 Egypt was occupied by England, in 1914 is posted bythe English protectorate. Formal declaration Egypt as independent kingdom hastaken place in 1922. Having imposed to Egypt in 1936 the unequal contract,England continued to occupy a zone of Suez canal. June, 18, 1953 Egypt isproclaimed by republic.
After revolution of 1953 at life of theoustanding figure of the Arabian national-liberation movement of presidentNasera in Egypt progressive social and economic transformations were carriedout. The antiimperialistic foreign policy, a rate on friendship and widespreadcooperation from the USSR and was consistently carried out by other socialist countries.
From the beginning 1970 years внетренняя andthe foreign policy of Egypt began to undergo essential changes. Its managementled by Садатом began to pursue a policy of " liberalization of economy" and " open doors ", характеризовавшуюся wide encouragement ofthe private capital and foreign investments. Over a policy of the Egyptianmanagement has prevailed proimperialistic a rate. In result the countryexperiences sharp sociopolitical and an economic crisis.
In Egypt counteraction to an antinationalreactionary rate of a mode amplified on the part of various political forces.Trying to suppress this counteraction, authorities resorted to more and morewide reprisals. It has resulted in an aggravation of conditions in the country.October, 6, 1981 during military parade in Cairo the group of the military menbelonging to the Muslim religious organization, accomplishes attempt on Sadatand he was killed.
The New Egyptian management continues to carryout in basically a foreign policy leaning on close cooperation with USA. Insidethe country it has cancelled some repressive measures. The significant numberof political prisoners is released.
The constitution Working in Egypt is acceptedSeptember, 11, 1971. The supreme body of legislature — National assembly.CONCLUSION
Many recollect, that in the first years of board Mubarak has takenadvantage in the interests of a condition of the general simplification whichhas come after destruction of Sadat, and the termination of the dramatizedperformances of the former president. Prudence new heads of the state wasperceived faster as the certificate of wisdom, instead of as an attribute ofshyness. He typed glasses, making special accent on modesty and focusing massmedia on reduction of attention to his person and members of family. Among someother innovations he has sworn himself to limit the speeches till one hour.
Today,as well as within service in the Air Forces, president Mubarak wakes up in fivemornings and prepares for breakfast for family. From six up to eight studiesreports and messages then leaves for the office.
Till 15-00 — meetings with foreigndelegations, meetings with members of the government and experts. Then twoschool hours sports in club of the Air Forces — gymnastics and«squash» (game reminding tennis). The tightened figure the presidentcan give odds to young people.
Inthe Evening — continuation of a working day.
Foryears of board Mubarak has recommended itself, if not as the big statesman,that, at least, as the sincere and reliable Arabian head. Can solve numerousproblems of the country, he, nevertheless, uses the best efforts to preventdecline.
The tasks worth today before the president,hard for Egypt is located in region where the extremism represents the usualphenomenon, and the moderate approach — exception.
Hosny Mubarak can make still very much. Theonly thing, that he should not make is to wait...LITERATURE
1)<span Times New Roman"">The directory of “The Countryof the world”, 1986.
2)<span Times New Roman"">The big encyclopaedicdictionary, 1991.
3)<span Times New Roman"">The concise Oxforddictionary of politics, 2001.