Реферат: Корпоративный имидж (Advertising and public relations)
Advertising and public relations.
D. Ogilvy explains necessity for good and steady imageso:
1.<span Times New Roman"">The mark with steadyreputation provides constant volume of manufacture and incomes
growing from year to year. The steady mark isextraordinary hardy, and this property in due
course gives huge economy of means.
2.<span Times New Roman"">The marks with steady reputation providehigher prices in the market and ready sale.
3.<span Times New Roman"">The marks with steadyreputation are hardier. In competitive struggle of the prices they
survive much more easy, than unstable marks.They a little that lose with occurrence of new
«star» and quickly restore theauthority, as soon as the novelty aspect of the appeared goods
begins to weaken.
4.<span Times New Roman"">The marks with steadyreputation give more, than from them they expect bring significant
arrived on each dollar, enclosed in them.
5.<span Times New Roman"">The marks with steadyreputation are always ready to approach. They always can expand
spheres of the influence.
6.<span Times New Roman"">The marks with steady reputation usespecial wholesaler's love. And not only wholesalers, and
all others — distributors, customers,packers...
7.<span Times New Roman"">The marks with steady reputation raiseactives of the company, which owns them.
8.<span Times New Roman"">The marks with steadyreputation work on saving your time, money and energy. «They will
help you to transfer temporary failures.
The advertising isunderstood as is open the, relations, sponsored and paid by the seller, betweenit and buyer. Certainly, as well as at public relations, purpose of advertising- to influence public opinion. However this purpose is usually reached through openefforts on sale of the goods or services offirm. » The Advertising is a printed, hand-written, oral or graphicnotification about the person, goods,services or public movement, is open outgoing from the advertiser and paid by him with the purpose of increase of selling,expansion of clientele, reception of votes or public approval ". Asa rule, when speak, that the advertising is included into sphere PR, mean corporate advertising. There are some types ofcorporate advertising, including advertising of public relations, firm advertising, advertising on creation ofdistinctive image and advertising for attraction of fresh forces.
The advertising ofpublic relations is a kind of corporate advertising and is used when the firm wants directly to communicate with the buyers toexpress the feelings or to emphasize the point of view. When the firm makes adecision to replace the name, trade marks, trade marks or firm spelling,and also in case of merge to other large company it uses advertising onmaintenance of firm style. Last years by the term «corporateadvertising» have begun to name all range of the advertising, which is notconcerning the certain goods, and called to improve image of firm.Traditionally advertising of such type referred to as firm. The companies andeven experts in advertising always subjected to doubt or simply incorrectlyunderstood efficiency of corporate advertising.The retail dealers especially adhered to that opinion, that the corporateadvertising has the advantages, however at all it forces the cash deviceto work faster.<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">
It occurred because:
1.<span Times New Roman"">The corporations do not define the purposeof the companies.
2.<span Times New Roman"">They do not measureresults. In the recent interrogation which has been carried out
«Gallagher Report», only everyonefourth of the American advertisers has declared, that
estimates changes in public opinion afterrealization of the corporate advertising company. The
majority work blindly.
3.<span Times New Roman"">Only little is knownabout effective methods of corporate advertising. The departments
of marketing and advertising agencies are wellfamiliar with advertising of the goods, but when
the business reaches corporate advertising, they turn to the fans.
4.<span Times New Roman"">Only few advertisingagencies are familiar with corporate advertising. For them this
business is not basic. They know as to sellhousewives a toilet paper, or to make the advertising
text for chewing rubber, or how to sell beer by the worker.
Howevercorporate advertising requires the professionals, which feel as houses in thelarge business? «The Corporate advertising shouldnot consider a public as concourse idiots. As againstadvertising the goods the corporate advertising company should be a vote of thepresident and its board of directors ».
Plus any advertising will not rescue image of firm, if it does not meetto its activity. As the outstanding expert inadvertising Clint Sheyet has noted: «It is necessary to feel a discord of image and reality for a long time.»
For example, iflarge high technologic the firm «IBM» has tried to create to itselfan image of the manufacturer of the goodsfor a family circle, it quickly would lose trust to herself. D. Ogilvy -the founder and chapter of known agency«Ogilvy», always acted in support of corporate advertising. However majority of samples ofcorporate advertising induced on him horror, abundance of general places and recurrences ". Reacting oncriticism and other factors, working inthe market, the companies have leaded a number of serious changes in thecorporate advertising companies.
Inthe past the majority of samples of such advertising is designed only forcreation of a kind name of firm. Today, when thefirms become more and more versatile and test a severe competition on thepart of the foreign advertisers, the tasks of corporate advertising considerablyhave extended — it should help achievementof definite purposes. Among them it is possible to name the following:
> To finish up to an audience the information on firm and itsactivity.
> To attract the investors.
> To correct shaking image.
> To involve the qualifiedexperts
> To avoid the further stratification offirm on branches of activity.
> To express on the important questions interesting for apublic.
The concept of the trademark.
The trademark isnot physical essence, except that the buyer thinks, feels and clearly imagines,seeing a symbol or name of the mark. Theassociations just also are that the majority of the people of image of the company think. The knowntrademarks — more «made out and substantial»:they cause richer, stronger and more consecutive associations. To them concern(but the associations with the especial characteristics, symbols, characters(images), various styles of life and types of the user are not limitedby them). All these taken together associations connected to individuality ofthe trade mark, create complex representation about image of the company, whichnot so differs from our representation about other people: they force us tothink of the goods, as about the man. Theman has the certain characteristics forming its individuality, it concerns andto image of the company. And just as we «concern» to other people,the buyer «has relation » with firms: the buyer can very zealouslyconcerns to one goods, while other firm (for example, retail dealer by subjectsof luxury) can be perceived as the warning to the buyer "<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">
you not from my class ". Frequently it is possible to think of thecompany as about the man or about the woman, about modern orout-of-date, as about the usual industrial worker, or as about the elegant representative of a maximum class.Usually people characterize each other in hundreds adjectivesdetermining individual abilities. The same man we can describe as intimate, silly, vigorous, aggressive etc. the company issimilar also can be characterized as risky, rectilinear, unreliable,exciting and a little bit rough.
The planned individuality shouldbe compatible to functional or psychological advantages, which the trademark promises to the consumer. If the bank advertisesgood service, that, it is obvious, that individuality should be friendly, buteffective service. The company Nike most advantageously has caused association of the trademark with emotions ofcompetition, resoluteness, achievement, vigorand victory, believing, that its target market present and ambitious athletes are identified with many from them. The companyCalvin Klein successfully has defined «sexuality» as the basic value,which is rather important for their line of aromas and underwear, and hastried to create such associations with the help of black-and-white advertising frequently hinting at sexuality. If the firmdevelops an expensive prestigious product important that the advertisingemphasized idea of high quality and prestige. It can be reached, connecting a product with the prestigious persons, situations orevents. If the advertising means are incompatibleto a prestigious image, the program of marketing can fail. And on the contrary,if the firm offers a cheap product, the advertising can appearunsuccessful because of use higher prestige of means of its distribution.
The firm can find an individual structure through associations, createdby advertising, with the certain types of theconsumers (with the people, which are represented as the users) or such types of the people, which are usually used as an image (characters) inadvertising. Search of the character (character- man, which is represented in the advertising messages and convinces the consumers,what exactly the given trade mark it prefers) frequently it happens deciding,as at sufficient recurrence the personalqualities of the character can be transferred on image of the company. So,symbolical sense connected with Michel Jackson and Madonna — probable, their antipublic,«bad» image — was that wanted to receive the company Pepsi with theirsupport, that subsequently has helped Pepsi to involve youth and teenagers,components the basic part of the marketnon-alcoholic of drinks. Similarly company Coca-Cola hoped, that the figure ofa pop-star George Michel could createimage «young» and «modern». Key criterion at a choice ofthe character of the promoted markshould be presence of «conformity» or «similarity» between requirements of the mark and attributes of thecharacter. The research shows, that the efficiency of the character is connected to a kind ofproduction, supported by it. In experiment in comparison of influence of the expert of the typical consumer andcelebrity in advertising inexpensive, but the good technical product(electronic calculator suffices) it is revealed, that the expert has appearedof the more effectively typical consumer or celebrity. Opposite, the celebrityis usually more effective in situations, when the product has a high element ofpsychological and «social» risk (for example, decorative costumejeweler).
In addition tothese characteristic individual features the individuality of the trademark, issimilar to individuality of the man, includes the associated feelings. We canthink, that someone (or any trade mark) riskyand exciting, connecting with this man (or mark) feeling of excitement, excitationor vivacity (for example, Pepsi).
Further, the individuality of the trademark also creates associations ofthis trademark with the certain importantvital values. Examples of values can be aspiration fascinatingly live life,search of self-respect, requirement to be intellectual, desire ofself-expression etc. Trade mark having bright individuality, can stronglyassociate with certain value in life and strongly to involve the people, giving the large attention of this value.It is not necessary, that the associations with the trademark were onlypositive and bright; they should be always clear and consecutive. But at creation of individuality of the trade markit is especially important to take into account the social tendencies, i.e., asthe certain values vary in due course, and to understand, how can the trade marks get such individuality, which forone generation seems modern, and for another -<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">
out-of-date, and not appropriateto needs of this new, future generation. For example, the image
of luxury Cadillac ratherinvolves the senior generation of the Americans, but is less interesting
and less to generation young (butalso rich) buyers, which prefer to spend the dollars for
purchase BMW. It is extremelyimportant, that the advertisers constantly watched as images,
which surround their trademarks, and behind possiblechange of appeal of these images.
For formation of image the social advertising isimportant also. The purpose of social advertising
is system of measures directed on change of therelations of public to any problem. For example,
the American cosmetic firm AVON financed completely advertisingcampaigns devoted
recovery of a crawfish to a breast at the women andits preventive maintenance. Than has earned
to itself image of the careful company. For examplemobile centers of care about the babies free-
of-charge distribute"«nappy» Pampers at urban and village fairs on all country, thancreate to
itself image of the careful and generous company.
The social advertising as themajor tool PR is called to satisfy inquiries of a public and in it the
essential difference from tradeadvertising consists which frequently answers only interests of
the advertisers. And consequently the socialadvertising is close to PR, which works. " Certainly,
and the commodity advertising canbe a part of PR-campaign, as it renders influence on
satisfaction of cumulativerequirements in a society and directly influences formation of mutual
relation of organization withvarious layers of a society ". The advertising as process of
distribution of the informationat the first stages of the development was carried out through the
newspapers and radio. But today is especially activeas the main channel the TV is used.
On TV rollers and developedrollers. The roller lasts 15-20 seconds. In it the trademark, name of
firm is given, as a rule. In somecases of «pure» image — advertising the address and telephone it
are not specified. The basic taskof a roller — constantly to remind of firm as such or about its
The developed roller lasts from 30seconds and more. In it, besides those items of information,
which are resulted in a roller,the description, characteristic of the goods or service,
condition of delivery or granting of the discounts,condition of work is given.
Each advertising or informationfilm, roller should have some «hook» as creative«invention».
Depending on style of such«invention» this or that image of the company is created. Thus, with
the help of good corporate advertising it is possibleto reach:
1.<span Times New Roman"">It can create at a public representationabout firm. «Invisible» and «remoteness» of many firms
are their basic lack. The people, to which itseems, that they know firm well enough, in 5 times
more often do about it positive responses, than about firm, about whichthey nothing know.
2.<span Times New Roman"">The corporateadvertising can make good impression on the local financiers, having allowed
you to increase the capital with the least expenses.
3.<span Times New Roman"">It can justify ofyour employees and to involve more qualified experts. Public relation begins
with work with the employees. If your peopleunderstand your politics and are proud of firm,
they become your best advertising agents.
4.<span Times New Roman"">The corporateadvertising can influence public opinion on specific questions.
5.<span Times New Roman"">Abraham Lincoln hastold: «If you the public opinion does not support, you can not win. If a
public behind you can not lose». Movementand stop — typical model of action of modern
corporate advertising. That the corporate advertisingwas effective, on it is necessary to spend
serious means and years of work. The result does not come for one day — even ifyou will take
advantage of TV ". But the direct tools ofthe experts on PR play not a smaller role at influence
on a public and on formation of favorable image of the company.<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»;color:black;letter-spacing:-.8pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">
The difference of advertisingfrom public relations.
David Ogilvyspeaks that; the large firm always was object of criticism — on the part of themanufacturers, ecologists, government, andofficials of anti exclusive union. «If the large firm does not take in thehands the initiative on creation of the reputation, it doomed. If it would be possible, the corporations should rely on publicrelation, instead of on advertising ». However mass media reluctantly prints positive responsesabout activity of large firms. That is why there are more directors on public relations use advertising as the basicchannel of the communications. Only it they can supervise concerning thecontents, time and influence. Only it allowsthem to choose an own field of fight. PR the skill and persistence of thepeople depend only on experience, and the advertising is directly supervised.Therefore PR can be less exact, thanadvertising.
But nevertheless now advertising so it is a lot of that the consumersfrequently aspire to avoid it and very skepticallyconcern that in it is submitted. That it to avoid, there are more companies, today, for realization of marketing a part of the budgets allocate onorganization of public relations (publicrelations — PR). The budgets selected for organization PR, rise. By some estimations total amount of expenses on PR in USA makes approximately 8billion dollars per one year. The largest advertisingagencies incorporate of one or several PR-firm. The means of public relations differ from advertising by that, it is usual they arenot sponsored and are not paid. Usually theytake the form of clauses with news, interview or art stories. Onemore difference of advertising from public relations is the activity of theexperts in this area on places. Theprofessionals from advertising first of all are focused on selling andmarketing. («The Marketing is acomplex of measures directed on development of business, and puts a ultimate goal — to organize marketing dialogue withthe buyer on a constant basis, to increase profit on sale of the goods,services or ideas, to increase a share of the market, to strengthen benevolent image»). They consider process asresearch spent with the purpose of finding — out, whether there is inthe market a requirement for the given goods or service, and also what means to satisfy this need. For the experts inadvertising advertising and public relations are primary tools of marketing used for increase of selling ofproduction of firm. Therefore they have got used to use advertising only as by a means of the message «of goodnews ». The experts in publicrelations consider the activity as process of construction of continuous mutualrelation with various public groups. From their point of view, marketing andadvertising are tools of publicrelations, which should use in commercial activity of firm. There are manyways, with which help the similarmarketing is carried out. The majority these PR of tools have one general feature- distribution of the message about the company is carried out not obviouslythrough paid advertising, and by obvious orimplicit substitution of a probable source of the information by the third party, for example by advanced clause inthe newspaper or magazine, sports or cultural measure or charitableaction.
To the basic directions of practical realization PR itis possible to relate:
> Purposeful complex ofthe forms and methods of improvement of contacts between firm and itsnumerous target audiences;
> Development of the constructiverecommendations on creation of public image of firm;
> Realization of measures directed onelimination of barriers, excessivehandicaps (harmful, false hearings etc.)
> Preparation of measures directed on expansion of sphere ofinfluence at the expense of elimination of thevarious reasons of understanding, activization of means of propagation, advertising,exhibitions, film-displays of the best firm samples and achievement. PR are not connected to immediate sale of thegoods and services. They use advertising distant action deferredpurchase, prepare for purchase of the potential clients. Therefore PR arefocused on progress not of the goods, and firm, and not in the market, and in asociety. In this connection the sources offinancing of advertising and PR are various. The advertising charges appear usually in the budget of marketing, and the meanson PR undertake from the strategic budget of<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">
firm, from fund of its development. The PR-campaigns demand only 1-2 %of investments from turnover, and advertising campaigns 5-20 %.
PR are usually considered as a way for creation of a general image ofcorporation, before it will make a public onbehalf of government, shareholders, employees etc., and as a means of counteractionto possible negative propagation.