Реферат: "Career in hotel industry"Министерство образования Российской Федерации
Южный институт менеджмента
Кафедра иностранных языков
Натему: How to make career inhotel industry.
Выполнила студентка, 2 курс
Косова ТамараРуководитель: Хохлова Лариса
Краснодар 2003PlanI.<span Times New Roman""> Introduction
II.<span Times New Roman"">The hotel complexas an object of the management
1.<span Times New Roman"">The main servicesof the hotel.
2.<span Times New Roman"">Classification ofthe hotels.
3.<span Times New Roman"">The peculiaritesof the hotel service.
III.<span Times New Roman"">The structure ofthe management in the lodging industry.
IV.<span Times New Roman"">The main methodsof the management of the hospitality business.
V.<span Times New Roman"">The manager’srole in the lodging industry. Manager’s functions and operations.
VI.<span Times New Roman"">Decision-making –key of manager career.
VII.<span Times New Roman"">The role of thecommunication in the manager’s career.
VIII.<span Times New Roman"">The management oftime.
IX.<span Times New Roman"">Where one canbegin the manager’s career.
X.<span Times New Roman"">Conclusion.I.Our society ismade up of all kinds of organizations, such as companies, government,departments, unions, hospitals, schools and the like. They are essential to ourexistence, helping to create our standard of living and our quality of life. Inall these organizations, there are people carrying out the work of a manager.The role of the manager is particularly significant in such social sphere asthe lodging industry. Thelodging industry is the most important element of the social sphere. It playsthe leading part in the increase of the public production and accordingly inthe uplifting of living standards.II. One can designate the hotel as an enterpriserendering service to the people, which are out of doors. The service of theplacing and the nourishment is the leading one at the hotel.
1) Thehotel apartments are the basic element of the placing service. They areintended for the rest, sleeping and work of the guests. In additional theplacing service includes the service, which is done by the personal of thehotel. These are reception and official registration of the guests, cleaningthe rooms and others.
The nourishment consists of different processes:
·<span Times New Roman"">process ofproduction (preparation of dishes),
·<span Times New Roman"">tradeprocess (sale of the food products),
·<span Times New Roman"">serviceprocess (service of the guests by thewaiters at the restaurant, in the rooms).
The additional service includes swimming-pools,conference halls, hair-dresser’s, massage-room and many other things. The hotelis distinguished by the additional service among other hotels.
Therefore this service is very important by theforming of the attractiveness of the hotel.
Among the main services of the hotel one can alsodistinguish the reserving the place, the facilities, the receiving and theservice of the exploitation of the apartment fund.
2) The service of the nourishment, the placingservice and the additional service are formed different at the hotels. And soone can designate several types of the hotels.
The firstclass hotels are usually situated in the center of the city. The skilledstaff ensures the high level of the service. The clients of this kind of thehotel are businessmen, participants of the conferences and other rich men.
The health-resort hotel is situated in thehealth-resort country. It includes the medical service and the dietarynourishment.
The motel is located near the motor roadsand in the suburbs. The clients of the motel are tourists, particularly motortourers.
The middle class hotels render the broadservice. The prizes depend on the situation of the hotel. The leading types ofthe hotels are the business and health-resort ones, because 50% of the journeysare made with business purpose, and holiday are treatment purpose determines40% of the journeys.
Thehotels are classified by the level of the comfort, the capacity of the hotel,the purpose of the hotel, the situation of the hotel, the duration of the work,the providing with the nourishment, the duration of the stay at the hotel, thelevel of the prices.
3) The peculiarities of the hotel service are:
1)<span Times New Roman"">Theprocesses of the production and the consumption are not synchronous. This meansthat several kinds of service do not connect with the presence of the client(cleaning the rooms).
2)<span Times New Roman"">Limitedpossibility of the keeping.
3)<span Times New Roman"">Urgency ofthe service. The problem concerning the service must be solved very quickly.The urgency and the situation of the hotel are the most important factors bythe choice of the hotel.
4)<span Times New Roman"">The broadparticipation of the staff in the production process. Personal service cannotbe mechanized or automated. Some technologies are being instituted to speed uproutine tasks, but the human element is the determining one of the hospitalitybusiness. Therefore the problem of the standardization is significant in thelodging industry. The standards of the service are worked out at many hotels.They are the rules of the service, which guarantee the level of quality of alloperations. These are the time of theofficial registration, the knowledge of foreign languages and the out-wordappearance of the personal. The work at the hotel brings the employee intocontact with people from all walks of life. Guests will include the wealthy andthe poor, engaging and obnoxious. Each guest offers the employee an opportunitylearns more about human nature. Employees not only have direct responsibilityfor guest service, the also have the benefit of witnessing the guest’ssatisfaction. The managers generally need more hands-on experience beforeassuming managerial positions. The skills of understanding, motivation anddirecting people can best be developed through experience.
5)<span Times New Roman"">Seasonaldemand for the hotel service. It has an influence on the loading of the hotel.
6)<span Times New Roman"">Interdependencybetween the hotel service and the purpose of the traveling.
III.The structure of the management in the lodging industry consists ofadministrative secnating.
In the lodging industry there arethree types of the structure:
1) Lineal structure. Everysection has the manager who is responcible for the activities of this section.This manager submits to the higher manager. The advantages of this structureare the clear responsibility, the simplicity of the management. But the managermust be very skilled to manage all processes. Besides that there are too manycontacts with the subordinamper the work of the manager.
2) The functional structure.The main idea is that the specialists perform the separate functions and theyare united in departments. The advantages of the functional structure are thehigh competence of the specialists, standardization and the programming of theprocesses. The main problem of this structure is the excessive centralization.
3) Lineal-functional. Itincludes the special sections by the lineal managers. Among the advantages onecan account the co-operation of the experts and the better preparation of thedecisions and plans. The defects of this structure are the unclearresponsibility and the absence of the connections between departments.
In addition to the usual management positions, multi-unit companies mayhave area, district, and regional and/or corporate-level management. There maybe several separate departments operating at a hotel, requiring frequentcommunication among staff members to co-ordinate their activities.
The administrative structure of the hotel depends on its purpose,capacity and the specific character of the guests.
IV.Among the main methods of the management in the lodging industry we can number economic,administrative and social psychological methods.
The leading idea of the economicmethod is to make such kind of the conditions to the staff, in which it cantake into account at most the consequences of its administrative and productionactivities.
The administrative method is based on thedirective instructions. The main purpose of the social-psychological method isthe forming of the positive climate in the collective. The success of theactivities of the manager depends in the main on his ability to work withpeople and on right using all these methods.
V. A French industrialist, Henri Fayol, wrote in1916 a classic definition of the manager’s role. He said that to manage is “toforecast and plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and to control.” Thisdefinition is still accepted by many people today, though some writers onmanagement have modified Fayol’s description. Instead of talking about“command”, they say a manager must “motivate” or “direct” and “lead” otherworkers.
Henri Fayol’s definition of a manager’s functions is useful. However, inmost companies, the activities of a manager depend on the level at which he/sheis working. Top managers, such as directors, will be more involved in longplanning, policy making and the relations of the company. These strategydecisions are part of the planning function mentioned by Fayol.
One the other hand, middle management is help an organization to runefficiently. It is urgent order or sorting out a technical problem. Managers atthis level spend a great deal of time communicating, coordinating and makingdecisions affecting the daily operation of their organization.
Managers in the lodging industry perform five basic operations.
·<span Times New Roman"">Firstly,managers set objectives. They decide what these should be and how theorganization can achieve them. For this task they need analytical ability.
·<span Times New Roman"">Secondly,managers organize. They must decide how the resources of the company are to beused, how the work is to be classified and divided. Furthermore, they mustselect people for the jobs to be done. For this, they not only need analyticalability but also understanding of human beings.
·<span Times New Roman"">The thirdtask is to motivate and communicate effectively. They must be able to getpeople to work as a team, and to be as productive as possible.
To do this, they will be communicatingeffectively with all levels of the
organization – their superiors, colleagues andsubordinates. To succeed in this task, managers need social skills. The fourthactivity is measurement. Having set standards, managers have to measure theperformance of the organization and of its staff in relation to thosestandards. Measuring requires analytical ability. Finally, managers developpeople more productive and to grow as human beings. They make them bigger andricher persons.
VI.In carrying out management functions, such as planning, organising, motivatingand controlling, a manager will be continually making decisions.Decision-making is a key of management responsibility and career.
Some decisions are of the routine kind. They are decisions which aremade quickly. Because a manager is experienced, he knows what to do in certainsituations. He does not have to think too much before taking action.
Other decisions are often intuitive ones. They are not really rational.The manager may have a gut feeling that a certain course of action is the rightone.
Many decisions are more difficult to make since they involveproblem-solving. Very often they are strategic decisions which will affect thefuture direction of the enterprise. To make good decisions the manager shouldbe able to select rationally a course of action. In practice, decisions areusually made in circumstances which are not ideal. They must be made quickly,with insufficient information. It is probably rare that a manager can make anentirely rational decision.
When a complex problem arises, the manager has to collect facts andweigh up courses of action. He must be systematic in dealing with the problem.A useful approach to this sort of decision-making is as follows: the processconsists of four phases:
a)<span Times New Roman"">Defining theproblem;
b)<span Times New Roman"">Analyzingand collecting information;
c)<span Times New Roman"">Working outoptions;
d)<span Times New Roman"">Deciding onthe best solution.
As a first step, the manager must identify anddefine the problem. And it is important that he does not mistake the symptomsof a problem for the real problem he must solve. At this early stage themanager must also take into account the rules and principles of the companywhich may affect the final decision. These factors will limit the solution ofthe problem.
The second step is to analyze the problem and decide what additionalinformation is necessary before a decision can be taken. Getting the facts isessential in decision-making. However, as already mentioned, the manager willrarely have all the knowledge he needs. This is one reason why making decisionsinvolves a degree of risk. It is the manager’s job to minimize that risk.
Once the problem has been defined and the facts collected, the managershould consider the options for solving it. This is necessary because there areusually several ways of solving a problem. The enterprise might be modernizedor service might be improved, for example.
Before making a decision, the manager will carefully access the options,considering the advantages and disadvantages of each one. Having done this, hewill have to take a decision. Perhaps hewill compromise using more than the option.
VII.Communications in excellent companies are different from those in othercompanies. Excellent companies have “open communications”. People working inthem keep in contact with each other regularly. The companies do everythingpossible to ensure that staff meets easily and frequently.
One problem with communication is that we do not, in fact, communicativeas effectively as we think we do. This is important for managers. It suggeststhat, when giving instructions, managers must make sure that those instructionshave been understood and interpreted correctly.
A breakdown in communications is to happen if there are some kinds ofsocial distance between people. In organizations people may have difficultycommunicating if they are different in status, or if one person has a muchhigher position than the other. It is risky to tell the truth to someone higherup in the hierarchy – they may not like what they hear and hold it against you.For this reason staffs often “filter” information.
One way of reducing social distance– and improving communications – is to cut down on status symbols. It ispossible, for example, to have a common dining-room for all staff.
Physical surroundings and physical distance limit or encouragecommunication. The physical layout of an office must be carefully planned.
Another important barrier to communication is selective perception. Thismeans that people perceive things in different ways. The world of the sender isnot the same as the world of the receiver. A manager will say something but theemployee will interpret his meaning incorrectly.
Communication problems will arise,from time to time, in the best-run companies. However, to minimize suchproblems, managers must remember one thing. Communication should be a two-wayprocess. Managers should encourage staff to ask questions and to react to whatthe managers are saying. The most useful question a manager can ask is “Did youunderstand that?”
VIII.In the lodging industry it is important that managers should beeffective. They must be able to achieve their objectives. The problem is thatthere are so many pressures on managers, reducing their efficiency. Themanagers find that they do not have enough time to devote to the reallyimportant jobs. They find that other people take up a lot of their time, sothat they have little time of their own.
Effective managers learn how to manage their time. They cut outunproductive activities. They never forget that time cannot be replaced.
Before being able to control histime, the manager must find out how he is actually using it. He must know whereit goes. The best way to do this is to record how he uses time. One way oflogging time is to note down all the activities and indicate how long theytook. The manager can ask questions such as: Are some of the things I am doing wasting time? Should I be spendingmore time on certain activities? Knowing how to spend time is an essentialskill of a manager.
IX.People entering the lodging industry frequently wonders whether it is better tobegin their careers in a small or large hotel. What branch of hotel operationis the best to start in after graduation? Where you start is probably lessimportant than how well you work and whether you make the most ofopportunities. It is important to learn something about all phases of hoteloperation. You may prefer to work first in those departments you know leastabout. Then with some exposure to all areas, you can begin to focus on yourareas of interest.
X.We must not forget that the successful managers are necessarily people who sethigh standards. Good managers need not be geniuses, but must bring “character”to the job. They are people of integrity, who will look for that quality inothers.
1)<span Times New Roman"">Is the lodging industry the most important elementof the social sphere?
2)<span Times New Roman"">Must the manager bring “character” to the job?
3)<span Times New Roman"">Why is the hotel distinguished by the additionalservice among other hotels?
4)<span Times New Roman"">What main methods of the management can we numberin the lodging industry?
5)<span Times New Roman"">Is the administrative method based on thedirective instructions or is the economic one?
6)<span Times New Roman"">What kind of operations do managers perform inthe hospitality business?
7)<span Times New Roman"">How must the manager use his time?
8)<span Times New Roman"">Why do the communication play the main role inthe manager’s career?
9)<span Times New Roman"">Is the decision-making the key of the manager’scareer?
10)<span Times New Roman"">How can onestart his manager’s career?