Реферат: К.Э. ЦиолковскийReport:
<img src="/cache/referats/9930/image001.gif" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1039">School <span Times New Roman",«serif»">N 263 Form
The life ofKonstantin Eduardovitch Tsiolkovsky
<img src="/cache/referats/9930/image003.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_s1026">
«The Earth isthe cradle of the mind, but we cannot live forever in a cradle».
Konstantin EEduardovitch. Tsiolkovsky
<img src="/cache/referats/9930/image004.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1027">
Konstantin Tsiolkovsky was a true visionary andpioneer of astronautics. He theorized many aspects of human space travel androcket propulsion decades before others, and played an important role in thedevelopment of the Soviet and Russian space programs.
He was born on September 17,1857, in the village of Ijevskoe,Ryasan Province, Russia, the son a a Polish forester who had emigrated toRussia. He was not from a rich family, but a very large one; KonstantinTsiolkovsky had 17 brothers and sisters. At the age of 10 he lost his hearingas the result of scarlet fever. After that he couldn't attend school, and henever recieved any formal education. The knowledge and education he attainedwere acheived by himself. His books were his teachers, and he read every bookin his father's library. Tsiolkovsky later remembered that his hearing lossinfluenced greatly his future life: during all his life he tried to prove tohimself and to others that he was better and more clever than others, even withhis disability.
In 1873-1876 Konstantin Tsiolkovsky lived in Moscow.During this time he visited the main Moscow libraries, among them the wellknown Pashkov House Library. It was in this fashion that he received hisself-education. While in Moscow, Tsiolkovsky was tutored by the eccentric andbrilliant Russian philosopher Nikolai Fedorovitch Fedorov, who was working in aMoscow library at the time. Fedorov was a leading proponent of Russian Cosmism,and gave Tsiolkovsky a place to work in the library. In many ways, he took theplace of the university lecturers that Tsiolkovsky never had access to. At theage of17, while living in Moscow, he first dreamed about the possibility ofspace flight. He was, in part, inspired by the novels of Jules Verne. Sincethat time he started to think about the problems of space vehicle design. Hisgreat purpose was not simply to go into outer space, but to live in space, forhumainity to become a space civilization.
In 1876-1879, after his coming back to his father'shome, he lived in Vyatka and Ryasan. After passing his exams, he recieved hisTeacher's Certificate, and went to work as a math teacher in Borovsk, KalugaProvince.
<img src="/cache/referats/9930/image006.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1029">In 1880-1892 Tsiolkovskylived in Borovsk and worked as a teacher. At that time he began his scientificresearch in air baloon building, life in free space, aerodynamics andphilosophy. It was also at that time that he married. His wife, Barbara E.Sokolova, was the daughter of the local preacher. Together, they had 3daughters and 4 sons.
In 1892-1935 he lived and worked in Kaluga. Hismoving to Kaluga was the result of a teaching promotion. He lived in the housethat is now a part of the museum complex with his family from the year 1904until his death in 1935. It was here in Kaluga that he became a well knownscientist, and where he wrote and published his theories of space flight andinter-planetary travels. In Kaluga he wrote his Cosmic Philosophy, and hedreamed about the far distant future of humanity, including the eventualconquest of space and our leaving the cradle of the planet Earth for the stars.He was made a member of the Soviet Academy of Science in 1919.
<img src="/cache/referats/9930/image008.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1030">He received a governmentpension in 1920, and continued to work and write about space. Upon thepublication of the works of German rocket pioneer Herman Oberth in 1923, hisworks were revised and published more widely, and he finally earned someinternational recognition for his ideas.
He wrote over 500 scientific papers, and, even though henever created any rockets himself, he influenced many young Russian engineersand designers. Tsiolkovsky lived to see a younger generation of Russianengineers and scientists begin to make his visionary concepts reality. Amongthese was Sergey Korolev, who would become the «Chief Designer» ofthe Soviet space program, who launched humanity into space with Sputnik, Laika,and the launch of the first cosmonaut,Yuri Gagarin.
<img src="/cache/referats/9930/image010.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1031">
Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky, the father ofcosmonautics, died in Kaluga at the age of 78 on September 19,1935. He receivedan honored State funeral from the Soviet government. He was buried in the oldKaluga Cemetery.
The tomb of Tsiolkovsky in the Old Kaluga Cemetery.
<img src="/cache/referats/9930/image004.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1032">
The Work ofTsiolkovsky
«Men are weak now, and yet theytransform the Earth's surface. In millions of years their might will increaseto the extent that they will change the surface of the Earth, its oceans, theatmosphere, and themselves. They will control the climate and the Solar Systemjust as they control the Earth. They will travel beyond the limits of ourplanetary system; they will reach other Suns, and use their fresh energyinstead of the energy of their dying luminary.»-Konstantin Tsiolkovsky
Tsiolkovsky is considered to be the father ofcosmonautics and human space flight, and was a trulygreat thinker. His visionary ideas about the future of humanity in space weremagnificent and far ahead of his time. He dreamed about space flight since hewas a very young boy. Tsiolkovsky was certain that the future of human lifewill be in outer space, so he deceded that we must study the cosmos to pave theway for future generations.
Later, he proved mathematically thepossibility of space flight, and wrote and published over 500 works about spacetravel and related subjects. These included the design and construction ofspace rockets, steerable rocket engines, multi-stage boosters, space stations,life in space, and more. His notebooks are filled with sketches ofliquid-feuled rockets, detailed combustion chamber designs with steering vanesin the exhaust plume for directional control, double walled pressurized cabinsto protect from meteorites, gyroscopes for attitude control, reclining seats toprotect from high G loads at launch, air locks for exiting the spaceship intothe vacume of space, and other amazingly accurate predictions of space travel.Many of these were done before the first airplane flight. He determinedcorrectly that the escape velocity from the Earth into orbit was 8 km./second,and that this could be achieved by using a multi-stage rocket fueled by liquidoxygen and liquid hydrogen. He predicted the use of liquid oxygen and liquidhydrogen or liquid oxygen and kerosene for propulsion, spinning space stationsfor artificial gravity, mining asteroids for materials, space suits, theproblems of eating, drinking, and sleeeping in weightlessness, and even closedcycle biological systems to provide food and oxygen for space colonies.
Someof his works include:
·<span Times New Roman"">«Astronomical Drawings» (1879). The earliestmanuscript of Tsiolkovsky. He drew the Solar System, the distances between theplanets, their satellites, etc.
·<span Times New Roman""><img src="/cache/referats/9930/image011.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1033">«FreeSpace» (1883). Manuscript of Tsiolkovsky, first published in 1956. In thiswork, he described the life and ways of motion in free space, zero gravity, alldone without the benefit on any mathematical calculations. It was in this paperthat Tsiolkovsky drew the primitive design of a true Space Craft, which movedin outer space with the help of reactive forces.
This was the first drawing of Tsiolkovsky's of aspace vehicle, from «Free Space» (1883). Itshows cosmonauts in weightlessness, gyroscopes for attitude control, and anairlock for exit into free space.
·<span Times New Roman"">"The TsiolkovskyRocket Equation". He created his calculations about space flight theory onMay 10, 1897. The first publication of the results was in the article«Exploration of the Universe with Reaction Machines», in the monthlymagazine «The Science Review»,# 5 (St.Petersburg, 1903). This was thefirst publication in the world on this subject.
<img src="/cache/referats/9930/image013.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1035">His Classic article «Research into InterplanetarySpace by Means of Rocket Power» was published in 1903, the year of thefirst airplane flight by the Wright Brothers. It accurately described the stateof weightlessness and the theoretical function of rockets in a vacume. Hedemonstrated why rockets would be needed for space exploration, and alsoadvocated the use of liquid propellants that are used today.
This is his book published in1914 that was the reprint of the 1903 article.
·<span Times New Roman""><img src="/cache/referats/9930/image014.gif" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1036">«Plan ofSpace Exploration». This was published in 1926. It consists of 16 Points,from the very begining of space conquest, until the far distant future,including interstellar travel.
He also wrote science fiction books, including «OnThe Moon (1895), Dreams of the Earth and Sky (1895), and Beyond the Earth(1920).
·<span Times New Roman»">«The Space Rocket Trains». (1929). Thispublication of Tsiolkovsky was about his original idea of a multi-stage rocket,which consisted of several separate rockets, one on top of another. Tsiolkovskyproved that only such a type of rocket would be able to reach escape velocityand fly to Earth orbit.
·<span Times New Roman"">«Album of Space Travels». (1932). The drawingsfrom this manuscript of Tsiolkovsky show us his brilliant ideas about life inspace, including zero gravity, air pressure locking, space habitats, rocketguidance, etc.Tsiolkovsky'sCosmic Philosophy
«All the Universe is full of the life of perfect creatures.» Tsiolkovsky.
Tsiolkovsky was very much as interested in the philosophy of spaceas he was with the engineering needed to make space flight possible. This wasthe very begining of Tsiolkovsky's research into space flight problems and wasthe basis for it. His main work of this subject was «Ethics or the NaturalFoundations of Morality» (1902-1918). In 1932 Tsiolkovsky wrote «TheCosmic Philosophy» — the summary of his philosophical ideas. His main ideawas to achieve happiness not only for humanity, but also for all the livingbeings in the Cosmos, for all the Universe. He believed that human occupationof space was inevitable and would drive human evolution.
According to Tsiolkovsky's Cosmic Philosophy,«happiness» is the absence of all kind of suffering in all theUniverse, for all times, as well as the absence of all of the processes fordestroying goodness. How shall we start this evolution to the «UniversialHappiness»? The main task is to study the laws which rule the Universe. Todo so, we must study the Universe, and therefore we must learn how to live inouter space. To begin that long period of our evolution, we will have to designlarge manned space rockets. So, the first space flight will be the beginning ofthe new era of space exploration, the beginning of Space Culture in humanhistory. It will be the beginning of our history itself. He truly beleived thatit was the destiny of humankind to occupy the solar system and then to expandinto the depth of the cosmos, living off the energy of the stars to create acosmic civilization that would master nature, abolish natural catastrophes, andacheive happiness for all.
1n 1926 Tsiolkovsky defined his «Plan of SpaceExploration», consisting of sixteen steps for human expansion into space:
1) Creation of rocket airplaneswith wings.
2) Progressively increasing thespeed and altitude of these airplanes.
3) Production of realrockets-without wings.
4) Ability to land on the surfaceof the sea.
5) Reaching excape velocity(about 8 Km/second), and the first flight into Earth orbit.
6) Lengthening rocket flighttimes in space.
7) Experimental use of plants tomake an artificial atmosphere in spacships.
8) Using pressurized space suitsfor activity outside of spaceships.
9) Making orbiting greenhousesfor plants.
10) Constructing large orbitalhabitats around the Earth.
11) Using solar radiation to growfood, to heat space quarters, and for transport throughout the Solar System.
12) Colonization of the asteroidbelt.
13) Colonization of the entireSolar System and beyond.
14) Acheivement of individual andsocial perfection.
15) Overcrowding of the SolarSystem and the colonization of the Milky Way (the Galaxy).
16) The Sun begins to die and thepeople remaining in the Solar System's population go to other suns.
<img src="/cache/referats/9930/image004.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1038">
Kosmodemyanksy, Arkady A., 1956. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky: His Life and Works. Foreign LanguagesPublishing House, Moscow, Russia.
Shkolenko, Yuri, 1987. TheSpace Age. Progress, Moscow.
Samiolovitch, Sergei, I., 1969. Citizen of the Universe: Sketches of the Life and Works of KonstantinEduardovitch Tsiolkovsky (in Russian). Tsiolkovsiy State Museum of theHistory of Cosmonautics, Kaluga, Russia.